The Spanish Tragedy
  Attributed to Thomas Kyd

       by Barboura Flues - copyright © 2002
(FS = found in Shakespeare. NFS = not found in Shakespeare)

adamant (n): an alleged mineral, ascribed with the hard, unbreakable properties of a diamond; others ascribed to it properties of the lodestone or magnet. FS (3-1H6, MND, T&C); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; many others.

Aeacus: King of Aegina (kingdom of the Myrmidons), son of Jupiter; father of Peleus and Telamon. Became one of the three Judges of the dead in Tartarus. Cf. Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr.

ambages (n): circumlocutions, beating about the bush. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr; (disp.) Sir John Oldcastle. OED contemp citations: 1567 Drant Horace Ep.; 1568 C. Watson Polybius To Reader; 1607 Dekker Wh. Babylon

ballace (n): ballast. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr.

ban (n, v): curse. FS (5-2H6, Lucrece, PP); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta; 1555 Latimer Ser& Rem; Lyly Sapho; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Locrine, Arden; Marlowe Jew; Nashe Pierce Penniless; Munday Huntington.

Bashaw: Pasha. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr; Sol&Per.

bewray (v): reveal. FS (7); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Orl Fur, Fr Bacon, James IV, Pandosto, Maiden's Dream; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Massacre, Jew/Malta; (disp.) Oldcastle; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Endymion, Midas, Bombie, Whip; Pasquil Return; (anon.) Marprelate; Locrine, Ironside, Arden, Willobie, Penelope, Leic Gh.

blear/bleere (n): confuse, hoodwink. FS (Shrew); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Gallathea; Kyd Sp Tr; Nashe Summers.

boot (v, n): help. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Sundrie Flowers; Robinson Delights; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Greene G a G, Maiden's Dream; Lyly Bombie; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, LeicGh. bootless (a): helpless, useless. FS (22); Greene G a G, Orl Fur, Cony, ? Selimus; Kyd Sp Tr; many others

break/brake [one's mind] (v): discuss, disclose, reveal. FS (5-1H6, Errors, Ado, T&C, Mac); Golding Ovid; Oxford letter; Lyly Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Arden, Willobie; (disp.) Cromwell.

bug/bugg (n): bugbear, hobgoblin, bogey. FS (5-3H6, Ham, WT, Cymb, T&C); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene? Selimus; (anon.) Pasquil Countercuff, Apology; Arden; Nashe Penniless; Harvey Pierce's Super.

Charon/ferryman [across the river Styx] (n): (anon.) Arden. [Charon] FS (2-Rich3, T&C); Watson Hek; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Orl Fur; Marlowe T1; Kyd Sp Tr; Sidney Antony. Widely used image in Ren. literature.

cheer (n): provender, food. FS (20); Sundrie Flowers; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene G a G, Fr Bac, James IV, Pandosto; Marlowe Faustus; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody, Arden; Nashe Valentines, Summers; Harvey Sonnet; (disp./Chettle) Greene's Groat; (disp.) Cromwell; Munday Huntington.

conceit (n): (1) intelligence, wit. FS (AsYou). (2) understanding, idea, imagination. FS (1H6, Errors, R&J, Ham, H8); Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Willobie, Dodypoll.

corregidor (n): Spanish magistrate; chief Justice or governor of a town. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr (1st OED citation).

corsive (n): corrosive. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Ironside, Locrine.

counterfeit (v): pretend, feign. FS (3-Errors, AsYou, Edw3); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Nashe Absurdity; Harvey 4 Letters; Marston Malcontent.

countermured (a): double-walled. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr (1st OED citation).

dag (n): heavy pistol. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr.; (anon.) Arden.

descant (v): improvise on a theme. FS (3-Rich3, Lucrece, PP); Golding Calvin on Ps; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sp Tr; Harvey Pierce's Super

ding (v): hurl down. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Willobie; Nashe Chr Tears; (disp.) Oldcastle. Other contemp citations: Lindesay (1565) Chron. Scot; Knox (1572): Hist. Ref.; Marston (1598) Pygmal; (1601): Pasquil & Kath. (iii. 4) He dings the pots about.

empyreal (a): possible reading of "imperial"; of or pertaining to the empyrean or highest heaven. Cf. Marlowe Faustus; possible reading of "imperial" in Kyd Sp Tr. OED cites:
1481 Caxton Myrr. iii. xxxii. 184 And that is called the heuen Imperyal.

enlarge (v): set free, expand (in speech). FS (1-JC): Watson Hek; Kyd Sp Tr; 1st OED citation: 1614 Raleigh Hist. World.
Erichtho: Alecto, one of the Furies. FS (2H4); Kyd Sp Tr (Erichtho).

falchion (n): broad sword. FS (8); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Maiden's Dream; (anon.) Arden, Ironside.

favor (n): appearance, features. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Greene Cony; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Arden, Weakest; (disp.) Oldcastle; Nashe Summers; Chapman Revenge.

fell (a): savage, cruel. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek, Tears; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; (anon) Locrine, Mucedorus, Woodstock, Penelope.

fetch (n): trick, stratagem. FS (1-Ham).Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Fr Bacon; Nashe Summers; Chettle Kind Hart.

flint (n): flagstones. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr.

frolic (a): merry. FS (MND?); Lodge Wounds, Kyd Sp Tr; Lyly Midas; Marlowe Faustus; (disp.) Cromwell; (anon.) Mucedorus; Nashe Saffron; Chapman D'Olive.

froward (a): perverse, forward. FS (13); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr. Common.

gage (v): (1) pledge, engage. FS (1H4, MV, T&C); Kyd Sp Tr. (2) risk. FS (Lucrece).

gear/geere (n): (2) device, matter. FS (11); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Sundrie Flowers; Gascoigne Supposes;Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho, Bombie; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Kyd Sp Tr; (disp.) Oldcastle; (anon.) Fam Vic; Munday Huntington. (3) clothes. FS (2-2H6, LLL); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sp Tr.

guerdon (n, v): prize, recompense. FS (4-2H6, LLL, Ado, Edw3); Golding Ovid; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sp Tr; Marlowe Massacre; Nashe Summers; Munday Huntington; (anon.) Ironside, Leic Gh.

halberd (n): battle axe, mounted on a long pole. FS (2-3H6, Errors); (anon.) Kyd Sp Tr; Munday More.

halberdier (n): soldier armed with a halberd. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr; Pasquil Return.

hight (v): is/was called/named (v). FS (4-LLL, MND, Pericles); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene G a G, Alphonsus; Kyd Sp Tr; Peele Wives; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Leic Gh; Munday Huntington.

hugy (a): huge. FS (1-Edw3); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus, Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sp Tr; Harvey poem/Shakerly; (anon.) Penelope.

imperial (a): Bevington reads the original to be "empyreal", pertaining to the highest heaven, the empyrean. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr. But also see entry for "empyreal".

leese (v): (1) lose, waste [time, life]. FS (1-Sonnet 5); Golding Ovid; Watson Hek; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Supposes; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Geo a Greene, ? Selimus.

lights (n): aura, expression of feelings. FS (Lucrece); Kyd Sp Tr.

martialist (n): person born under the influence of Mars, military man. FS (2-Edw3, TNK); Kyd Sp Tr; LylyWoman ... Moon.

meed (n): reward, prize. FS (19); Golding Ovid; Sundrie Flowers (Ever/Never); Kyd Sp Tr; Lyly Woman ...

Moon; Marlowe T1; (anon.) Arden; Nobody/Somebody.

