The Works of Thomas Nashe
Summers Last Will and Testament

Modern spelling. Transcribed by BF. copyright © 2002


(FS means found in Shakespeare, NFS means not found in Shakespeare)

accidence (n): the part of Grammar which treats of the Accidents or inflections of words: a book of the rudiments of grammar. FS (1-MWW); Nashe Almond for a Parrot, Will Summers. OED contemp citation: 1509 Hawes Past. Pleas

arre (v): listed in OED, not defined, probably snarl.

bailey/bayley (n): bailiff.

bandog (n): dog tied or chained up on account of its ferocity -- usually a mastiff or bloodhound. (1-2H6); Lyly Endymion; Pasquil Countercuff; Nashe Summers. OED contemp citations: 1560 Thersites in Hazl. Dodsl. I. 399 The

bandog Cerberus from hell ... 1577 Harrison England.

bane (n): destruction, poison. FS (8-2H6, T&C, MM, Cymb, Titus, Mac, Edw3, V&A); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Sapho; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Greene Alphonsus, Look Gl; Kyd Sol&Per; Harvey 4 Letters; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Woodstock, Penelope, Blast of Retreat, L Gh; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Chettle Kind Hart.

beshrew [part of an imprecation]: curse. FS (31); Nashe Summers; many others.

blear/bleere (v): confuse, hoodwink. FS (Shrew); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Gallathea; Kyd Sp Tr; Nashe Summers.

canvas (v): discuss. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Nashe Summers.

carl (n): countryman, possibly slave, miser; after 1500, fellow of low birth.FS (1-Cymb); Golding Ovid; (anon.) Arden; Nashe Summers.

cheap [better cheap] (adv): at a better rate. NFS. Cf. Fam Vic; Nashe Summers.

cheer (n): provender, food. FS (20); Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene G a G, Fr Bac, James IV; Marlowe Faustus; (anon.) Arden, Nobody/Somebody; Nashe Valentines, Summers; Harvey Sonnet; (disp./Chettle) Greene's Groat; (disp.) Cromwell; Munday Huntington.

clout (n): cloth. FS (3: R&J, Lear, Hamlet); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Sapho, Bombie, Endymion; Greene Orl Fur, James IV; Nashe Summers.

cockle (n): degenerate form of barley, weed. FS (LLL, Corio); Nashe Summers.

cockscomb (n): fool's cap. FS (MWW); Oxford Interrogatory (1583); (anon.) Locrine, Dodypoll; Nashe Strange News, Penniless, Astrophel, Summers; Jonson Cynthia.

conduce (v): lead toward, tend toward. FS (1-T&C); Nashe Summers.

cony catch/catching (v): catch "conies" [rabbits] or dupes; cheat, gull.FS (4-Shrew, MWW); Nashe Summers; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody. cony-catcher (n): one who catches "conies" or dupes; a cheat, sharper, swindler. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers.

culvering (n): drinking vessel? Cf. Nashe Summers.

fetch (n): vetch. trick, stratagem. FS (1-Ham).Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Fr Bacon; Nashe Summers; Chettle Kind Hart.

galliard (n): lively dance, featuring a leaping step. FS (5-H5, 12th); Peele Wives; Harvey poem (lampooning Oxford, V&A); Nashe Summers; (anon.) Dodypoll, Penelope; Jonson Revels.

gallimaufry (n): stew, hash, ridiculous medley. FS (2-MWW, WT); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Midas; Chettle Kind Hart; Nashe Summers.

gape-seed [buy] (v): In sarcastic phrases, to stare gapingly at a fair or market, instead of transacting useful business. NFS. Cf. (1598) Florio Anfanare; (1600) Nashe Summers (1st 2 OED citations).

gheste: not in OED, not explained by McKerrow.

glozers (n): specious, over-expansive flatterers. FS (6-LLL, Rich2, H5, TA, T&C, Pericles); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Watson Hek; Lyly Campaspe; Kyd Cornelia, Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Ironside, Arden, Willobie; Nashe Menaphon, Summers, Absurdity; Harvey Pierce's Super; Greene's Groat.

goodnear (a): very near. Cf. Nashe Summers.

guerdon (n, v): prize, recompense. FS (4-2H6, LLL, Ado, Edw3); Golding Ovid; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sp Tr; Marlowe Massacre; Nashe Summers; Munday Huntington; (anon.) Ironside, Leic Gh

hight (v): is/was called/named (v). FS (4-LLL, MND, Pericles); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene G a G, Alphonsus; Kyd Sp Tr; Peele Wives; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Leic Gh; Munday Huntington.

horse [hobby horse] (n): prostitute, loose woman. FS (6-LLL, Ado, WT, Ham, Oth); Greene Cony; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Nashe Summers; Jonson Revels; Chapman D'Olive.

hugger-mugger (n): secrecy. FS (Ham); Golding Ovid; Nashe Summers. OED contemp citations: 1553 Becon Reliques of Rome; 1590 in Acc. & Pap. relating to Mary Q. of Scots; 1601 Holland Pliny II. 563 Say that this is done in secret and hucker mucker.

jackanape (n): quasi-proper name of a man using tricks or displaying qualities, of an ape; one who is ape-like in tricks or behavior; a ridiculous upstart, impertinent fellow; coxcomb. FS (4-H5, MWW, AWEW, Cymb); Edwards Dam&Pith; 1573 G. Harvey Letter-Bk.; Greene Upstart; Nashe Saffron Walden, Summers. 1st OED citations: 1534 Lett. & Pap. Hen. VIII; 1555 Harpsfield Divorce Hen.

jerted (v): jerked. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers, Lenten Stuff. OED also cites: 1566 Drant Horace

kilderkin (n): cask for liquid. NFS. Cf. Nashe Penniless. Nashe uses it in Summers in its traditional sense of cask for

liquid. OED cites 2 unusual uses: Peele Edw. I: Then ... draw us a fresh pot from the kinder-kind of thy knowledge; Nashe Summer's: To broach this little kilderkin of my corpse.

lazar (n): leper. FS (5-H5, T&C, Ham); Nashe Summers.

lerry/lurry (n): cant formula. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers. OED also cites: 1589 R. Harvey Pl. Perc. (1590) 16 Why haue you not taught some of those Puppes their lerrie? 1602 Middleton Blurt iii. iii. F, ... neuer goe to a cunning woman, since men can teach vs our lerrie.

mate (n): companion, mate. FS (Shrew, Lear); Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Willobie; Nashe Menaphon, Summers.

micher/mycher (n): niggard, one who pretends poverty. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers (OED missed 1st citation).

Mingo (n): a name for a drunkard, possibly from Saint Domingo (patron saint of topers).

Murrion (n): Moor, blackamoor. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers.

noise/noyse [of musicians] (n): company or band of musicians. FS (2H4); (anon.) Fam Vic; Lyly Bombie; Nashe Summers. OED contemp citations: 1558 in Nichols Progr. Q. Eliz. I. 39 Nere unto Fanchurch was erected a scaffolde richely furnished, whereon stode a noyes of instrumentes.

plow-swain (n): based on swain, country or farm laborer, shepherd; countryman, rustic. FS (12); Golding Ovid; Lodge Wounds; Greene Orl Fur; Kyd Cornelia; Spenser FQ; Nashe Summers.

pupillonian (v): per Grosart, one who cries like a peacock. The only other OED citaiton seems to confirm this. 1623 Cockeram, Pupillate, to cry like a Peacocke. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers.

nipitaty (n): strong, good ale. NFS. Cf. Nashe Strange News, Summers.

orient (a): shining like the dawn, bright red. FS (2-Edw3); Golding Ovid; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Leic Gh. OED contemp citation: 1578 Lyte Dodoens ii. ix. 158 The floures of an excellent shining or orient redde.

pad/paddock (n): (1) dialect for "toad". FS (Mac). (2) hidden danger. NFS. Used in Nashe Will Summers, either meaning could apply.

pamphletary (a): relating to pamphlets; of the nature of a pamphlet. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers (Only OED citation until 1815).

peradventure (adv): by chance. FS (14); Q. Eliz. letters; Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Pasquil Return; Harvey 4 letters, Pierce's Super; Nashe Unf Travl, Menaphon, Almond, Summers, Astrophel; Marston, Chapman, Jonson Eastward Ho; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody, Leic Gh.

perilsome (a): fraught with peril. NFS. Cf. Nashe Ch Tears (first OED citation); Summers.

pingle (v): pick at one's food (per OED, first use in this sense). NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers. Nashe Unfor Trav uses "pinglingly".

polt foot (n): club foot. NFS. Cf. Lyly Euphues, Intro to Watson Hek; Greene Menaphon; Nashe Almond, Summers.

poor John/Jack: dried hake. FS (2-R&J, Tempest); Nashe Penniless. 1st OED entry in 1667.

pratty (a): pretty

prolocutor (n): spokesman. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers.

