Fletcher & Shakespeare's
THE TWO NOBLE KINSMEN


APPENDIX I - Glossary

appalls (n or v): shocks, dismays. FS (6-T&C, Ham, Mac, V&A, TNK (v); Mac (n)); Chapman (v) Iliad, Batrachom.

armipotent (a): mighty in arms (of Mars). FS (4-LLL, AWEW, TNK); Chaucer Kn Tale (1st OED citation).

baldric (n): belt worn from shoulder across to under other arm, to carry sword, bugle, etc. FS (2-Ado, TNK); Spenser FQ.

beshrew [part of an imprecation] (v): curse. FS (31); TNK. Common.

calkin (n): turned-down edge of a horse-shoe. FS (TNK).

carrack (n): merchant ship. FS (3-Errors, Oth, TNK); (anon.) Woodstock.

casque (n): helmet. FS (5-Rich2, H5, Cor, T&C, TNK).

chaffy (a): light, worthless. FS (1-TNK, 3d OED citation); (anon.) Willobie; Chettle Mourn Garm.

chare (v): accomplish (a turn of work). FS (1-TNK, 2d OED citation); 1570 Marriage Wit & Sc; (1622) Fletcher Love's Cure.

corslet (n): a piece of defensive armor. FS (2-Corio, TNK); (anon.) Locrine.

dart: spear, javelin (n). FS (Edw3, TNK); Golding Ovid; Marlowe T2; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Mucedorus, Locrine, Leic Gh; Sidney Antony; Munday More, Huntington.

deliverly (adv): deftly, cleverly. FS (1-TNK, 2d OED citation). OED 1st citation: 1530 Palsgr. 550, I fynger, I handell an instrument of musyke delyverly.

dividual (a): divisible, separate. FS (1-TNK, 2d OED citation); Florio Divisible (1st OED citation).

dowsets (n): testicles. FS (1-TNK). 1st OED citation: 1611 Beaum. & Fl. Philaster

dram (n): poison. FS (6-R&J, Ham, WT, Cymb, TNK); (anon.) Woodstock, Arden, Leic Gh.

dregged (a): befouled, stemmed [#usually with lees of liquor]. FS (1-TNK). Not in OED.
emportment: transport of passion. FS (1-TNK). 1st OED citation 1734.

emulous (a): rival, competitive, jealous. FS (5-T&C, TNK); (anon.) Leic Gh.

engraft (v): attach, graft. FS (4-2H4, Sonnet 15, 37, TNK); Golding Ovid; Oxford Tournament speech; Marlowe T2; Nashe Almond.

fere (n): mate, companion. FS (3-TA, Pericles, TNK); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Locrine, Penelope.

ferula (n): from use of the fennel-stalk in Roman times: a cane, rod, or other instrument of punishment, esp. a flat piece of wood. FS (TNK); (1580) North Plutarch.

flurt (v): reject, cast aside. FS (TNK).

foison (n): plenty, abundance. FS (6-MM, Temp, A&C, Mac, Sonnet, TNK); Peele Wives.

frampold (a): disagreeable, sour tempered. FS (2-MWW, TNK).

friskin (n): frolic. FS (1-TNK); Nashe Lenten Stuff. (v): gay, frisky person. Cf. Nashe Saffron.

futurely (adv): in the future. FS (1-TNK); Chapman Iliad (1st OED citation).

galled (v): (1) infected with veneral disease. FS (T&C). (2) gall/gaul (v): irritate, harasse. FS (10); Cf. Gascoigne Jocasta. The meaning here is unclear.

gaud (n): trinket, trifle, sometimes slattern. FS (6-John, Shrew, MND, T&C, TNK); Lyly Woman ... Moon; (anon.) Blast of Retreat.

gelt (a): castrated, gelded. FS (2-MV, TNK); (anon.) Weakest.

glister (v): glitter. FS (9); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek; Lyly Gallathea, Woman ... Moon, Midas; Greene Fr Bacon; (anon.) Locrine; (disp.) Cromwell, Maiden's. Almost identical to V&A (44): His eye, which scornfully glisters like fire. See also Willobie (In praise of.2): Yet Tarquin plucked his glistering grape, And Shake-speare, paints poor Lucrece rape.

globy (a): spherical, round. FS (TNK). 1st OED citation 1600, missed TNK.

grece (a): flight of stairs. FS (TNK); Golding Ovid.

gyves: fetters (n), fetters (v). FS (8); Udall Erasmus; Marlowe Faustus; (anon.) Willobie; (disp.) Cromwell, Oldcastle.

hilding (n): [#man] good-for-nothing. FS (4-R&J, AWEW, Cymb, TNK); Greene Fr Bacon. AWEW 1st use per OED.

holiday (n): treat, pleasure. FS (TNK).