Minos: son of Jupiter and Europa. One of the three Judges of the dead in Tartarus. Cf. Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr.

moiety (n): half of two equal parts. FS (many); Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody.
Orpheus: musician whose singing could charm beasts, trees and rocks. Sailed with the Argonauts to Colchis. Journeyed to hell to rescue Eurydice. Torn apart by Maenads; his head, which had been thrown into the river Hebrus, floated still singing to the sea and was carried to Lesbos. FS (3-MV, H8, Lucrece); Kyd Sp Tr.

paunch (n): stab, wound in the paunch, disembowel. FS (1-Tempest); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr; Florio, Viscerare.

pocas palabras: few words. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr.

policy (n): trickery, cunning. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; (anon.) Woodstock, Locrine, Fam Vic, Ironside, Nobody, Leic Gh; Chettle Kind Hart. Wide contemp use. A major Shakespeare preoccupation, i.e.: 1H4: Neuer did base and rotten Policy / Colour her working with such deadly wounds.

puissant (a): powerful. FS (11); Golding Ovid; Marlowe T1; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Woodstock, Mucedorus, Leic Gh; Nashe Unf Trav.

Rhadamanthus: Son of Jupiter and Europe. One of the three Judges of the dead in Tartarus. Cf. Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr.

rounded (v): whispered or talk privately, mutter. FS (2-John, WT); Kyd Sp Tr.

strond (n): strand, grassy shoreline. FS (1H4); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Locrine.

title (n): title-board. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr.

toys (n): antics, games. FS (many); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Campaspe, Midas; Kyd Sp Tr; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Willobie.

train (n, v): trap. FS (4-Errors, Rich3, Mac); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta; Lyly Gallathea, Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; Chettle Kind Hart; (disp.) Oldcastle; Spenser FQ; (anon.) Willobie, Penelope.

tucket (n) flourish of trumpets. Usually but not always a stage direction. FS (many); Kyd Sp Tr.

undelved (a): not dug-out. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr (1st OED citation).

viluppo (n): confusion. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr.

ward (v): stand guard. FS (3-Rich3, T&C, Titus); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Fr Bac; Lyly Midas; (anon.) Arden, Willobie.

weed (n): clothing. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; many others.

wight (n): living being. FS (8); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Oxford poem; Kyd Sp Tr; many others.

wit (v): inquire, discover. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr.

wot (v): know. FS (30); Golding Abraham; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; many others.

Glossary: Proper Names

Aecus, Minos, and Rhadamanth (sons of Jupiter) were the three judges of Tartarus. Some add that Aecus keeps the keys, imposes a toll, and checks the incoming ghosts. [See Robert Graves, The Greek Myths. Mount Kisco, N.Y.: Moyer Bell Ltd., 1988.]

Alcides: Hercules, one of whose labors was to bind Cerberus, the three-headed Hound of Hell.

Chimera: a fire-eating monster, part lion, part dragon, part goat.

Ixion: son of the Lapith king, who attempted to make love to Hera. In punishment he was bound to a fiery wheel which rolled ceaselessly throughout the sky. Ixion was the father of Perithuous and of the Centaurs.

Marsyas: a fawn and flutist who challenged Apollo to a musical contest. The contest was decided in favor of Apollo, and Marsyas was flayed alive for his presumption. In a later contest Apollo defeated Pan the piper, only Midas voting for Pan. Midas was endowed with ass's ears for his lack of judgment. This myth is touched upon in Golding's Ovid and the story of Midas was a major element of John Lyly's play Midas.

Myrmidons: Aecus king of Oenone, whose citizens had been slain by plague and pestilence sent by Juno, asked Zeus to give him as many subjects as there were ants carrying grains of corn from a nearby sacred oak. That night Aecus dreamed that he saw a shower of ants falling from the oak; when he awoke his son Telamon called him to watch a host of men approaching, whose faces he recognized from the dream. These new citizens (Myrmidons, ant-men), fought beside Achilles at Troy. [Graves, 66 e-g.]. Aecas later became one of the judges of Tartarus.

Sisyphus: king of Corinth, seduced his niece Tyro and falsely accused his brother of incest and of murdering Tyro's children. Known as a thief and liar who betrayed Zeus' secrets. Sentenced to roll a huge stone to the, summit of a hill, each time forced to start again as the stone rolled back down hill.

Tityus: son of Zeus, a giant who attempted to violate Leto, mother of Apollo. In Tartarus, Tityus was stretched out on the ground eternally, while two vultures ate his liver.

Glossary: Place Names

Acheron: a lake of fire in the underworld. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr, other Elizabethan drama, including Titus Andronicus, (anon.) Dr. Dodypoll and Willobie His Avisa, with overtones recalling passages in Matthew and Revelations.

Avernus: lake near Naples, through which Aeneas descended to hell.

Erebus: A Thessalian sorceress; Bevington points out an apparent mistake by Andrea, who seems to be invoking one of the Furies. Erebus: primeval darkness; the name means covered pit.

Phlegethon: A fabled river of fire, one of the five rivers of Hades. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid. OED cites Gower (1390) and Spenser FQ.

Terceira: one of the Portuguese Azores.

Stage Directions

2.2.18 [Balthazar and Lorenzo above.] Apparently the characters are placed above the main stage.
2.4.53 [They hang him [Horatio] in the arbor.] Apparently an arched arbor or trellis, adorned with leaves.
3.9 [Bel-imperia at a window] In a gallery over the main stage.
4.3 [Enter Hieronimo; he knocks up the curtain; Enter the Duke of Castile]. He puts up the curtain behind which Horatio's body will be concealed.

Translations (Bevington and Boas)

I.2.12-14: O multum dilecte Deo, tibi militat aether, Et conjuratae curvato poplite gentes Succumbunt; recti soror est victoria juris: O man much loved of God, for you the heavens fight, and the conspiring peoples fall on bended knee; victory is the sister of just right.
[Bevington: derived from Claudian's De Tertio consulatu Honorii.]

I.2.55-56: Pede pes et cuspide cuspis, Arma sonant armis, vir petiturque viro:
Foot against foot, lance against lance; arms clash on arms and man is assailed by man.
[Bevington: possible sources Statius, Virgil and Curtius.]

I.3.15-57: Qui jacet in terra, non habet unde cadat. In me consumpsit vires fortuna nocendo: Nil superest ut iam possit obesse magis: If one lies on the ground, one can fall no further; in me, Fortune has exhausted her power of hurting; there is nothing left that can harm me more.
[Bevington: a medley from Alanus de Insulis, Seneca, and Kyd's invention.]

II.5.67-80: O aliquis mihi quas pulchrum ver educat herbas ... Ne mortem vindicta tuam tam nulla sequatur: Oh, may someone blend me the herbs that beauteous spring doth bear, and let our anguish be medicined; or let him proffer potions, if such there be that cause forgetfulness of the years. May I myself reap throughout the wide world whatever plants the sun's warmth brings forth to earthly realms of light. May I drink any poison the wise woman may prepare, and whatever herbs her incantation unites in occult power. Let me endure all, nay death also, if once for all may die all feeling in a heart that is dead. Nevermore, then, shall I see thy eyes, my life? And has an everlasting slumber buried thy light? With thee may I perish: so would I go into the shadows. But nevertheless I shall hold off from yielding speedily to death, lest then no vengeance follow thy death.
[Boas: This passage is a hodgepodge of tags from classical poetry and lines of Kyd's own composition.]

III.4.84-85: E quel che voglio io, nessun lo sa: Intendo io: quel mi bastera:
And what I desire none knows; I know, which is enough for me.

III:10.102: Ed trumulo metui pavidum junxere timorem, Et vanum stolidae proditionis opus.:
And I feared to add dreadful alarm to a trembling man -- vain is the work of senseless treachery.
[Boas: another patchwork of Latin aphorisms.]

III.13.6: Per scelus semper tutum est sceleribus iter:
Crime's safest course leads ever through more crime.
[Boas: adapted from Seneca's Agamemnon.]