Pupillonian (v): per Grosart, one who cries like a peacock. The only other OED citation seems to confirm this. 1623 Cockeram, Pupillate, to cry like a Peacocke. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers.

ring (n): possible bawdy double meaning (with connection to "hobby-horse", above. FS (Errors, Titus, Lear); Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe Jew/Malta; Nashe Summers; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Pasquil Countercuff; (anon.) Dodypoll, Leic Gh; Chapman d'Olive.

rot of sheep (n): plant known as marsh pennywort, rot-grass, sheep-rot. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers.

rumming of Eleanor: reference to Skelton's Eleanor Rummynge.

rundlet (n): small barrel, cask. NFS. Cf. Lyly Bombie; Nashe Summers.

scales (n): ninepins or skittles. Cf. Nashe Summers.

snudge (n): niggard. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Nashe Summers.

span-counter (n): a game in which players try to throw their "counters" closest to the target. FS (1-2H6); Nashe Will Summers.

squitter-book (n): scribbler, a copious but worthless writer. NFS. Cf. Nashe Unfor Trav, Summers (1st 2 OED citations). See also Nashe Saffron Waldon "squittering" (1st OED citation).

summerly (a): in a manner befitting summer. NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers. Only OED citation until 1839.

surreverence (adv): with respect to (contemptuously). Cf. Warner, Alb. England (1586, 1st OED citation); Nashe

Summers. Used in different sense in Nashe Strange News and Lenten Stuff.

toys (n): antics, games. FS (many); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Campaspe, Midas; Kyd Sp Tr; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Willobie.

trencher (n): serving plate or dish [usually with connotation of trencher-knight or freeloader]. FS (7-2H6, TGV, R&J, A&C, Tempest, Corio, Timon); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Greene Cony; (anon.) Weakest, Mucedorus, Ironside; (disp.) Cromwell; Dekker Hornbook; Nashe Menaphon, Summers,Absurdity.

trowl/troll (v): pass, hand over. NFS. Cf. (1575) Gammer Gurton; Porter Angry Woman; Nashe Summers; Dekker Gentle Craft.

weeds (n): clothing. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Gascoigne Jocasta; (anon.) Locrine, Mucedorus, Dodypoll; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; (anon./Greene) G a G; Greene Orl Fur, Fr Bac, James IV; Marlowe Edw2; Nashe Summers.

wist (v): knew. FS (1-1H6); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Marlowe Edw2; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Willobie, Penelope, News Heaven/Hell; (disp.) Oldcastle. OED cites Lyly Euphues.

writhen (a): coiled (branches), twisted. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Arden

Glossary: Proper Names

Baker, Harry: (McKerrow) possibly the name of the actor who played Vertumnus. Cf. Nashe Summers.

Didymus: From Agrippa, "Didimus wrote thereof [of the art of grammar] fowre thousand books, or as some saie, sixe thousande." Cf. Nashe Summers; Interestingly, Didymus is the name of a suitor (the most difficult to identify) in (anon.) Willobie His Avisa.

Hipotades: a name for Aeolus, the West Wind.

Vertumnus: god of the changing year. Major character in Golding Ovid (Book XIV).

Latin Translations
Listed in order of appearance in the text.

Noctem peccatis, & fraudibus obiice nubem.
"I cast a cloud over the sins and deceptions of the night" (Horace)

boni viri
"Good men"

Semel insanivimus omnes.
"All of us have been mad at some time" (Mantuanus)

Poeta noster
"Our Poet"

Placeat sibi quisq; licebit.
"Everyone may please himself" (Ovid)

Omnibus una manet nox, & calcanda semel via lethi.
"One night awaits all, and must tread death's path once" (Horace)

Summa totalis
"The sum of all"

nam quae habui, perdidi
"For all who I have ruined" (adapted from Terence)

donec facinus invasit mortales
"Till crime corrupted men"

Summum bonum
"The greatest good"

Omnium rerum vacatione
"Resting from all labors"

Cui nil est, nil deest

"He that hath nothing, wants nothing." (Terence)

Omnio habeo nec quicquam habeo
"I have all things, yet want everything."

Multi mihi vitio vertunt, quia egeo, at ego illis, quia nequent egere
"Many upbraid me, because I am poor, but I upbraid them, because they cannot live if they were poor." (Cato)

Divesque miserque
"Arich man, and miserable"

Nam natura paucis contenta
"None so contented as the poor man."

Paupertas omnes perdocet artes
"Poverty instructs a man in all arts."

Paupertas audax:
"Valiant poverty." (Horace)

Non habet unde suum paupertas pascat amorem
"Poverty hath not wherewithal to feed lust." (Ovid)

Omnia mea mecum porto
"All my possesions I carry with me'

Inter utrumque tene, medio, tutissimus ibis.
"Stay between the two, you are safest in the middle" (Ovid)

Pergite porro

Nihil violentum perpetuum
"No violence that liveth to old age"

Prandium caninum
"Adog's dinner"

Animus in patinis
"His mind is on his dinner" (Terence)

Vinum esse fomitem quendam, et incitabilem ingenij virtutisque
"Wine is a sort of kindling and tinder to the brain and the faculties"

Nulla est magna scientia absque mixtura dementiae
"There is no excellent knowledge without mixture of madness."

Qui bene vult poyein, debet ante pinyen

"He that will do well must drink well"

Prome, prome, potum prome

"Ho, butler - a fresh pot!"

Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero terra pulsanda
"Now is the time for drinking and for beating the ground with unrestrained feet" (Horace)

Vicissitudinem loquendi.
"A conversational interchange"

Faecundi calices, quem non fecere disertum?

"Eloquent cups, whom have they not made a good speaker?"

Aut epi, aut abi

"Either take your drink, or you are an infidel."

Vinum quasi venenum
"Wine is poison to a sick body"

A fabis abstinendum
"Abstaining from beans" (one of Pythagoras' precepts)

Non peccat quicunq; potest peccasse negare.

"The man that denies that he has sinned does not sin" (Ovid)

Quos credis fidos effuge, tutus eris

"Flee from the people you believe are faithful and you will be safe" (Ovid)

Totidem domi hostes habemus, quot servos.
"As many enemies as we have at home as we have servants" (Seneca)

Servus necessaria possessio, non autem dulcis
"A slave is a necessary possession, but not a pleasant one"

Servos fideles liberalitas facit
"Generosity makes servants faithful"


Fama malum, quo non velocius ullum
"Ill rumor, than which nothing is swfter" (Virgil)

Fismenus non Nastutus
"A character without a nose" (i.e. no sense of smell)

Hunc os foetidum (probably should read "Huic")
"This stinking mouth" (epithet of the Devil)

"The Courtesan"

De Arte Bibendi
"On the Art of Drinking"

Non est consilium in vulgo, non ratio, non discrimen, non differentia

"The vulgar have no learning, wit, nor sense." (Cicero)

Discite, qui sapitis, non naec quae scimus inertes, Sed trepidas acies, & fera bella sequi

" You that be wise and ever mean to thrive, O study not these toys we sluggards use, But follow arms and wait on barbarous wars." (Ovid)

Batte, mi fili, mi fili, mi batte
"Pound my son, my boy, beat it!" (perhaps a crude joke)

Liberalitas liberalitate perit

"Generosity dies through generosity"

Verba dandi et reddendi
"The word 'give' and the word 'return'."

O scelus inauditum, O vox damnatorum!
"Oh unheard-of reprobate, oh voice of the damned!"

Nemo sapit omnibus horis
"Nobody knows all hours" (Pliny)

Sic bonus, O, Faelixque tuis
"Be good to your friends, and bring them good fortune" (Virgil)

Valete, spectatores
"Farewell, spectators"

Barbarus hic ego sum, quia non intelligor ulli.
"I am a barbarian here, for nobody understands me" (Ovid)

The passage from (670-735) about the nature of dogs, seems to have come from an unknown English translation of the Pyrrhoniae Hypotyposes of Sextus Empiricus. The translation is also used in Greene. The Nashe translation was apparently inaccurate (McKerrow 428-29).