jean [judgments] (a): jean is a coarse twilled cloth, also called fustian. Here possibly a play on words, indicating fustian (bombastic) judgments? FS (TNK). OED cites but indicates some puzzlement over meaning.

ken (v): espy, see. FS (4-2H6, T&C, Edw3, TNK); Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus.

laund (n): pasture, open field. FS (3-3H6, TNK, V&A); Golding Ovid; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe Edw2; Greene Fr Bacon, Orl Fur; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Nashe Penniless.

lineament (n): feature, esp. face. FS (8-Rich3, Rich2, MV, R&J, Ado, AsYou, TNK); Spenser Shep Cal; Jonson Cynthia.

martialist (n): person born under the influence of Mars, military man. FS (2-Edw3, TNK); Kyd Sp Tr; Lyly Woman ... Moon.

mead (n): meadow. FS (6); Golding Ovid.

meed (n): reward, prize. FS (19); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe T1; (anon.) Arden; Nobody/Somebody.

musit (n): gap [through the bushes], FS (2-V&A, 1st OED citation; TNK); Markham Gent Acad.
operance (n): operation. FS (1-TNK, 1st OED citation).

pelting (a): paltry. FS (7-Rich2, MND, T&C, MM, Lear, TNK); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Gallatea, Endymion, Midas, Bombie; (anon.) Woodstock, Willobie; Harvey 4 Letters; Chettle Kind Hart.

Philomel (n): poetic name for nightingale. FS (MND, Titus, TNK); Golding Ovid (myth of Philomel); Gascoigne Philomene; Spenser Shep Cal.

pie (n): magpie, chattering person (usually female): FS (3H6, TNK); Golding Ovid.

polled (a): bald. FS (TNK).

precipitance (n): leaping from heights. FS (TNK).

puissance (n): power, military army/might. FS (7-2H6, 3H6, John, 2H4, H5, Lear, TNK); Golding Ovid; Greene G a G; (anon.) Locrine, Leic Gh; Spenser FQ. puissant (a): powerful. FS (11); Golding Ovid; Marlowe T1; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Woodstock, Mucedorus, Leic Gh.

scurril (a): gross, coarse. FS (2-T&C, TNK); Nashe Almond.

seely (a): silly, innocent, vulnerable. FS (many); Ovid Golding; others.

skiffed (v): crossed, sailed over. FS (1-TNK, 1st OED citation).

sod (v): seethed. FS (2-Lucrece, TNK); Golding Ovid; Lyly Bombie.

tell (v): [of horses] keep in step. FS (H8, TNK).

terrene (a): earthy. FS (2-A&C, TNK); Udall (3d OED citation).

tod (n): bushy mass, cluster. FS (3-WT. TNK); Golding Ovid.

uncandied (v): melted. FS (TNK, only OED citation).

unpanged (a): unmoved by pain. FS (1-TNK, only OED citation). Cymb uses the base verb "panged".

unwappered (a): unexhausted. FS (TNK, only OED citation).

videlicit (lat): that is to say, namely. FS (AsYou, MND, TNK); Nashe Penniless; (anon.) Willobie; Chettle Kind Hart.

visitating (a): visiting. FS (1-TNK, only OED citation).

wot (v): know. FS (30). Common.

Length: 23,513 words

Source
The primary source for this play is "The Knight's Tale" from Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. The story can be accessed online at
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/mideng.browse.html (Canterbury Tales TOC)
or search "Geoffrey Chaucer" and select links.

Suggested Reading
Charles H. Frey, ed. Shakespeare, Fletcher and The Two Noble Kinsmen. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1989.

Bibliography
Will Hamlin, A Select Bibliographical Guide to the Two Noble Kinsmen, pp. 186-216.
General Reference, Editions, Textual Commentary
Bawcutt, N.W., ed. "The Two Noble Kinsmen." New Penguin Shakespeare. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.
Erdman, David V. and Ephim G. Fogel. Evidence for Authorship: Essays on Problems of Attribution. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966.
Kitttredge, George Lyman, ed. "The Two Noble Kinsmen". In The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1936.
Leech, Clifford, ed. "The Two Noble Kinsmen." In The Signet Classic Shakespeare. New York & Toronto: New American Library, 1966.
Littledale, Harold. "Introduction." In The Two Noble Kinsmen, rev.ed. pt. 2. London: New Shakespeare Society, 2d ser, no. 15, 1885. (a classic commentary.)
Metz, G. Harold. Four Plays Ascribed to Shakespeare. New York & London: Garland Publishing, 1982.
Proudfoot, G.R. "Henry VIIII, The Two Noble Kinsmen, and the Aprocyphal Plays." In Shakespeare: Select Bibliographical Guides, ed. by Stanley Wells. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.
--- The Two Noble Kinsmen. Regents Renaissance Drama Series. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970.
Ribner, Irving, and George Lyman Kittredge, eds. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Waltham, Mass., and Toronto: Xerox Publishing, 1971.
Smith, Hallett. "Introduction" to The Two Noble Kinsmen. In The Riverside Shakespeare, ed. G. Blakemore Evans: Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974.
Waller, Frederick O., "Printer's Copy tor The Two Noble Kinsmen." Studies in Bibliography 11 (1958): 61-84.