III.13.35: remedium malorum iners est: is an ideal remedy for ills [Boas: adapted from Seneca's Oedipus.]

III.13.62:ejectione firmae": writ of ejection.

III.14.118: Pocas palabras!: few words.

III.14.168: Chi mi fa piu carezze che non suole, Tradito mi ha, o tradir mi vuole:
who caresses more than was his way has me betrayed, or wishes to betray.

Length: 22,996 words
(includes all additions and in one case, alternative and original text)

Imagery, Dramatic Technique

Play within a Play: This scene is widely believed to have inspired the play-within-a-play sequence in Hamlet, although here the scene itself it quite different, involving both dialogue pertaining to the matter at hand (Horatio's murder) and within the action containing a resolution of Hieronimo's dilemma (the murder-suicide of Lorenzo, Balthazar, and Bel-imperia). The characters within the internal play spoke in different languages, which must certainly have created confusion within the audience, culminating in the rapid-fire deaths. Another cinematic triumph, perhaps, this one indisputably by the author of the original play.

The entire drama is, moreover, presented within its own framing device: the imperatives of its master plotter "Revenge", in concert with the slain Andrea, who sit on the stage throughout, comment on and direct the action. This kind of framing device is not new (see the early play Peele's Old Wive's Tale). Shakespeare used it to great comic effect in Taming of the Shrew, although in that play his framing character, the oaf Christopher Sly, has no power to affect the main plot. Its unique character is that Revenge is in effect the author and director of the play itself, impelled by what seems to be an impulse beyond good or evil, the enactment of a petition by Andrea, whose motives seem to be beyond morality. Bevington finds suggestions that Andrea may have been entrapped into his killing because of his involvement with the high-born Bel-imperia; within the play these suggestions are faint indeed.

Suspense and Irony:
Scene III.6 merits mention for its fine realization of the possibilities of dramatic irony. The villainous Pedringano, sentenced to be hanged, has been duped into believing that he will receive a last-minute reprieve; the audience knows differently. On the other hand, his death will crush Hieronimo's hopes of obtaining evidence against his son's murderers. Within this conflict between Hieronimo's race for truth and Lorenzo's race to cover up his actions, Pedringano and the Hangman conduct a delicate duel of wits, the jaunty Pedringano's witty humor reflects his assurance of reprieve, the Hangman's blunt wit providing a perfect counterpoint. This is wonderful, controlled writing, evidence of major dramatic talent.

Words into Pictures: With wonderful skill a passage of amendments creates an mental painting and then brings it to animate life: Hieronimo orders a painting of the murder scene (III.xii.1038A-1053A):

"Well, sir; then bring me forth, bring me through alley and alley, still with a distracted countenance going along, and let my hair heave up my night-cap. Let the clouds scowl, make the moon dark, the stars extinct, the winds blowing, the bells tolling, the owls shrieking, the toads croaking, the minutes jarring, and the clock striking twelve. And than at last, sir, starting, behold a man hanging, and tottering, as you know the wind will wave a man, and I with a trice to cut him down. And looking upon him by the advantage of my torch, find it to be my son Horatio. There you may show a passion, there you may show a passion! Draw me like old Priam of Troy. crying: "The house is a-fire, the house is a-fire, as the torch over my head!" Make me curse, make me rave, make me cry, make me mad, make me well again, make me curse hell, invocate heaven, and in the end leave me in a trance -- and so forth." How cinematic this could be!

But, being an addition, the author is unknown. Some believe that Ben Jonson wrote the additions; others find Jonson's style incompatible with the additions.

Other Innovations: Plot and Texture

Grounded on Senecan tragedy, The Spanish Tragedy offers several profound innovations. In Senecan tragedy violence traditionally takes place off stage; in Spanish Tragedy on-stage violence arises shockingly with the murder of Horatio, finally exploding with the corpse-strewn denouement of Hieronimo's play-within-a-play.
Bel-imperia represents another radical departure from tradition. This seeming heroine is strong, sexually aggressive (and apparently active), and capable of the murder of her would-be lover and of suicide, a grave sin to any Christian. Her love scene with Horatio was far more explicit than would have been expected in contemporary drama; her eager disparagement of her exalted status would also have been surprising. The latter characteristic certainly would have been a departure from the plays of Shakespeare, for whom like drifted toward like as an immutable law of natural selection.

Both of these factors seem to reflect against Oxfordian involvement in the play; he was at the time of writing deeply involved with John Lyly in the development of Euphuism, devoted to the courtly and elegant development of the English language, while Bel-imperia would be the antithesis of Oxford's view of idealized feminine royalty. It is possible, of course, that such a deviation from his stated principles would have been possible: another marker in the shifting sands of Oxford's lifelong emotional and religious Odyssey.

Religious Content

Although The Spanish Tragedy takes place in Catholic Spain and Portugal, its religious tone is unremittingly pagan, explicitly in its many classic pagan references and in the absence of corresponding Christian references, and implicitly in its morality of revenge with few corresponding motifs of Christian morality, judgment, hope and fear (except in a passage of late additions, see below). There is no god, no universal mover except Revenge personified, who acting on the request of the slain Andrea, directs the action of the play. Revenge and the dead Andrea sit on the stage during the proceedings, commenting on the action in a coda to each act. As Bevington points out, even Andrea is not always aware of the direction of Revenge's stratagems. The characters within this framework, Hieronimo, Bel-imperia, the martyred Horatio, love-stricken Balthazar and evil Lorenzo and his henchmen are all driven by the impulse to fulfill Andrea's need for revenge. They have no free will. At the end Andrea's wish attains a horrible fulfillment with the elimination of the players, guilty and innocent, and with the elimination of the royal houses of Spain and Portugal.
But there is an after-life, in a pagan nether world, where the players are to fulfill eternally the final judgment of Andrea. This presumably innocent and sympathetic character has become a horrifying figure of inexplicable power. Not only the guilty players, but Hieronimo and his pitiful wife, Andrea's loyal friend Horatio and his stricken lover Bel-imperia must die and suffer to satisfy Andrea's blood lust. Whatever Kyd's intent, to modern eyes Andrea may seem the greatest villain of all.

The one Christian note is struck in a subplot involving villainy within the Portuguese Court, where the treacherous Portuguese courtier Viluppo attempts to effect the overthrow of an honest courtier Alexandro by testifying falsely that the King's son had been killed in battle under circumstances discreditable to Alexandro. The plot is eventually discovered, Viluppo punished and Alexandro exonerated; although this episode has absolutely nothing to do with the central action, it may afford a Christian parallel to the pagan setting of the main plot. Alexandro is the one character who professes a deep Christian faith in the judgment of God. Exoneration is his reward and Viluppo is subjected to the appropriate punishment. In an otherwise coherent play, this subplot was seems to have been introduced for some specific purpose and suddenly abandoned without legs; perhaps it exists solely to provide an alternative Christian imperative.

Note especially the strong religious content of the additions to Act III, Scene 12, especially in matters of doctrine (grace, suicide, god's judgment etc.). Kyd (apparently because of his association with Marlowe) had fallen under suspicion of heresy, been questioned and possibly suffered permanent ill health as a result. Certainly The Spanish Tragedy implicitly endorses taking the law in one's own hands; this addition strongly amends that position.

Suggested Reading

Bevington, David, ed. Kyd, Thomas, The Spanish Tragedy. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1996. (This book is especially helpful in its discussion of pagan and Christian elements of the play, in discussion of current politics, and in clarifying stage directions.)

Boas, Frederick. The Works of Thomas Kyd. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1901. (an essential study of the works of Thomas Kyd, giving a biography, complete list of all works, full notes and analysis, and assessment of Kyd's important place in the development of Renaissance drama. This book is a must in the development of a comprehensive library of Renaissance drama.)