Length: 16,302 words

Place, Date of Performance
McKerrow places the performance in a private home (my Lord's tile stones), theorizing that the allusion in Line 1879 to Lambeth suggests that it was performed for the Archbishop of Canterbury (Whitgift). He further deduces that the year was 1592. (McKerrow, . 417-18). References to Queen Elizabeth indicate that she would have been present at the performance, although there is no evidence that she was at Croyden in 1592. With disagreement between Collier, Fleay and Nicholson, there seems to be general agreement that it was performed by one of the Children's companies. (McKerrow, 418-19).

Suggested Reading
McKerrow, Ronald B. (ed.). The Works of Thomas Nashe, III. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1966.
Nicholl, Charles. A Cup of News: the life of Thomas Nashe. London & Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984.

APPENDIX II: Connections

Weigh ... Balance, Death, Scales
Brooke Romeus: (524-25): For pity and for dread well nigh to yield up breath.
In even balance paced are my life and eke my death,
Lyly Endy (V.3) ENDY: Cynthia, into whose hands the balance that weigheth time and fortune are committed.
Midas (I.1) MELLA: The balance she holdeth are not to weigh the right of the cause, but the weight of the bribe.
Love's Met. (III.2): make amends I cannot, for the gods holding the balance / in their hands,
what recompense can equally weigh with their punishments?
Marlowe T1 (V.1.41-42) GOVERNOR: Your honors, liberties and lives were weighed
In equal care and balance with our own,
Shakes Rich3 (V.3): And weigh thee down to ruin, shame, and death!
Corio (I.6): If any think brave death outweighs bad life
2H6 (II.2.200-201): in justice equal scales, ... whose rightful cause
Similar phrases in TA; John; MND (3.2.131-33), Ado; 2H4; Ham; AWEW; MM
Greene Fr Bac. (III.1.95-98) MARG: ... that Margaret's love
Hangs in th'uncertain balance of proud time; / That death shall make a discord of our thoughts?
Anon. Willobie (VIII.8): I weigh not death, I fear not hell,
Nashe Summers (40): Their censures we weigh not, whose / senses are not yet unswaddled.
(388-93): I like thy moderation wondrous well;
And this thy balance, weighing the white glass
And black with equal poise and steadfast hand,
A pattern is to Princes and great men, / How to weigh all estates indifferently.
Oxford Letter (July 1600, to Rbt. Cecil): ... ought in equal balance, to weigh lighter than myself .
Geneva Bible Job 31.6 Let God weigh me in the just balance,

I am that I am
Brooke Romeus (2886): To make me other than I am, how so I seem to be.
Oxford Letter (10-30-84, to Lord Burghley): I am that I am ...
Poem: I am not as I seem to be, Nor when I smile I am not glad;
Lyly MB (II.3) SILENA: Though you be as old as you are, I am as young as I am;
(IV.2) SILENA: Because I did, and I am here because I am.
Shakes Edw3 (II.1) WARWICK: I am not Warwick as thou think'st I am,
Sonnet (122): I am that I am
12th-(III.1.141) Viola: I am not what I am.
Oth (I.1.65) Iago: I am not what I am.
Lear. (I.2) Edmund: I should have been that I am, had the maidenliest
star in the firmament twinked on my bastardizing.
Anon. Dodypoll (III.5) LUCILIA: I know not what I am nor where I am,
Nashe Summers (124): SUMMER: Summer I was, I am not as I was;
Geneva Bible: Ex. 3.14. 1 Cor. 15.10 But by the grace of God, I am that I am.

Queen Elizabeth Identified
Always the Same: Queen Elizabeth motto: semper eadem (always the same)
Edwards Dam&Pith EUB: But chiefly yet, as duty bindeth, I humbly crave
True friendship and true friends, full fraught with constant faith,
The giver of friends, the Lord, grant her, most noble Queen Elizabeth! . . . (1758-60)
SONG: The Lord grant her such friends, most noble Queen Elizabeth!
Long may she govern in honor and wealth,
Void of all sickness, in most perfect health!
Which health to prolong, as true friends require,
God grant she may have her own heart's desire,
Which friends will defend with most steadfast faith.
The Lord grant her such friends, most noble queen Elizabeth! . . . (1768-74)
Nashe Summers (132-38): SUMMER: And died I had indeed unto the earth,
But that Eliza, England's beauteous Queen, / On whom all seasons prosperously attend,
Forbad the execution of my fate, / Until her joyful progress was expir'd.
For her doth Summer live, and linger here, / And wisheth long to live to her content;
(1841-58) SUMMER: Unto Eliza, that most sacred Dame,
Whom none but Saints and Angels ought to name,
All my fair days remaining I bequeath, ...To wait upon her till she be return'd.
Anon. Willobie Always the same/Avisa: (XXXII, XLI, XLIII, LXII, LXXII)
Leic. Gh. (87): I by a Queen did live, and was advanced.
(92-99): And, for that, lost his life; I, my renown, / Till sacred Cynthia to the kingdom came,
That gave new life to my late-dying fame. / That peerless Queen of happy memory,
Who late like Deborah this kingdom swayed, / Now triumphs in the jasper-coloured sky,
In star-embroidered vesture richly rayed, / She, she restored my honor then decayed,
(149-52} : By the Queen's help, my power, and threatening looks,
I ruled the pawns, the bishops, knights and rooks.
Thus did I play at chess, and won the game, / Having the Queen my puissance to support;
See also 291-93, 298-301, 571, 608-612, 646, 651-52, 655-61, 670, 711-12, 715, 776-77, 1096, 1250-54, 1271-73, 1284, 1285-87, 1313-15, 1649, 168-69, 1691-96, 1714-16, 1749-50, 1783-85, 1996-98, 2124, 2135-38.
Shakes Sonnet (76): ... Why write I still all one, ever the same,

Life ... Linger[ing]
Brooke Romeus (1924): You haste away my lingering death and double all my woe.
Gascoigne ... (V.3.55) ANT: Shall linger life within thy luckless breast,
Supposes (II.1) DULIPO: ... I shall be sure to linger and live in hope one fortnight longer:
Oxford poem (Framed in): My life, though ling'ring long, / is lodg'd in lair of loathsome ways
Anon. Locrine (IV.1.87): I, being conqueror, live a lingering life,
Mucedorus (I.4.16) SEGASTO: Accursed I in lingering life thus long!
(III.1.50) MUCE: I linger life, yet wish for speedy death.
Nashe Summers (137) SUMMER: For her doth Summer live, and linger here,
Shakes Cymb (V.5) CORNELIUS: She did confess she had
For you a mortal mineral; which, being took,
Should by the minute feed on life and lingering / By inches waste you

Lusty Ver
Gascoigne Jocasta (IV.1.362) CHORUS: When tract of time returns the lusty Ver,
Nashe Summers (159) VER: I will, my Lord.
Ver, lusty Ver, by the name of lusty Ver, come into the court! ...
Shakes Tempest (II.1) GONZ: How lush and lusty the grass looks! how green!

(number) "several"

Nashe Summer (700) They can distinguish twixt three several things: An unusual construction, using "several" in a somewhat legalistic way, preceded by a number. This construction is common to Shakespeare, being used 12 times in 10 plays; and it is also used in Oxford's letters of October 30, 1984' June 30, 1591; and January 11, 1597.
It is not found in the other scanned plays, although Dr. Dodypoll has a similar phrase.

Man in Desperation (song)

Nashe Summers (853) by this straw / and thread I swear you are no gentleman, no proper man,
no honest man, to make me sing, O man in desperation.
Peele Old Wives (4-5) FRANTIC: and each of us take his stand up in a tree,
and sing out our ill / fortune to the tune of O man in desperation.

Fool ... School

Edwards Dam&Pith (39) ARIS: ... And thus I assure you: though I came from school
To serve in this court, I came not yet to be the king's fool,
Anon. Willobie (XXVI.5): Your gravest men with all their schools
That taught you thus were heath-fools.
Shakes Much Ado (V.2): 'school,' 'fool,' a babbling rhyme; very ominous
Nashe Summers (1450-55): Young men, young boys, beware of Schoolmasters;
They will infect you, mar you, blear your eyes; / They seek to lay the curse of God on you,
Namely, confusion of languages, / Wherewith those that the tower of Babel built,
Accursed were in the world's infancy.
Geneva Bible: The Nashe allusion is clearly built on Genesis 11.4-9 of the Bible; the Willobie Biblical foundation is not clear; it would be built on the similarity to Nashe, and its probable amusing derivative in Much Ado.