Authorship and Dating
(For a list of very old, difficult to find books, consult Frey.)
Betram, Paul. Shakespeare and the Two Noble Kinsmen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1965. (a comprehensive work which attempts to prove that Shakespeare was the sole author of the play.)
Bradley, A.C. "Scene-Endings in Shakespeare and in The Two Noble Kinsmen." In A Miscellany. London: MacMillan and Co., 1929. (re part-line endings)
Chambers, E.K. William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems. Vol. 1. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1930.
Hoy, Cyrus. "Review of Shakespeare and the Two Noble Kinsmen." by Paul Bertram. Modern Philology 67 August 1969): 83-88. (disputes Bertram)
Criticism
Bradbrook, M.C. The Living Monument: Shakespeare and the Theatre of His Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. (attempts to provide the time and setting of the play, speculates that it may have been to provide a setting for the antimasque)
Brownlow, F. W. Two Shakespearean Sequences. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977.
Muir, Kenneth. Shakespeare as Collaborator. London: Methuen and Co., 1960.
Wickham, Glynne. "The Two Noble Kinsmen or A Midsummer Night's Dream, Part II" In The Elizabethan Theatre VII, ed. G. R. Hibbard. Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1980.

Attribution of Scenes
Most, but not all, critics believe that Shakespeare was responsible for the formal scenes involving Palamon and Arcite: Act I; Act II, Scene 1; Act 3, Scenes 1 and 2; Act 5, Scenes 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6. Fletcher is believed to have written scenes involving the Jailer's Daughter subplot, the rustics, the morris dance (with characters that first appeared in Beaumont's Masque of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn, 1613). Scenes involving the quarrels and rivalry of Palamon and Arcite are somewhat rude compared to the elegaic tone of acknowledged Shakespeare sequences.

APPENDIX II:
Connections

Evil/Good
Brooke Romeus (To the Reader): So the good doings of the good, & the evil acts of the wicked
Gascoygne Jocasta (I.1.395-96) ANTIGONE: Yet, for because itself partaker am
Of good and evil with this my country soil,
(II.1.456) JOCASTA: If the head be evil the body cannot be good.
(III.1..195) TIRESIAS: Though evil for thee, yet for thy country good.
Edwards D&P (1583): It is an evil wind that bloweth no man good.
Lyly Sapho & Phao (II.2.) SAPHO: It is pity in so good a face there should be an evil eye.
Kyd ST (I.2.339) ALEXANDRO: Nay, evil news fly faster still than good.
Shakes Rich3 (I.3.334): do good for evil. Also I.2.69 and I.3.315-16.(I.2.38-40) ARCITE: It is for our residing where every evil
Hath a good color, where every seeming good's / A certain evil,
Anon. Willobie (To the gentle & courteous Reader): That speak good of evil, and evil of goodseems a perfect inversion of both the Bible and Shakespeare citations.
Geneva Bible 1Thess. 5.15 See that none recompense evil for evil unto any man; but ever follow that which is good
Sam. 24,18 Thou art more righteous than I; for thou has rendered me good, and I have rendered thee evil. 12.21 Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with goodness.

Mind ... Beat
Anon. Dodypoll (V.2.23): Yet since my mind beats on it mightily,
Shakes Tempest (I.2) MIR: For still 'tis beating in my mind ...
(IV.1) PROS: A turn or two I'll walk, to still my beating mind.
(V.1) PROS: Do not infest your mind with beating on ...(IV.3.75) DOCTOR: for this her mind beats upon --
other objects that are inserted 'tween her mind and
eye become the pranks and friskins of her madness.

Favored Words/Phrases

had rather: Scenes I.4, II.2, IV.2, V.5; Shakespeare (79); Marlowe Jew of Malta (1); (anon.) Edward Ironside (1), Arden of Feversham (2), Nobody and Somebody (5); Oxford letter (1); (anon.) Locrine (1), Dr. Dodypoll (1); none in Brooke Romeus; none in Edwards Damon and Pithias; none in Thomas Kyd plays; none in Robert Greene plays; none in Mucedorus, Willobie his Avisa, Penelope's Sacrifice, Weakest Goeth to the Wall, Leic Gh

pray speak: Scene IV.2 (2); Shakespeare Henry VIII (2); Willobie (1); none in Brooke Romeus; none in Edwrds Dam&Pith; none in Thomas Kyd plays; none in Robert Greene plays; none in Marlowe plays; none in Ironside, Arden, Locrine, Mucedorus, Nob/Someb, Penelope, Weakest, Dodypoll; Leic Gh


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