Nicholl, Charles. The Reckoning: the Murder of Christopher Marlowe. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1992. (an inquiry into Marlowe's relationship with the Elizabethan secret service and the circumstances of his death; theories about the possible involvement of the Earl of Essex.)
Spencer, Hazelton, ed. Elizabethan Plays. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1933.
Thorndike, Ashley, ed. The Minor Elizabethan Drama (Vol. 1). New York: Dutton, 1964.

APPENDIX II: Connections

Note that those passages that have parallels to the Bible, especially references to the after-life, are often diverted to a pagan context (except a passage of additions, presumably By Ben Jonson). The fiery lakes and rivers of Revelations and Matthew, for instance, are named as Acheron, Phlegethon and so forth; judgment is rendered by Andrea, a soldier who wants revenge for his death on the battlefield; without the moral compunctions of Hamlet, the great prototype for impulse within a "revenger" tragedy, Hieronimo seems to act without reference to any internal moral compass, his erratic movements directed by the amoral will of the "Revenger" character.

References by other authors

A significant reference to this play is found in the writings of Ben Jonson in 1614: "That he will swear Hieronimo or Andronicus are the best plays yet, shall pass ... as a man whose judgment shows it is constant, and hath stood still these five and twenty, or thirty years." Although this passage has been used to date the play Spanish Tragedy, it has curiously been ignored or interpreted liberally in dating Titus Andronicus. -- "Too early".
After time Kyd's work became the but of caricature and/or criticism by other authors. Heywood (The Fair Maid of the West), Fletcher (Knight of the Burning Pestle) and Shirley (The Bird in a Cage), among others took particular amusement at the appearance of the Ghost in the Induction.

In another passages Nashe took him to task for a misunderstanding of classic literature.
Kyd Sp Tr (I.1.72-74): ... I trod the middle path, / Which brought me to the fair Elysian green,
... Here finding Pluto with his Proserpine, ...
Nashe Preface to Menaphon: ... those that thrust Elysium into hell. Elysium correctly would have been placed in the far west, not in the underworld.

Act II, Scenes 4-5, was another subject for widespread caricature. It was parodied in The Poetaster, Barry (Ram Alley) and Rawlings (Rebellion). Shakespeare parodied Kyd's "naked bed" phrase (V.i.1) in Venus and Adonis (397): "Who sees his true love in her naked bed;" calls ... Jeronimo
Kyd Sp Tr (II.5.5) HIERONIMO: Who calls Hieronimo? Speak, here I am,
Chapman et al Eastward (I.1.122) QUICK: ... Who calls Jeronimo? Speak, here I am ...
This is undoubtedly a joke at Kyd's expense. It was a phrase in Act III, however that drew the most attention:
(III.2.31) HIERONIMO: Not I. Hieronimo, beware! Go by! Go by!,
being used in Shakespeare (Shrew), Dekker (Shoemaker's Holiday and Satiromax), Dekker and Webster (Westward Ho), Middleton (Blurt, Master Constable), and others.


Body ... Prison
Brooke Romeus (2548-50): That lo, his sprite annoyed sore with torment and with smart,
Was like to break out of his prison-house perforce,
And that he might fly after hers, would leave the massy corpse.
Lyly Campaspe (I.2.29-30) MANES: ... that my body was immortal because it was in prison.
(I.2.35) MANES: And the body is the prison of the soul?
(I.2.37-38)MANES: Why then, thus to make my body immortal, I put it to prison.
Kyd Sp Tr (Ind.1.1-2) GHOST: When this eternal substance of my soul
Did live imprisoned in my wanton flesh,
Shakes 3H6 (II.1) EDWARD: ... Now my soul's palace is become a prison:
Ah, would she break from hence, that this my body / Might in the ground be closed up in rest!

Narrow path ... Gate of Hell
Golding Abraham (32-33): He goeth right: and while he holds that way
He never needs to fear that he shall stray.
Kyd Sp Tr (Induction.63-71) The left-hand path, declining fearfully,
Was ready downfall to the deepest hell ,...
(III.11.768-8-) There is a path upon your left-hand side
That leadeth from a guilty conscience / Unto a forest of distrust and fear Ñ
A darksome place, and dangerous to pass:
There shall you meet with melancholy thoughts, / Whose baleful humors if you but uphold,
It will conduct you to Despair and Death ...
Lyly MB (III.2) MAESTIUS: ... these old saws of such old hags are but false fires
to lead one out of a plain path into a deep pit.
Shakes AWEW (4.5.50-51): I am for the House with the narrow gate.
AWEW (4.5.54-55) The flow'ry way that leads to the broad gate and the great fire.
Mac (II.3.18-19): That go the primrose way to th' everlasting bonfire.
Hamlet (I.3) Ophelia: ... Do not, as some ungracious pastors do,
Show me the steep and thorny way to heaven; / Whiles, like a puff'd and reckless libertine,
Himself the primrose path of dalliance treads, / And recks not his own rede.
See also Macbeth (2.3.18); T&C (III.3.154),
Anon. Willobie (LVIII.2): You seem by this, to wish me well, / To teach me tread the path to hell.
Dodypoll (III.3.25): Where every step shall reach the gate of death,
Bible "Burning, fiery lakes" see notes on (III.1.48, below).
Matt. 7.13-14 (13) Enter in at the strait gate, for it is a wide gate, and broad way that leadeth to destruction: and many there be that go in thereat, (14) Because the gate is straight, and the way narrow that leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it. Wisd. of Sol. 16.13 and leadeth down unto the gates of hell ... . See also Job 38.17; Pss. 9.13-14, 107.18, Pr. 4.19.