Beer, small
Shakes 2H6 (IV.2) CADE: ... and I will make it felony / to drink small beer: ...
2H4 (II.2) HAL: Doth it not show vilely in me to desire small beer?
Oth (II.1) IAGO: To suckle fools and chronicle small beer.
Greene Cony-Catching: Never went a cup of small beer so sorrowfully down an ale-knight's belly
Nashe Summers (838): Small beer, course bread, the hinds and beggars cry, ...
(1096): fall into a consumption with / drinking small beer.
Penniless: was but one single single kilderkin of small beer, and surfeit four times a day, with sour Ale and small Beer:
Strange Newes (1592, To the most copious carminist of our time, and famous persecutor of Priscian, his very friend, Master Apis lapis): ... and live to see the confusion of both your special enemies, Small Beer and Grammar rules.

All hail ... Sovereign

Lyly Campaspe (II.1) PSYLLUS: All hail, Diogenes, to your proper person.
Endymion (II.2) SAMIAS: Sir Tophas, all hail!
(V.2) SAMIAS: All hail, Sir Tophas, how feel you yourself?
Kyd Sol&Per (II.1.30) BASILISCO: All hail, brave cavalier.
Anon. Ironside (V.1.25-29) EDRICUS: Ñ All hail unto my gracious sovereign!
STITCH: Master, you'll bewray yourself, do you say
"all hail" and yet bear your arm in a scarf? That's hale indeed.
EDRICUS: All hail unto my gracious sovereign!
Leic. Gh. (1935): Even they betrayed my life that cried, 'All hail!'
Mucedorus (III.5.6-7) MESS: All hail, worthy shepherd.
MOUSE: All reign, lowly shepherd.
Shakes 3H6 (V.7) GLOUC: ... And cried 'all hail!' when as he meant / all harm.
Rich2 (IV.1) KING RICH: Did they not sometime cry, 'all hail!' to me? ...
TNK (III.5.102) SCHOOLMASTER Thou doughty Duke, all hail! ~~~ All hail, sweet ladies.
Nashe Summers (305-06): SOLS: All hail to Summer, my dread / sovereign Lord.
Note: Shaheen points out that no English Bible translation uses the phrase "all hail" and that Shakespeare seems to derive the phrase from the medieval play The Agony and the Betrayal.
Note that if Mucedorus and Lyly use this phrase deliberately, it is with supreme irony; whereas the Leicester's Ghost phrase is very obviously meant to relate to the Biblical narration, but also with ironic overtones.

Clay ... Grave/Deeds
Nashe Summers (417) SUMMER: Let us go measure out our beds in clay; nought but good deeds hence shall we bear away.
Shakes H5 (V.8) King Henry 5: Do we all holy rites;
Let there be sung 'Non nobis' and 'Te Deum;' / The dead with charity enclosed in clay:
Ham (V.1) HAMLET: O, a pit of clay for to be made / For such a guest is meet.
Lucrece (87): Then kings' misdeeds cannot be hid in clay.
Geneva Bible: Seems to be 1 Kings & 1 or 2 Chronicles?

Flattering ... base, insinuating sycophant
Greene James IV (V.6.37) K. SCOTS: Ah, flattering brood of sycophants, my foes!
Shakes IH6 (II.4.35): base insinuating flattery
Titus (IV.2.38): basely insinuate.
Anon. Woodstock (I.1.148) WOODSTOCK: Lulled and secured by flattering sycophants;
(I.3.218) LANCASTER: Be thus outbraved by flattering sycophants?
Ironside (I.1.157) USKATAULF: Base, vild, insinuating sycophant,
(II.3.226) CANUTUS: Gross flattery, all-soothing sycophant,
Nobody: A major theme, based especially on the character named Sycophant, who appears to be identified in several speeches as a composite of Sir Christopher Hatton (Exchequer) and Lord Cobham (the Cinque Ports, see above).
Notable are speeches such as: (510-11) SOMEBODY: Those subtle sly insinuating fellows
Whom Somebody hath sent into the country
(1639) QUEEN: You are welcome; what new flatteries
Are a coining in the mint of that smooth face?
Nashe Summers (472-280) SUMMER: My Lord, this saucy upstart Jack,
That now doth rule the chariot of the Sun, / And makes all stars derive their light from him
Is a most base insinuating slave, / The son of parsimony and disdain,
One that will shine on friends and foes alike,
That under brightest smiles hideth black showers,
Whose envious breath doth dry up springs and lakes,
And burns the grass, that beasts can get no food.

Wit ... Will
Brooke Romeus (2296): And said that she had done right well by wit to order will.
Oxford poem (Fain would I sing): Till Wit have wrought his will on Injury.
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (III.2) MENECEUS: ... Yet evil it were in this / to yield your will.
CREON: Thy wit is wily for to work thy woe.
Watson Hek (XXXVIII): And for whose sake I lost both will and wit,
(LXXVIII): That wit and will to Reason do retire:
Lyly MB (I.3) SPERANTUS: He hath wit at will.
Kyd Sp Tr (IV.3.307) HIERON: Erasto, Soliman saluteth thee,
And lets thee wit by me his Highness' will,
Shakes TGV (II.6.12) PRO: And he wants wit that wants resolved will
To learn his wit t'exchange the bad for better.
LLL (II.1.49-50) MARIA: Is a sharp wit matched with too blunt a will,
Whose edge hath power cut, whose will still wills ...
12th (I.5.29) FESTE: Wit, an't be thy will, put me into good fooling!
Hamlet (I.5.44-46) GHOST: O wicked wit and gifts, that have the power
So to seduce -- won to his shameful lust / The will of my most seeming-virtuous queen.
Corio (II.3.27-28) 3 CIT: Nay your wit will not so soon out as / another man's will, ...
Lucrece (1230:) What wit sets down is blotted straight with will;
Anon. Ironside (V.1.34) EDR: See, see, what wit and will can bring about.
Willobie (XXXII.2): If wit to will, will needs resign,
(LIII.1): If fear and sorrow sharp the wit, / And tip the tongue with sweeter grace,
Then will & style must finely fit, / To paint my grief, and wail my case:
(LVII.5): Can wit enthralled to will retire?
(Auth. Conc. 1): Whom gifts nor wills nor force of wit / Could vanquish once with all their shows:
Penelope (I.4): For what my wit cannot discharge, / My will surely supplies at large.
Nashe Summers (498-99) WINTER: Let him not talk; for he hath words at will,
And wit to make the baddest matter good.

Scatology ... Dunghill
Harvey (1593): PierceÕs Supererogation (in an apparent reference to Oxford) ... there is a cap of maintenance, called Impudency: and what say to him, that in a super-abundance of that same odd capricious humour, findeth no such want in England as of an Aretine, that might strip these golden Asses out of their gay trappings, and after he had ridden them to death with railing, leave them on the dung-hill for carrion?
Anon Ironside (I.1.222-29) LEOFRIC: Oh what a grief is it to noble bloods
to see each base-born groom promoted up, / each dunghill brat arreared to dignity,
(III.5.1-3) CANUTUS: A plague upon you all for arrant cowards!
Look how a dunghill cock, not rightly bred, / doth come into the pit with greater grace,
Weakest (XVI.158) BRABANT: Never begot but of some dunghill churl.
Greene Alph (V.3.64) AMURACK: Into the hands of such a dunghill Knight?
(V.3.70) ALPH: 'Villain,' sayest thou? 'Traitor' and 'dunghill Knight?'
Shakes 1H6 (I.3): Shall I be flouted thus by dunghill grooms?
2H6 (I.3): Base dunghill villain and mechanical,
(IV.10): Unto a dunghill which shall be thy grave,
LLL (V.1): Go to; thou hast it ad dunghill, at the fingers'
O, I smell false Latin; dunghill for unguem.
KING JOHN: Out, dunghill! darest thou brave a nobleman?
MWW (I.3): Then did the sun on dunghill shine.
2H4 (V.3): Shall dunghill curs confront the Helicons?
H5 (IV.3): Dying like men, though buried in your dunghills,
AsYou (I.1): which his animals on his dunghills are as much
LEAR (III.7): Upon the dunghill. Regan, I bleed apace:
(IV.6): Out, dunghill!
Nashe Summers (449): How base is pride from his own dung-hill put!
Anon. Willobie (XII.1): Thou beggar's brat, thou dung-hill mate,
Thou clownish spawn, thou country gill,
My love is turned to wreakful hate, / Go hang, and keep thy credit still,
Gad where thou list, aright or wrong, / I hope to see thee beg, ere long.
Cromwell (I.2.68) CROM: And from the dunghill minions do advance
Chapman D'Olive (V.2.100) D'OLIVE: raked like old rags out of dunghills / by candlelight,

Religious Prohibitions: Usury
Note: Carroll especially (Greene's Groatsworth) emphasizes the physical details of the usurer's dress: details in Groatsworth and Shakespeare (but not in the other examples shown below) such as the chain and furred robe strengthen the argument that Roberto's father is was purposely drawn on Lord Burghley. The ascendant merchant class had less distaste for usury than the old land-owning class; and Burghley (fur-robed and wearing the gold chain of office) had expressed a view that usury was an acceptable practice.
Kyd Sp Tr (I.1.63-): The left-hand path, declining fearfully,
Was ready downfall to the deepest hell, / Where bloody Furies shakes their whips of steel,
And poor Ixion turns an endless wheel; / Where usurers are choked with melting gold
Disp. Greene's Groat (48-58): The other was a scholar, ...his sinful neighbor Refers to usury (per Carroll, p. 44) as follows: "for he had good experience in a Noverint, and by the universal terms therein contained had driven many a young gentleman to seek unknown countries
(114-17): ... Roberto, knowing his father and most of the company to be execrable usurers, inveighed mightily against that abhorred vice, insomuch that he urged tears from divers of their eyes, and compunction in some of their hearts.
(855-57): 6 Oppress no man, for the cry of the wronged ascendeth to the ears of the Lord; neither delight to increase by Usury, lest thou lose thy habitation in the everlasting Tabernacle.
(946-48): I know the best husband of you all will never prove an Usurer,
(Carroll explains that this means that the "best of them ... will prove" [or perhaps has turned out to be] an usurer., and explains that this passage refers to Lodge, who inveighed against usury. This seems to reverse the obvious meaning (the best ... of you all, will never [not] prove [be] an usurer. Carroll seems to be twisting and turning to make the sentence fit Shakespeare, known to have become a usurer.)
Shakes 1H6 (III.1) GLOUC: Thou art a most pernicious usurer,
MV (III.1) SHYLOCK: He was wont to / call me usurer; let him look to his bond: he was
wont to lend money for a Christian courtesy; let him / look to his bond.
R&J (III.3) FR LAWRENCE: Which, like a usurer, abound'st in all,
And usest none in that true use indeed / Which should bedeck thy shape, thy love, thy wit:
MUCH ADO (II.1) BEN: What fashion will you wear the garland of?
about your neck, like an usurer's chain? ...
MM (III.2) POMPEY: Twas never merry world since, of two usuries, the
merriest was put down, and the worser allowed by
order of law a furred gown to keep him warm; and
furred with fox and lamb-skins too, to signify, that
craft, being richer than innocency, stands for the facing.
Lear (III.2) FOOL: ... When usurers tell their gold i' the field;
And bawds and whores do churches build; Then shall the realm of Albion
Come to great confusion: ...
(IV.6) LEAR: ... The usurer hangs the cozener.
Through tatter'd clothes small vices do appear . Robes and furr'd gowns hide all.
Corio (I.1) 1 CITIZEN: ... crammed with grain; make edicts for usury, to
support usurers; repeal daily any wholesome act / established against the rich, ...
Timon (II.2) APE: Poor rogues and / usurers' men! bawds between gold and want!
FOOL: I think no usurer but has a fool to his servant: ...
(III.5) ALCI: Banish your dotage; banish usury, / That makes the Senate ugly.
(IV.3) TIMON: Pity not honour'd age for his white beard: / He is an usurer: ...
Lov. Comp. (6): Like usury, applying wet to wet,
Cymbeline (III.3) BELARUS: Did you but know the city's usuries
And felt them knowingly; the art o' the court / Is hard to leave as keep; ...
WT (IV.4) AUTOLY: Here's one to a very doleful tune, how a usurer's
wife was brought to bed of twenty money-bags at a
burthen and how she longed to eat adders' heads and / toads carbonadoed.
(IV.4) DORCAS: Bless me from marrying a usurer!
TNK (IV.3.33-34) DAUGHTER: bless us, and there shall we be put in a cauldron of
lead and usurers' grease,
Sonnet 6: That use is not forbidden usury, / Which happies those that pay the willing loan;
Sonnet 134: Thou usurer, that put'st forth all to use / And sue a friend come debtor for my sake;
Chettle Kind Harts: There is an occupation of no long standing about London called broking or brogging, whether ye will; in which there is pretty juggling, especially to blind law, and bolster usury: if any man be forced to bring them a pawn, they will take no interest, not past twelve pence a pound for the month; marry they must have a groat for a monthly bill: which is a bill of sale from month to month; so that no advantage can be taken for the usury.
Nashe Summers (501-02): SUMMER: Bad words, bad wit; oh, where
dwells faith or truth? / Ill usury my favors reap from thee,
Usurping Sol, the hate of heaven and earth.
(885-87) HARVEST: ... not like / the Baker's loaf, that should weigh but six ounces, but
usury for your money, thousands for one
Peele Old Wives (386) FRIAR: The miserable and most covetous usurer.
Huntington (IX.93-94): LITTLE JOHN: Fiftly, you never
shall the poor man wrong, / Nor spare a priest, a usurer, or a clerk.
Anon. Nobody (148-49) CORNWELL: ... he's an honest subject
That hates extortion, usury, and such sins
(1567) SICOPHANT: ... Loves usury and extortion.
(1136-37) CORNWELL: Here are, my liege, bonds, forfeit by poor men,
Which he released out of the usurers' hands,
Geneva Bible: usury condemned in many Biblical passages: Ex. 22.25; Lev. 25.36,37; Neh. 5.7,10; Ez. 18.8, 13, 17; Deut. 23.19.20; Matt. 25.27; Pss. 15.5; Prov. 28.8; Isa.24.2; Luke 19.23

Corn ... Blast
Golding Ovid Met (V.601-02): The stars and blasting winds did hurt,
the hungry fouls did eat / The corn to ground:
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (I.1.453-54) BAILO: Is like a tender flower, that with the blast
Of every little wind doth fade away.
Kyd Sp Tr (IV.2.17-18) ISA: An eastern wind, ..., / Shall blast the plants and the young saplings;
(III.13.12-07-8) HIER: But suffer'd thy fair crimson-color'd spring
With wither'd winter to be blasted thus?
Greene Orl Fur (V.1.63-64) SACREPANT: Parched be the earth, to drink
up every spring: / Let corn and trees be blasted from above:
Lyly Love's Met (I.2)NISA: Of holly, because it is most holy, which lovely green
neither the sun's beams nor the wind's blasts can alter or diminish.
(IV.1.194-97) MELOS: May summer's lightning burn our autumn crop,
And rough winds blast the beauty of our plains,
Anon. Ironside (IV.1.82-83) EDMUND: A sunshine day is quickly overcast.
A springing bud is killed with a blast.
Nashe Summers (660-61) AUTUMN: They vomit flames, / and blast the ripened fruits;
(1770) BACK-WINTER: O that my looks were lightning to blast fruits!
Shakes Hamlet (III.4.64-65): Here is your husband, like a mildewed ear,
Blasting his wholesome brother
Geneva Bible Gen. 41.5-7 ... seven ears of corn grew on one stalk, rank and goodly ... seven thin ears, & blasted with the East wind, sprang up after them: ... and the thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears. Gen. 41.22-24 (similar version of above)

Dogs ... Vomit
Shakes 2H6 (I.3) York: So, so, thou common dog, didst thou disgorge
Thy glutton bosom of the royal Richard; / And now thou wouldst eat thy dead vomit up,
And howl'st to find it.
H5 (3.7.64-65) Le chien est retourne a son propre vomissement, / et la truie lavee au bourbier.
Pasquil Return (¦5) PAS: that he turned bace like a dog to his own vomit
Nash Summers (660) [the dogs of Orion): They vomit flames, and blast the ripened fruits; ...
(736-40) [of dogs]: When humors rise, they eat a sovereign herb,
Whereby what cloys their stomachs they cast up;
And as some writers of experience tell, / They were the first invented vomiting.
Geneva Bible Prov. 26.11 As a dog turneth again to his own vomit,
2 Peter 2.22 But it is come unto them, according to the true proverb, The dog is returned to his own vomit