Religious Prohibitions: Usury
Kyd Sp Tr (I.1.63-): The left-hand path, declining fearfully,
Was ready downfall to the deepest hell, / Where bloody Furies shakes their whips of steel,
And poor Ixion turns an endless wheel; / Where usurers are choked with melting gold
Shakes 1H6 (III.1) GLOU: Thou art a most pernicious usurer,
MV (III.1) SHYLOCK: He was wont to / call me usurer; let him look to his bond: he was
wont to lend money for a Christian courtesy; let him / look to his bond.
R&J (III.3) FR LAWRENCE: Which, like a usurer, abound'st in all,
And usest none in that true use indeed / Which should bedeck thy shape, thy love, thy wit:
MUCH ADO (II.1) BEN: What fashion will you wear the garland of?
about your neck, like an usurer's chain? ...
MM (III.2) POMPEY: Twas never merry world since, of two usuries, the
merriest was put down, and the worser allowed by
order of law a furred gown to keep him warm; and
furred with fox and lamb-skins too, to signify, that
craft, being richer than innocency, stands for the facing.
Lear (III.2) FOOL: ... When usurers tell their gold i' the field;
And bawds and whores do churches build; Then shall the realm of Albion
Come to great confusion: ...
(IV.6) LEAR: ... The usurer hangs the cozener.
Through tatter'd clothes small vices do appear . Robes and furr'd gowns hide all.
Corio (I.1) 1 CITIZEN: ... crammed with grain; make edicts for usury, to
support usurers; repeal daily any wholesome act / established against the rich, ...
Timon (II.2) APE: Poor rogues and / usurers' men! bawds between gold and want!
FOOL: I think no usurer but has a fool to his servant: ...
(III.5) ALCI: Banish your dotage; banish usury, / That makes the Senate ugly.
(IV.3) TIMON: Pity not honour'd age for his white beard: / He is an usurer: ...
Lov. Comp. (6): Like usury, applying wet to wet,
Cymbeline (III.3) BELARUS: Did you but know the city's usuries
And felt them knowingly; the art o' the court / Is hard to leave as keep; ...
WT (IV.4) AUTOLY: Here's one to a very doleful tune, how a usurer's
wife was brought to bed of twenty money-bags at a
burthen and how she longed to eat adders' heads and / toads carbonadoed.
(IV.4) DORCAS: Bless me from marrying a usurer!
TNK (IV.3.31-34) JAILER'S DAUGHTER: ... If one be mad or
hang or drown themselves, thither they go, Jupiter
bless us, and there shall we be put in a cauldron of / lead and usurers' grease,
Sonnet 6: That use is not forbidden usury, / Which happies those that pay the willing loan;
Sonnet 134: Thou usurer, that put'st forth all to use / And sue a friend come debtor for my sake;
Anon. Nobody (148-49) CORNWELL: ... he's an honest subject
That hates extortion, usury, and such sins
(1567) SICOPHANT: ... Loves usury and extortion.
(1136-37) CORNWELL: Here are, my liege, bonds, forfeit by poor men,
Which he released out of the usurers' hands,
Greene's Groat (48-58): The other was a scholar, ...his sinful neighbor Refers to usury (per Carroll, p. 44) as follows: "for he had good experience in a Noverint, and by the universal terms therein contained had driven many a young gentleman to seek unknown countries
(114-17): ... Roberto, knowing his father and most of the company to be execrable usurers, inveighed mightily against that abhorred vice, insomuch that he urged tears from divers of their eyes, and compunction in some of their hearts.
(855-57): 6 Oppress no man, for the cry of the wronged ascendeth to the ears of the Lord; neither delight to increase by Usury, lest thou lose thy habitation in the everlasting Tabernacle.
(946-48): I know the best husband of you all will never prove an Usurer,
(Carroll explains that this means that the "best of them ... will prove" [or perhaps has turned out to be] an usurer., and explains that this passage refers to Lodge, who inveighed against usury. This seems to reverse the obvious meaning (the best ... of you all, will never [not] prove [be] an usurer. Carroll seems to be twisting and turning to make the sentence fit Shakespeare, known to have become a usurer.) Note: Carroll especially (Greene's Groatsworth) emphasizes the physical details of the usurer's dress: details in Groatsworth and Shakespeare (but not in the other examples shown below) such as the chain and furred robe strengthen the argument that Roberto's father is was purposely drawn on Lord Burghley. The ascendant merchant class had less distaste for usury than the old land-owning class; and Burghley (fur-robed and wearing the gold chain of office) had expressed a view that usury was an acceptable practice.
Peele Old Wives (386) FRIAR: The miserable and most covetous usurer.
Chettle Kind Harts: There is an occupation of no long standing about London called broking or brogging, whether ye will; in which there is pretty juggling, especially to blind law, and bolster usury: if any man be forced to bring them a pawn, they will take no interest, not past twelve pence a pound for the month; marry they must have a groat for a monthly bill: which is a bill of sale from month to month; so that no advantage can be taken for the usury.
Nashe Summers (501-02): SUMMER: Bad words, bad wit; oh, where
dwells faith or truth? / Ill usury my favors reap from thee,
Usurping Sol, the hate of heaven and earth.
(885-87) HARVEST: ... not like / the Baker's loaf, that should weigh but six ounces, but
usury for your money, thousands for one
Munday Huntington (IX.93-94): LITTLE JOHN: Fiftly, you never
shall the poor man wrong, / Nor spare a priest, a usurer, or a clerk.
Bible: usury condemned in many Biblical passages, including:
Ex. 22.25; Lev. 25.36,37; Neh. 5.7,10; Ez. 18.8, 13, 17; Deut. 23.19.20; Matt. 25.27; Pss. 15.5; Prov. 28.8; Isa.24.2; Luke 19.23.

Forged truth (lies, dissimulations)
Brooke Romeus (321): With forged careless cheer, of one he seeks to know,
Golding Ovid Met. (V.13): Upholding that Medusa's death was but a forged lie:
(IX.167): Through false and newly-forged lies that she herself doth sow),
Edwards Dam&Pith (1726): Away, the plague of this court! Thy filed tongue that forged lies
Watson Hek (XLVII): No shower of tears can move, she thinks I forge:
So forge, that I may speed without delay;
Greene Alphonsus (IV.Pro.21) VENUS: Did give such credence to that / forged tale
Kyd Sp Tr (I.2.92) VIL: Thus have I with an envious, forged tale ...
Sol&Per (II.1.117) PER: ... Ah, how thine eyes can forge alluring looks,
Shakes TA (V.2) TAMORA: ... Whate'er I forge to feed his brain-sick fits,
1H6 (III.1) EXETER: Burns under feigned ashes of forged love
(IV.1): VERNON: ... For though he seem with forged quaint conceit
Rich3 (IV.1) FITZWATER: ... And I will turn thy falsehood to thy heart, / Where it was forged,
Hamlet (I.5) ... the whole ear of Denmark
Is by a forged process of my death / Rankly abused: ...
V&A (132): Love is all truth, Lust full of forged lies.
Sonnet 137: Why of eyes' falsehood hast thou forged hooks, ...
AWEW (IV.1): 2d Lord: ... and then to return and swear the lies he forges.
Othello (IV.2): OTHELLO: I should make very forges of my cheeks, ...
Anon. Ironside (IV.1.101) EDM: not to believe each smooth-face forged tale.
(V.2.83) CANUTUS: Then to confute thy forged argument,
Arden (III.5.56) MOSBY: To forge distressful looks to wound a breast
Oldcastle (Pro.14): Since forged invention former time defaced.
Bible Pss 119.69, Job 13.4, Ecclus 51.2.

Blot ... Shame ... Dishonor ... Erase
Golding Ovid Met. (Pref.30): That all their Gods with whoredom, theft, or murder blotted be.
(VII.199): Of staining of thine honor had not stayed thee in that stead.
(XIII.599): Forbear to touch me. So my blood unstained in his sight
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (I.1.131) SERVUS: How could it be, that
knowing he had done / So foul a blot, he would remain alive?
(I.1.156) JOCASTA: With other's blood might stain his guilty hands,
Supposes (III) DAMON: My daughter is deflowered, and I utterly dishonested:
how can I then wipe that blot off my brow?
Kyd Sp Tr (I.1.233-) His colors seized, a blot unto his name;
Shakes Rich2 (I.3.202): My name be blotted from the book of life.
Edw3 (I.1) K. EDW: Such as dread nothing but dishonor's blot.
(II.1) COUNTESS: Hath he no means to stain my honest blood
Anon. Locrine (V.1.61-72) [V.1.61]THRAS: If princes stain their glorious dignity
With ugly spots of monstrous infamy,
Mucedorus (Pro.10): From blemished Traitors, stained with Perjury:
Woodstock (I.1.190) WOODSTOCK: And shun those stains that blurs his majesty.
Weakest (XIV.20-21) DYANA: Without impeachment of our honest fame,
Debarring wicked lust to blot the same.
(XVI.169-70) EPERNOUNE: Oh wherefore stain you virtue and renown
With such foul terms of ignominy and shame?
Willobie (II.4): Repel the shame that fears a blot
(XLII.8): Then raze me out, and blot my name. (Rev. 3.5)
Ironside (II.3.175: to raze out this dishonorable blot
(this language parallel is almost identical to Willobie, above).
L Gh. (64): My fame is blotted out, my honor scarred,
(1336-67): Can this injurious world so quickly blot / A name so great out of records of fame?
Yorkshire 1 GENT: Still do these loathsome thoughts jar on your tongue?
Yourself to stain the honor of your wife,
KNIGHT: ... From such an honored stock and fair descent,
Till this black minute without stain or blemish.
KNIGHT: The desolation of his house, the blot / Upon his predecessors' honored name!
Bible Ex. 32.32-33; Num. 5.23; Ps. 69.28; Rev. 3.5.

Stone ... Roll
Golding Ovid Met. (IV.569-70): There also labored Sisyphus that drave against the hill
A rolling stone that from the top came tumbling downward still.
(X.48-49): ... and down sat Sisyphus upon / His rolling stone.
Oxford poem (XVII If care or skill ...): My hapless hap doth roll the restless stone.
Watson Hek (LXII): [Comment] Sisyphus rolleth a great round stone up
a steep hill, which being once at the top presently falleth down amain.
[Verse] By fear, like Sisyphus I labor still
To turle a rolling stone against the hill,
Kyd Sp Tr (I.1.316-18)VICEROY: What help can be expected at her hands,
Whose foot is standing on a rolling stone / and mind more mutable than fickle winds?
(IV.1.528-29) GHOST: Let Serberine go roll the fatal stone, / And take from Sisyphus his endless moan;
Greene Orl Fur (II.2.71) ORLANDO: The rolling stone, the tubs of the Belides --
Shakes H5 (III.6) PISTOL: Bardolph, a soldier, firm and sound of heart,
And of buxom valor, hath, by cruel fate, / And giddy Fortune's furious fickle wheel,
That goddess blind, / That stands upon the rolling restless stone--
H8 (V.3) SUFF: ... When ye first put this dangerous stone a-rolling, / 'Twould fall upon ourselves.
Anon. Locrine (III.2.50) HUBBA: Or roll the stone with wretched Sisiphos.
Ironside (770) EDRICUS: ... for else in time you might dismount the queen
and throw her headlong from her rolling stone / and take her whirling wheel into your hand.
(1062-63) CANUTUS: What tell'st thou me of Fortune and her frowns, / of her sour visage and her rolling stone?
Willobie (LVI.2): To roll the stone that turns again.
(LVII.3): And shall I roll the restless stone?
Bible 1 Sam. 14.33 ... Ye have transgressed: roll a great stone unto me this day.
Prov. 26.27 Whoso diggeth a pit shall fall therein: and he that rolleth a stone, it will return upon him. A number of new Testament roll ... stone finds seem inappropriate.
Most of the examples above refer to the classical/pagan rolling stone of Fortune/Fate, or to the mythological punishment of Sisyphus.

Brooke Romeus (To the Reader): So the good doings of the good, & the evil acts of the wicked
Gascoigne Jocasta (I.1.395-96) ANT: Yet, for because itself partaker am
Of good and evil with this my country soil,
(II.1.456) JOCASTA: If the head be evil the body cannot be good.
(III.1..195) TIRESIAS: Though evil for thee, yet for thy country good.
Edwards Dam&Pith (1583): It is an evil wind that bloweth no man good.
Lyly Sapho (II.2.) SAPHO: It is pity in so good a face there should be an evil eye.
Kyd Sp Tr (I.2.339) ALEX: Nay, evil news fly faster still than good.
Shakes Rich3 (I.3.334): do good for evil. Also I.2.69 and I.3.315-16.
TNK (I.2.38-40) ARCITE: It is for our residing where every evil
Hath a good color, where every seeming good's / A certain evil,
Anon. Willobie (To the ... Reader): That speak good of evil, and evil of good
Willobie seems a perfect inversion of both the Bible and Shakespeare citations.
Bible 1 Thess. 5.15 See that none recompense evil for evil unto any man; but ever follow that which is good. 1 Sam. 24,18 Thou art more righteous than I; for thou has rendered me good, and I have rendered thee evil. Rom. 12.21 Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with goodness.

Bull ... Savage
Watson Hek (XLVII): In time the Bull is brought to wear the yoke;
In time all haggard Hawks will stoop the Lures;
In time small wedge will cleave the sturdiest Oak;
In time the Marble wears with weakest showers:
More fierce is my sweet love, more hard withal,
Than Beast, or Bird, than Tree or Stony wall.
No yoke prevails, she will not yield to might;
No Lure will cause her stoop, she bears full gorge;
No wedge of woes make print, she recks no right;
No shower of tears can move, she thinks I forge:
Note: Watson cites Seraphine, Sonnet 103 as the original of his translation.
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.3-8): ... In time the savage bull sustains the yoke,
In time all haggard hawks will stoop to lure,
In time small wedges cleave the hardest oak,
In time the flint is pierced with softest shower;
And she in time will fall from her disdain
And rue the suff'rance of your friendly pain.
Shakes: Much Ado (I.1): ... 'In time the savage bull / doth bear the yoke.'
BEN: The savage bull may; but if ever the sensible / Benedick bear it, ...
(V.4) CLAUD: I think he thinks upon the savage bull. ...

Hawk ... Haggard (a Shakespeare marker?)
Golding Abraham (680-81): SATAN: My case goes ill. O Cowl we must yet find
Some other way t'assault this haggard's mind.
Oxford poems: The stricken deer hath help to heal his wound,
The haggard hawk with toil is made full tame;
To mark the choice they make, and how they change,
How oft from Phoebus do they flee to Pan,
Unsettled still like haggards wild they range,
These gentle birds that fly from man to man;
Who would not scorn and shake them from the fist
And let them fly fair fools which way they list.
OED cites as first comparisons to women in Euphues and Shrew:
Lyly Euphues (Arb.) 114 Foolish and franticke louers, will deeme
my precepts hard, and esteeme my perswasions haggarde.
Watson Hek (XLVII): In time all haggard Hawks will stoop the Lures;
Kyd Sp Tr (ca. 1588) (II.1.4): ... In time all haggard hawks will stoop to lure,
Shakes Shrew (1596) (IV.1) PET: ... My falcon now is sharp and passing empty;
And till she stoop she must not be full-gorged,
For then she never looks upon her lure.
Another way I have to man my haggard,
To make her come and know her keeper's call,
That is, to watch her, as we watch these kites
That bate and beat and will not be obedient. ...
Edw3 (III.5)KING EDW: ... And ever after she'll be haggard-like.
(IV.2) HOR: I will be married to a wealthy widow,
As I have loved this proud disdainful haggard.
Oth (III.3): ... If I do prove her haggard, / Though that her jesses were my dear heartstrings,
I'll whistle her off and let her down the wind, / That comes before his eye. ...
Other early non-female-related OED citations for "haggard": Stanyhurst Aeneas (1583);
Turberville (1567) Epitaphs: Live like a haggard still therefore, and for no luring;
that haggard wise doth love to live;
Nashe, Christ's Tears (1593): Though Christ hold out never so moving
lures unto us, / all of them (haggard-like) we will turn tail to
Anon. Willobie (X.2): In haggard Hawk that mounts so high
(LXIII.1): As haggard loving mirthless coup, / At friendly lure doth check and frown?
Blame not in this the Falconer's skill, / But blame the Hawk's unbridled will.
(LXVII.3): They do but fruitless pain procure / To haggard kites that cast the lure.
(LXXIIII.3): When fish as haggard Hawks shall fly,
(Res.17): Cease then your suits, ye lusty gallants all, / Think not I stoop at every Falconer's call,
Truss up your lures, your luring is in vain, / Chosen is the Perch, whereon I will remain.
Willobie contains many other related hawking terms.