Knight ... Carpet, Trencher
Golding Ovid Met. (XII.673): Was by that coward carpet knight bereaved of his lyfe, ...
(XIII.123): Of Rhesus, dastard Dolon, and the coward carpetknyght
Edwards Dam&Pith (46) Aristippus: The king feeds you often from his own trencher.
Anon Fam. Vic. (844-45)ARCH: Meaning that you are more fitter for a tennis court
Than a field, and more fitter for a carpet then the camp.
Mucedorus (Epi.): And weighting with a Trencher at his back,
Ironside (III.6.5): ye trencher-scraping cutters, ye cloak-bag carriers, ye sword and buckler carriers,
Penelope (XXX.3): These trencher flies me tempt each day,
(XXXV.5): Than taking down such trencher-knights.
Shakes 2H6 (IV.1) SUFFOLK: Obscure and lowly swain, ...
Fed from my trencher, kneel'd down at the board.
TGV(IV.4) LAUNCE: ... and I came no sooner into the dining-chamber but he
steps me to her trencher and steals her capon's leg:
LLL (V.2) BIRON: ... Some carry-tale, some please-man, some slight zany,
Some mumble-news, some trencher-knight, some Dick, / That smiles his cheek in years ...
... Holding a trencher, jesting merrily?
Much Ado (V.2) BENEDICK: ... Troilus the first employer of panders, and / a whole bookfull of
these quondam carpet-mongers, ...
12th (III.4) TOBY: He is knight, dubbed with unhatched rapier and on carpet consideration; ...
Tempest (II.2) CALIBAN: ... Nor scrape trencher, nor wash dish ...
R&J (I.5) First Servant: Where's Potpan, ... He / shift a trencher? he scrape a trencher!
Timon (I.1) Old Athenian: And my estate deserves an heir more raised
Than one which holds a trencher.
(III.6) TIMON: ... You fools of fortune, trencher-friends, time's flies, ...
A&C (III.13) ANTONY: I found you as a morsel cold upon
Dead Caesar's trencher; nay, you were a fragment / Of Cneius Pompey's; ...
Corio (IV.5) CORIO: Ay; 'tis an honester service than to meddle with thy mistress. Thou pratest, and pratest; serve with thy trencher, hence!
Nashe Summers (793): take / not up your standings in a nut-tree, when you should be waiting on my Lord's trencher.
Munday Huntington (XIII.246) LEICESTER: This carpet knight sits carping at our scars, ...

Shakespeare and the anonymous author of Arden seem to be indulging in a small joke at Lyly's expense: contrast with the romanticism of the concept in Lyly's Endymion: The Man in the Moon.
Anon. Arden (IV.2.22-29): FERRYMAN: Then for this once let it be . midsummer moon,
but yet my wife has another moon.
FRANKLIN: Another moon?
FERRYMAN: Aye, and it has influences and eclipses.
ARDEN: Why then, by this reckoning you sometimes play the man / in the moon.
FERRYMAN: Aye, but you had not best to meddle with that moon
lest I scratch you by the face with my bramble-bush.
Shakes MND: (V.1.250-252) MOON: All that I have to say, is,
to tell you that the lanthorn is the moon; I, the man i' the moon;
this thornbush, my thorn-bush; and this dog, my dog.
Nashe Summers (861-62) HARVEST: ... But to say that I impoverish
the earth, that I rob the man in the moon,
Munday Huntington (VIII.173-74) FITZ: By this construction,
she should be the Moon, / And you would be the man within the Moon.

Burden ... Heavy
Edwards D&P (157) STEPH: This heavy burden puts poor Stephano to much pain.
Marlowe T1 (III.2.239) THER: Burdening their bodies with your heavy chains,
Edw2 (V.4.63) MORT: #Suscepi that provinciam [very heavy burden], ...
Anon. Woodstock (II.2.106) WOODSTOCK: a heavy burthen has thou taken from me.
Willobie (XLV.3): A heavy burden wearieth one,
Nashe Summers (874): are oppressed with heavy burdens of my bounty:
Shakes Hamlet (III.1.58): O heavy burden!
Geneva Bible Ps 38.4 (mine iniquities) ... as a weighty burden they are too heavy for me.

Taunt ... Bitter
Anon. Woodstock (II.1.132) KING: and every hour with rude and bitter taunts
Shakes 3H6 (II.6) RICHARD: Because he would avoid such bitter taunts
Which in the time of death he gave our father.
Rich3 (I.3) Q. Eliz. My Lord of Gloucester, I have too long borne
Your blunt upbraidings and your bitter scoffs:
By heaven, I will acquaint his majesty / With those gross taunts I often have endured.
Lyly Love's Met (II.1) CUPID: Pride in the beautiful,
bitter taunts in the witty, incredulity in all.
Nashe Summers (919) SUMMER: Plow-swains are blunt, and will / taunt bitterly,

Goliath ... Weaver's beam (spec. ref. to weaver's beam)

Anon. Ironside (V.2.202) EDM: Were he Golias, I the little king,
I would not fear, him on his knees to bring; / but he hath rather cause to doubt of me,
I being big and far more strong than he.
Shakes Edw3 (IV.6) PHILIP: An arm hath beat an army; one poor David / Hath with a stone foil'd twenty stout Goliaths; MWW (IV.1.22): I fear not Goliath with a weaver's beam.
Nashe Summers (1025) BACCHUS: ... were every beam as big as a weaver's beam.
Geneva Bible 2 Sam. 21.19 Goliath the Gittite: the staff of whose spear was like a weavers beam.
See also 1 Chron. 20.5, same text and 1 Sam 17.7.

Serpent ... Curse
Golding Ovid Met. (Ep. 473-74): The earth accursed for his sake, did never / after more
Nashe Summers (1164-65) SUMMERS: Those that now serpent-like creep on the ground,
And seem to eat the dust, they crouch so low;
Shakes Oth (IV.2.17) Emilia: Let heaven requite it with the serpent's curse, ...
Geneva Bible Gen. 3.14 Then the Lord God said to the serpent, ... upon thy belly thou shalt go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life

Dumb swans ... Chattering pies
Nashe Summers (1173): Dumb swans do love, & not vain chattering pies.
Sidney Astrophel&Stella (54): Dumb swans, not chattering pies, do lovers prove.

Dust to dust/Nothing to nothing
Watson Heck (C) Resolv'd to dust entomb'd here lieth Love,
Shakes Rich2 (V.3) GLOUC: Nor I nor any man that but man is
With nothing shall be pleased, till he be eased / With being nothing.
Ham (V.1) HAMLET: Alexander was buried, / Alexander returneth into dust; the dust is earth
Nashe Summers (256-259) VER: This world is transitory; it was made of nothing, and it must to nothing; wherefore, if we will do the will of our high Creator (whose will it is, that it pass to nothing), we must help to consume it to nothing.
Anon. Locrine (III.1.39) THRAS: Yielded his life and honor to the dust.
Willobie (VIII.8): You were my friend, you were but dust,
L Gh. (2118): Thus, our well-pampered flesh is turned to dust;
(2130-31): Yet now the ragged staff ..., / Is broken, and in dust the bears do lie.
(2222): Till all flesh turn to dust and slimy clay.
(2224): Of this great peer that sleepeth in the dust,
Geneva Bible Gen. 3.19 Thou art dust, and to dust shalt thou return.
Eccles. 3.20 All was of the dust, and all shall return to the dust.

Biblical Flood
Golding Ovid Met (I.309-72): Relates the story.
(VII.455-56): To ancient Ceramb: who such time as old Deucalion's flood
Upon the face of all the Earth like one main water stood,
Anon. Willobie (V.3): Was earth consumed with wreakful waves?
Shakes JC (I.2.152-3) CASSIUS: Rome, thou hast lost the breed of noble bloods,
When went there by an age since the great flood ...
12th (III.2): Since before Noah was a sailor.
As You (V.4.35-37) There is sure another flood toward, and these couples are coming to the ark.
Here comes a pair of very strange beasts.
Nashe Summers (1273): Fetched pedigrees of mountains and of floods
(1766-67) Which, melted into water, might fall down, / As fell the deluge on the former world.
Geneva Bible Genesis 7.1-24

Lust ... Idleness
Golding Ovid Met. (Epi. 113-14): Hermaphrodite and Salmacis declare that idleness Is chiefest nurse and cherisher of all voluptuousness,
Watson Hek (XVIII): A Labyrinth of doubts; an idle lust;
Nashe Summers (1314) WINTER: Sprung all, as vices, of this Idleness; ...
Anon. Willobie (L.4): If wandering rages have possest / Your roving mind at random bent;
If idle qualms from too much rest; / Fond fancies to you lust have sent:
Cut off the cause that breeds your smart, / Then will your sickness soon depart.
Note: Idleness the mother of all foolish wanness. David being idle fell to strange lust.
Queritur Egistus, quare sit factus Adulter.
Geneva Bible (located by Willobie note) 2 Sam. 11.2-4 ... David arose out of his bed, and walked upon the Kings palace: and from the roof he saw a woman washing herself and the woman was very beautiful to look upon. ... Then David sent messengers, and took her away ...