Labor lost
Golding Abraham (Pro.13): That both of us our labor lose togither.
Watson Hek (XXVI): Since labor breeds but loss, and lets me starve;
(XXXI): For if he do, his labor is but lost,
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.18): And being worthless, all my labor's lost.
Greene James 4 (II.1.200) ATEUKIN: I see this labor lost, my hope in vain;
Shakes Play title Love's Labours Lost
3 H6 (III.1) HENRY VI: ... Poor queen and son, your labour is but lost; ...
TGV (I.1) VAL: ... If lost, why then a grievous labour won;
SPEED: Ay sir: I, a lost mutton, gave your letter to her,
a laced mutton, and she, a laced mutton, gave me, a / lost mutton, nothing for my labour.
MV (II.7) MOROCCO: ... Cold, indeed; and labour lost:
AWEW (III.5) WIDOW: We have lost our labour; they are gone a contrary / way ...
WT (IV.4) AUTOLYCUS: Age, thou hast lost thy labour.
Anon. Arden (IV.3.16) WILL: My life for thine, 'twas Arden and his companion,
and then all our labor's lost.
Willobie (XVI.1): Assure yourself your labor's lost.
(XXVIII.5): The labor's lost that you endure,
(XXXIX.3): Your labor's lost, your hope is vain.

Legal term: Case stands
Brooke Romeus (1696): The tidings of your health and how your doubtful case shall stand;
Edwards Dam&Pith (1256) GRIM: Good fellows, believe me, as the case now stands ...,
(1600) PITHIAS: Let me have no wrong. As now stands the case
Golding Abraham (Pro.22): Were as you be not, now as stands the case.
(341) SHEPHERDS SONG: Because, as stood the case,
Watson Hek (XXXVI): My letters tell in what a case I stand,
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.45) LORENZO: Thus stands the case: It is not long, thou knowest,
Anon. Weakest (XVIII.215) VILLIERS: My Lord of Bulloigne, thus then stands my case,
Shakes 3H6 (IV.5): Were as you be not, now as stands the case.
R&J (III.5) NURSE: Then, since the case so stands as now it doth,
WT (II.3) PAULINA: For, as the case now stands, it is a curse ...
Cymb (I.5) QUEEN: ... The case stands with her; do't as from thyself.
(III.4) IMOGEN: ... yet the traitor / Stands in worse case of woe.

Duty ... Bound
Gascoigne ... Jocasta (I.1.20) SERVUS: For hereunto I am by duty bound,
Edwards Dam&Pith (747): EUB: But yet, O might [king], my duty bindeth me.
(1758) EUBULUS: But chiefly yet, as duty bindeth, I humbly crave
Shakes 1H6 (II.1) TALBOT: How much in duty I am bound to both.
Oth (I.3) DES: I do perceive here a divided duty: / To you I am bound for life and education;
(III.3) IAGO: Though I am bound to every act of duty, ...
(III.3) IAGO: To show the love and duty that I bear you
Lucrece (Prologue): Were my worth greater, my duty would show greater,
meantime, as it is bound to your lordship ,...
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.59) PEDRINGANO: My bounden duty bids me tell the truth,
Sol&Per (V.2.66) 2 WITNESS: And, as our duty and allegiance bound us,
Greene Alphonsus (III.1.24) ALPH: So that, perforce, I must by duty be
Bound to you all for this your courtesy.
Anon Dodypoll (I.1): O, that my rival bound me not in duty ...
Cromwell (I.2.97-98) CROM: With all my heart, sir, and / I much am bound,
In love and duty for your kindness shown.

Birds, limed
Golding Ovid Met (XV.520): Away with guileful feats: for fowls no lime-twigs see ye set.
Lyly Gallathea (III.3.) ASTRON: When I list I can set a trap for the sun,
catch the moon with lime-twigs, and go a-batfowling for stars
MB (II.5) STELLIO: The better it is, the more like birdlime it is,
and never makes one stayed but in the stocks
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.128): Which sweet conceits are lim'd with sly deceits,
Shakes 2H6 (I.3) SUFF: Madam, myself have limed a bush for her,
And placed a quire of such enticing birds,
(II.4) DUCHESS: And York and impious Beaufort, that false priest,
Have all limed bushes to betray thy wings, / And, fly thou how thou canst, they'll tangle thee:
(III.2) CARDINAL: Like lime-twigs set to catch my winged soul.
3H6 (V.6): HENRY VI: The bird that hath been limed in a bush,
With trembling wings misdoubteth every bush; / And I, the hapless male to one sweet bird,
Have now the fatal object in my eye / Where my poor young was limed, was caught and kill'd.
TGV (III.2) PROTEUS: You must lay lime to tangle her desires
Much Ado (III.1): URSULA: She's limed, I warrant you: we have caught her, madam.
AWEW (III.5): MAR: but that they are limed with the twigs that threaten them.
Hamlet (III.3) CLAUDIUS: O limed soul, that struggling to be free / art more engaged!
(III.3) CLAUDIUS: that fast-holding bird-lime of death.
Mac (IV.2.34): the net nor lime, / the pitfall nor the gin
Lucrece (13) Birds never limed no secret bushes fear
Anon. Arden (III.6.39) GREENE: Lime well your twigs to catch this weary bird.
Willobie (XXXVI.1): The limed bird, by fowlers train, / Entrapped by view of pleasant bait,
Would fain unwind himself again, / But feels too late the hid deceit;]
So I have found the clasping lime / That will stick fast for longer time.
(Res.8): Thus did I scape the fowler's painted skill, / Thus did I save my feathers from their lime,
Greene's Groat (211-13): Lucanio was by his brother brought to the bush,
where he had scarce pruned his wings but he was fast limed ...
Bible Ps. 3.5 and 35.7 deals with snares and nets.
See also Augustine Confessions (6.6.9): for reference to lime

Help ... Cry ... Speak
Boas points out a direct borrowing in Arden of Feversham from the earlier Spanish Tragedy:
Kyd Sp Tr (II.4.62-63 and 5.1-4) BEL: Murder! Murder! Help, Hieronimo, help!
LORENZO: Come, stop her mouth; away with her.
HIERONIMO: What outcries pluck me from my naked bed
And chill my throbbing heart with trembling fear,
Which never danger yet could daunt before? / Who calls Hieronimo? Speak, here I am,
Anon. Arden (III.1.85-89)MICHAEL: ... Ah, Master Franklin, help!
Call up the neighbors, or we are but dead!
FRANKLIN: What dismal outcry calls me from my rest?
ARDEN: What hath occasioned such a fearful cry? / Speak, Michael; hath any injured thee?

Fear ... Trembling
Brooke Romeus (17): Within my trembling hand, my pen doth / shake for fear,
Golding Ovid (III.869): I only did remain nigh straught and trembling still for fear.
(VI.664): ... There waxing pale and trembling sore for fear,
(VIII.488): And trembling turned his back for fear. ...
(VIII.982): Unwieldsome cold, with trembling fear, ...
(X.472): Poor nurse gan quake, and trembling both for age and fear did hold
(XI.838): And unto Ceyx stretching out her trembling hands with fear,
Kyd Sp Tr (II.5.309) HIER: And chill my throbbing heart with trembling fear,
Marlowe Edw2 (V.5.104): This fear is that which makes me tremble thus;
Anon. Locrine (IV.2.39-40) STRUMBO: Now, although I
trembled, fearing she would set her ten commandments
(V.I.54) THRASI: That he should fear and tremble at the looks
Woodstock (V.1) WOOD: put by the fears my trembling heart foretells
Weakest (VI.80) EMANUEL: How darest thou but with trembling and with fear
Arden (III.1.95) MICHAEL: My trembling joints witness my inward fear.
Willobie (LXIII.2): Doth aye redouble trembling fear
Penelope (XLVII.1): With trembling fear my heart doth quake.
Shakes 2H4 (4.3.14) fear and trembling; Much Ado (2.3.195)
Edw3 (II.2) WARWICK: When vassal fear lies trembling at his feet.
Bible Eph. 6.5; Mark 5.33, 2 Corin. 7.15. Phil. 2.12 So make an end of your own salvation with fear and trembling.