Quiet ... State
Golding Ovid Met. (II.482): My lot (quoth he) hath had enough of this unquiet state
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (I.1.460) CHORUS: What careful toil to quiet state it brings,
(II.2) CHORUS: Of our estate that erst in quiet stood.
(IV.1.317) CREON: A quiet end of her unquiet state.
Watson Hek I (XCVI): live secure and quiet in estate,
Anon. Ironside (I.1.28) CANUTUS: I plant you in your former quiet states.
Nashe Summers (1316) WINTER: But living loosely in a quiet state,

Tongues ... Filed/Smooth
Brook Romeus (1017): Whether thy sugared talk, and tongue so smoothly filed,
Gascoigne Jocasta (II.1.256) CHORUS: Yet thou O queen, so file thy / sugared tongue,
Edwards Dam&Pith (1726): ... the plague of this court! / Thy filed tongue that forged lies
Lyly Campaspe (IV.2) CAMP: Whet their tongues on their hearts.
Sapho (II.4) SYB: whose filed tongue made those enamored that sought to have him enchanted.
Greene James IV (I.1.236) ATEU: But princes rather trust a smoothing tongue
Shakes LLL (V.1) HOLO: ... discourse peremptory, his tongue filed, ...
Lear (I.4.288): How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is.
Pass Pilgrim 19 (2): Smooth not thy tongue with filed talk, ...
Nashe Will Summers (1366): Smooth-tongue Orators, the fourth in place
Anon. Willobie (I.10): A filed tongue which none mislikes.
Ironside (II.3.149-50) CAN: Sirs, temper well your tongues and be advised
if not, I'll cut them shorter by an inch.
(V.2.162) CAN: Edmund, #Report shall never whet her tongue / upon Canutus to eternize thee.
Geneva Bible Ps. 140.3 They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent: adder's poison is under their lips.

Repent ... Folly -- Correct. Sent text says James IV
Edwards Dam&Pith (112) GRONNO: Then, come on your ways; you must
to prison in haste. / I fear you will repent this folly at last.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.6.404) HIER: Confess thy folly and repent thy fault;
Greene Fr Bac (V.3.36) BACON: Repentant for the follies of my youth,
Anon. Willobie (XXVIII.2): But they repent their folly past,
Nashe Summers (1434) WINTER: Wish'd, with repentance for his folly past,
Shakes H5 (III.6): ... England shall repent his folly, ...

Death ... Worms
Brooke Romeus (2893-95) My conscience inwardly should more torment me thrice,
Than all the outward deadly pain that all you could devise.
But (God I praise) I feel no worm that gnaweth me,
Golding Ovid Met. (IX.817): And Libyan worms whose stinging doth enforce continual sleep,
Oxford poem (The Forsaken Man): Where earthly worms on me shall feed,
Lyly Campaspe (III.5.54-55): APELLES: the feeding canker of my ear, the never-dying worm of my heart,
Midas (II.1) SOPHRONIA: love a worm which seeming to live in the eye, dies in the heart.
(V.2) PETULUS: He means you are the last of the stock alive; the rest the worms have eaten.
DELLO: A pox of those saucy worms, that eat men before they be dead.
Shakes 2H6 (III.2) SALIS: The mortal worm might make the sleep eternal;
Rich3 (I.3.221) The worm of conscience still begnaw thy soul!
As You (III.2.65): Thou worm's-meat.
Hamlet (IV.3) HAM: Your worm is your only emperor for diet: we fat all creatures else to fat us
HAM: A man may fish with the worm that hath eat of a / king, and ...
MM (III.1.16-17): For thou dost fear the soft and tender fork / Of a poor worm.
V&A (154): Death,-- / 'Grim-grinning ghost, earth's worm,
Nashe Summers (1595-96) SONG: Strength stoops unto the grave,
Worms feed on Hector brave, ...
(1679-81) AUTUMN: For feasts thou keepest none, cankers thou feed'st;
The worms will curse thy flesh another day, / Because it yieldeth them no fatter prey.
Anon. Willobie (XIII.2): ... and therein find / That gnawing worm that never lins
L. Gh. (2121): We fed on joys, but now for worms are food,
Cromwell (V.5.131) CROMWELL: The land of Worms, which dying men discover,
Geneva Bible Job 24.20 ... The worm shall seal his sweetness:
Isaiah 51.8 the worm shall eat them

Gross head
Golding Ovid Met. (XIII.168): Is such a dolt and grosshead, as he shows himself to be
Brooke Romeus (2626): Than either I do mind to say, or thy gross head can deem.
Gascoigne Supposes (II.1) DULIPO: Out upon me, what a gross-headed fool am I?
Marprelate (#4): Again, none would be so gross-headed as to gather,
Nashe Summers (1668) SUMMER: Gross-headed sot, how light he makes of state!
Chapman D'Olive (IV.2.158) MUG: that ever I choosed such a gross block to whet my wits on.

Wither ... Herb
Anon. Locrine (IV.2.8) HUMBER: Sowed Aconitum mongst these withered herbs?
Oxford letter (3-14-96): I perceive all my hopes but fucate and my haps to wither in the herb.
Nashe Summers (1825) SUMMER: Item, I give my withered flowers and herbs
Unto dead cor[p]ses, for to deck them with;
Geneva Bible Job 8.12 Though it were in green and not cut down, yet shall it wither before any other herb. Jere 12.4 How long shall the land mourn, and the herbs of every field wither, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein?. Pss 37.2 For they shall soon be cut down like grass,and shall wither as the green herb.

Golding Ovid Met. (VIII.570): Ne let that fair smooth face of thine beguile thee, ...
Lyly Love's Met. (I.2) ERIS: It is not your fair faces as smooth as jets ...
Shakes Rich3 (V.5) RICHMOND: Enrich the time to come with smooth-faced peace,
John (II.1) BASTARD: That smooth-faced gentleman, tickling Commodity,
LLL (V.2) KATHERINE: I'll mark no words that smooth-faced wooers say:
Anon. Woodstock (IV.1) BUSH: we have left that smooth-faced flattering Greene ...
Ironside (IV.1.101) EDMUND: ... not to believe that smooth-face forged tale.
Troub. Raigne K. John (XI.42): A smooth-facte Nunne is all the Abbots wealth.
Nobody (1640) QUEEN: Are coining in the mint of that smooth face?
Leic. Gh. (889): With my fair words and smooth-faced flattering.
Nashe Summers (1850-51): And, Winter, with thy writhen frosty face,
Smooth up thy visage, when thou look'st on her;

Born to Woe ... Man
Gascoigne ... Jocasta (III.2.170-73) CHORUS: O blinded eyes, O wretched / mortal wights,
O subject slaves to every ill that lights, / To scape such woe, such pain, such shame and scorn,
Happy were he that never had been born.
Greene Orl Fur (II.1.248-49: ORL: The woe of man, that first-created curse, / Base female sex,...
Shakes Rich2 (III.4) RICH: Come, ladies, go, / To meet at London London's king in woe.
What, was I born to this, that my sad look / Should grace the triumph of great Bolingbroke?
Anon. Willobie (LXII.3): If ever man were born to woe, / I am the man;
Penelope (LI.1): But ah me wretch (born but to woe),
Leic. Gh (855-57) Man's most sweet joys are mixed with some sour pains,
And none doth live, of high or low degree, / In life or death, that can from woe be free.
Nashe Summers (1880) Song: Trades cry, Woe worth that ever they were born;
Geneva Bible Jer.15.10; Matt. 26.24; Mark 14.21

Repent ... Folly:
Edwards Dam&Pith (112) GRONNO: Then, come on your ways; you must
to prison in haste. / I fear you will repent this folly at last.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.6.404) HIER: Confess thy folly and repent thy fault;
Greene Fr Bac (V.3.36) BACON: Repentant for the follies of my youth,
Anon. Willobie (XXVIII.2): But they repent their folly past,
Nashe Summers (1434) WINTER: Wish'd, with repentance for his folly past,
Shakes H5 (III.6): ... England shall repent his folly, ...

APPENDIX III: Language, Vocabulary

Distinctive Words, Phrases :
disgests, weary-out/time (v), wheaten crown, word-warriors (n)
Note: Two Noble Kinsmen opens with scenes of crowning with wheaten garlands, and has quite a few repetitions of the phrase.

Compound Words (*surely unusual):
141 words (11 verbs, 81 nouns, 46 adj, 3 adv, 1).
after-winter (n), ale-house (n), alms-cart (n), Atlas-like (a), Back-winter (n), barrel-belly (n), beard-master* (n), belly-full (n), blood-letting (n), brain-pan (n), brave-minded (a), cared-for (v), cloak-bag (n), clock-keepers (n), cod-piece (n), coney-catching (n), counter-vail (v), country-buttoned (a), cross-bitten (v), cut-throat (a), damned-born (a), day's-eyes (n), death-bed (n), death-day (n), deep-reaching (a), demi-coloring (n), dish-clouts (n), dog-days (a, n), dog-keeper (n), Dog-star (n), dough-belly (n), dung-hill (n), dust-box (n), eggshell (n), eye-sore (n), face-to-face (adv), fiery-breathing (a), fires-side (n), foul-mouthed (a), fraud-wanting* (a), free-school (n), frost-bitten (v), gape-seed (n), God-son (n), going-away (n), good-faced (a), goodliest-ripened (a), gold-breathing (a), goose-quill (n), gray-eyed (a), gross-headed (a), half-penny (n), hammer-headed (a), handy-work (n), hat-band (n), hedge-creepers (n), highway-side (n), hoarder-up (n), hobby-horse (n), hob-nails (n), horn-book (n), horse-race (n), hour-glass (n), house-tops (n), hugger-mugger (n), hunger-starved* (a), husband-men (n), ill-favord'st (a), ill-fortune (n), ill-governed (a), ill-spent (a), ink-horn (n), ivy-bushes (n), jack-in-a-box (n), laughing-stock (n), low-built (a), make-shifts (n), male-contents (n), morris-dance[r] (n), mud-vault (n), near-approaching (a), never-meant (a), new-fangled (a), night-cap (n), nut-tree (n), one-by-one (adv), out-yards (n), over-bar (v), over-barring (n), overcome (v), overflow (v), overgrown (v), over-laid (a), over-load[en] (v), over-seer (n), overthrow (v), pebble-stone (n), pick-tooths (n), pinch-back (a), play-book (n), plow-swains* (n), polt-foot* (n), puffing-up (n), quart-pot (a), riff-raff (n), school-master (n), sea-fish (a), serpent-like (a), silver-falling* (a), sky-measuring (a), slow-marching (a), smooth-tongue (a), span-counter (n), spittle-house (n), squitter-book* (n), star-gazers (n), subtle-witted (a), sun-bathing (a), sweet-falling (a), tell-tales (n), tile-stones (n), tittle-tattle* (n), toss-pot (n), try-lill (?), twelve-month (n), two-legged (a), uncivil-nurtured* (a), venom-breathed (a), water-bearers (n), weary-out* (v), weather-beaten (a), well-aday, well-breeched (a), well-known (a), well-performed (a), well-placed (a), wet-shod (adv), well-tuned (a), wood-nymphs (n), wool-pack (n), word-warriors* (n), worm-eaten (a)

Words beginning with "con" (*surely unusual):
34 words (14 verbs, 16 nouns, 5 adj, 1 adv, 1 conj).
conceit (n, v*), conclude (v), condemn[ing] (v), condition (n), conduce (v), conduit (n), confer (v), conference (n), confess (v), confirm (v), confusion (n), [un]confuted (a), confuting (v), conjecture (n), conscience (n), consent (n), consequently (conj), constable (n), constant (a), construction (n), construing (v), consume (v), consumption (n), contagious (a), contemning (v), contemplation (n), contempt (n), content (a, n, v), continually (adv), contrary (n), control (n), conversant (a), convert (v), convey (v)

Words beginning with "dis" (*surely unusual):
20 words (12 verbs, 6 nouns, 2 adj.
disagree (v), disapointed (v), disclose (v), [dis]content (n), discouraging (a), discourse (n), discredit (v), disdain (n), disease (n), disfavors (n), disgests* (v), disgrace (n), dishonorable (a), dispatch (v), dispersed (v), dispose (v), dispossess (v), disputing (v), distinguish (v), disturb (v)

Words beginning with "mis": 6 words (1 verb, 3 nouns, 2 adj).
misbehave (n), miscarried (v), miscreant (n), miserable (a), mishap (n), misshapen (a)

Words beginning with "over" (*surely unusual):
8 words (5 verbs, 2 nouns, 1 adj). over-bar* (v), over-barring (n), overcome (v), overgrown (v), over-laid (a), over-load (v), over-seer (n), over-throw (v)

Words beginning with "pre": 8 words (4 verbs, 2 nouns, 3 adj, 1 adv).
prefer (v), presence (n), present[ly] (v, a, adv), preserved (a), presume (v), presumptuous (a), pretense (n), prevail (v)

Words beginning with "re": 33 words (21 verbs, 13 nouns, 2 adj).
recalled (v), received (a), recite (v), record (n), recover (v), refer(v), reflecting (v), refrain (v), refuse (v), regard (v, n), regiment (n), remaining (v), remedy (n), remember (v), remorse (n), remove (v), renews (v), repair (v), repent (v), repentance (n), reply (v), report (n), represent (v), require (v), respect (v, n), resplendent (a), restoring (n), retire (v), return (v), revenge (v, n), revenues (n), reverence (n), reverse (n)

Words beginning with "un","in" (* surely unusual):
54 words (verbs, nouns, adj, adv, 1 conj, 2 prep).
increase (v), indeed (conj), index (n), indifferently (adv), industry (n), infancy (n), infect (v), infectious (a), infer (v), infidel (n), injure (v), innocence (n), innumerable (a), inordinate (a), insatiate (a), insight (n), insinuate (v), insinuating (a), instruct (v), intemperance (n), intemperate (a), intend (v), interpreter (n), interrupt (v), into (conj), intolerable (a), invective (n), invent (v), invention (n)
unadvisedly (adv), unarmed (a), uncertain (a), uncivil-nurtured* (a), unclothe (v), uncondemned (a), unconfuted (a), uncouth (a), undo (v), unfallibly (adv), unfit (a), ungracious (a), unprofitably (adv), unreasonable, unrest (n), unswaddled (a), until (conj), unto (prep), unthrifts* (n), untruth (n), unwieldy (a), unwittingly (adv), under (prep), undermine (v), underminings (n), understood (v)

Words ending in "able": 10 words (1 noun, 7 adj, 2 adv).
constable (n), [dis]honorable (a), innumerable (a), intolerable (a), lamentable (a), miserable (a), palpably (adv), [un]reasonable (a), serviceable (a), unprofitably (adv)

Unorthodox Words ending in "ize": 3 words (3 verbs). covetize, gourmandize, warrantize

Words ending in "less": 6 words (1 noun, 5 adj).
careless[ness] (n), harmless (a), masterless (a), quenchless (a), questionless (a), thriftless (a)

Words ending in "ness": 19 words (19 nouns).
baldness (n), bitterness (n), brightness (n), business (n), carelessness (n), covetousness (n), darkness (n), drunkenness (n), faithfulness (n), happiness (n), idleness (n), madness (n), mightiness (n), plainness (n), sickness (n), slothfulness (n), wantoness (n), witness (n), worthiness (n)

Words ending with "ship": (3 words, [ap]prenticeship dating from early 16th c per OED.)
fellowship, prenticeship, worship

Gerund/gerundive (words ending in "ing") Summary:
Total words (excluding "being"): 192
Total words used as a verb: 68
Total words used as an adjective: 44
Total words used as a noun: 80
1 use of "being" as a noun, 4 as an adjective.

Use of the simple infinitive: 220
Use of the passive infinitive: 6
Use of "to be" as active infinitive: 12 (with noun, adv, or present participle)
Infinitive as subject of dependent clause: 4
Double/double infinitives, not included in figures above: 2 (i.e., to help us to sing)

Reflexives: attire themselves, bathes him, behave yourselves, build (no temple but) themselves, carry away yourself, I commend me, content yourself, dog myself, louse themselves, love none but themselves, making himself a ..., to mend himself, misbehaved themselves, profess myself, repent you, save themselves, sees not himself, shame ourselves, show thyself, terms himself, thought himself

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