All's well ... Ends well ... Crown
Kyd Sp Tr (II.6.448) REVENGE: The end is crown of every work well done.
Shakes 2H6 (V.2) CLIFFORD: La fin couronne les oeuvres.
2H4 (II.2.47): Let the end try the man.
AWEW (IV.4): AllÕs well that ends well. Still the fineÕs the crown.
WhatÕer the course, the end is the renown.
(V.3334-35): All yet seems well; and if it end so meet,
The bitter past, more welcome is the sweet.
(V.3.337): All is well ended if this suit be won ...
T&C (IV.5): The end crowns all
Greene Geo a Greene (III.2.44) GEORGE: Nay the end tries all; but so it will fall out.
Anon. Woodstock (IV.3) WOOD: and bloody acts, I fear, must crown the end.
Ironside (III.6.1112) EDR: Praise the event, my lord: the end is all.
Greene's Groat: Acta Exitus probat: The end tests/proves the deeds (all).
Lyly MB (III.4) MOTHER B: All shall end well, and you be found cozeners.
Oxford letter (Jan, 1602, to Sir Robert Cecil): Finis coronat opus ("The end crowns the workÓ).
Bible Ecclus. 11.27 In a man's end, his works are discovered
Tilley proverb E116: The end crowns all.

Flattering courtiers/lovers
Kyd Sol&Per (I.5.56) HALEB: Why, his highness gave me leave to speak my will;
And, far from flattery, I spoke my mind, / And did discharge a faithful subject's love.
Thou, Aristippus-like, did'st flatter him,
(I.5.75-78) HALEB: Your highness knows I spake at your command,
and to the purpose, far from flattery.
AMURATH: Thinks thou I flatter? Now I flatter not.
(II.1.68) ERASTUS: They will betray me to Philippo's hands, / For love, or gain, or flattery.
Sp Tr (III.1.9) HIER: Sith fear or love to kings is flattery.
Greene James IV: A treacherous courtier also moved the action.
(Pro) BOH: No, no; flattering knaves that can cog and prate fastest, / speed best in the court.
(I.1.53) KING ENG.: Make choice of friends, ... / Who soothe no vice, who flatter not for gain,
(I.1.187) ATEUKIN: Most gracious and imperial majesty ...
A little flattery more were but too much.
(I.1.277) ATEUKIN: Did not your Grace suppose I flatter you,
There are 16 similar uses of "flatterer" in James IV.
Shakes V&A (69): Dismiss your vows, your feigned tears, your flattery;
Anon. Ironside (1730) EDR: Twas not your highness but some fawning mate
that put mistrust into your grace's head, ...
Willobie (XI.3): For who can trust your flattering style,
(LVII.3): With flattering tongues, & golden gifts, / To drive poor women to their shifts.
(LVIII.5): Their tongues are fraught with flattering guile;
(LXVI.3): Though flattering tongues can paint it brave,

Feign ... Love
Kyd Sp Tr (III.1.20) VILUPPO: That feigned love had colored in his looks
Sol&Per (IV.1.168) ERASTUS: Witness the heavens of my unfeigned love.
Brooke Romeus (266): And well he wist she loved him best, unless she list to feign.
Oxford letter (October 31, 1572, to Lord Burghley): But yet, least those (I can not tell how to term them) but as back-friends unto me.
(September 1596, to Sir Robert Cecil): Enemies are apt to make the worst of every thing, flatterers will do evil offices, and true and faithful advice will seem harsh to tender ears.
Shakes V&A (69): Dismiss your vows, your feigned tears, your flattery;
1H6 (V.3): That Suffolk doth not flatter, face, or feign.
Errors (IV.2) DROMIO/SYR: ... A wolf, nay, worse, a fellow all in buff;
A back-friend, a shoulder-clapper, one that
Anon. L Gh. (623): How some with feigned love did me beguile,
Willobie Feigned love: (VIII.5): Still feign as though thou godly art,
(IX.6): To bear a show, and yet to feign,
(XI.6):To faithless heart, to lie and feign,
(XXX.1): How fine they feign, how fair they paint,
(LV.II): Assure yourself, I do not feign, / Requite my love with love again.
(praise/contented ): As in the feigned love that lives with discontented mind.
Bible II Samuel Argument: ... what horrible & dangerous insurrections, uproars, & treasons were wrought against him, partly by false counselors, feigned friends & flatterers, and partly by some of his own children and people and how by God's assistance he overcame all difficulties, and enjoyed his kingdom in rest and peace. In the person of David the Scripture setteth forth the Christ Jesus the chief King, who came of David according to the flesh, and was persecuted on every side with outward and inward enemies, as well as in his own person, as in his members, but at length he overcometh all his enemies and give his Church victory against all power both spiritual & temporal: and so reigneth with them, King for evermore.

Laboring soul
Kyd Sp Tr (III.1.43) ALEX: But this, oh this, torments my laboring soul,
Anon. Dodypoll (II.3.114): With nothing true but what our laboring souls
Shakes Hamlet (IV.5) CLAUD: We shall jointly labor with your soul ...
Bible Possible source in Eccles. 2.24.

Fires, Unquenched, Everlasting
Kyd Note below the fusion of classical (pagan) and Biblical images.
Sp Tr (III.1.48-50) ... Bind him and burn his body in those flames
That shall prefigure those unquenched fires / Of Phlegethon, prepared for his soul.
(IV.5.67) REVENGE: This hand shall hale them down to deepest hell,
Where none but furies, bugs and tortures dwell. ...
Shakes Rich2 (5.5.108): That hand shall burn in never-quenching fire.
Titus (III.1.242): Be my heart an ever-burning hell!; (also III.1.273-74)
(V.1.148): ... To live and burn in everlasting fire, ...
Macbeth (II.3.18-19): That go the primrose way to th' everlasting bonfire.
Anon. Willobie (XXXI.3): My heart inflamed with quenchless heat,
Doth fretting fume in secret fire,
Bible Mark 9.43 the fire that never shall be quenched. Matt. 25,41 everlasting fire; Rev. 21.8. Matt. 25.46 And these shall go into everlasting pain, and the righteous into life eternal. Rev. 19.20 ... cast into a lake of fire, burning with brimstone. Rev. 21.8 ... the lake, which burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.

Heart ... Tongue
Golding Ovid Met. (XI.654): In heart was she, in tongue was she: ...
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (II.1.105) POLY: His tongue should never with his heart agree.
Lyly Campaspe (IV.2.4-5) CAMPASPE: Tush, better thy tongue wag than thy heart break.
(IV.2.25-26) CAMPASPE: If your tongue were made of the same flesh that your heart is,
(IV.2.31) CAMPASPE: Whet their tongues on their hearts.
Love's Met. (IV.2) PROTEA: ... the face of a virgin but the heart of a fiend,
whose sweet tongue sheddeth more drops of blood than it uttereth syllables.
MB (II.1.105) POLY: and like with her heart / before she consent with her tongue.
(V.4) CELIA: as though our hearts were tied to their tongues
Kyd Sp Tr (III.1.175): HIER: My grief no heart, my thoughts no tongue can tell.
(IV.1.473) HIER: First take my tongue and afterwards my heart. [He bites out his tongue.]
Shakes 24 examples, including:
2H6 (III.1): But that my heart accordeth with my tongue,
LLL (V.2): A heavy heart bears not a nimble tongue:
Edw3 (III.2) K. EDWARD: Thus from the heart's aboundant speaks the tongue:
MM (I.4): tongue far from heart--play with all virgins so:
Coriolanus (III.2): Must I with base tongue give my noble heart
JC (II.4): Set a huge mountain 'tween my heart and tongue!
Anon. Weakest (V.18-19) UGO: Of whence are you? Speak quickly, least my sword
Prevent your tongues by searching of your hearts.
Willobie (XXXIV.1): My heart is strong, though tongue be weak, ...
(XLII.6) My pen doth write, my heart hath swore, My tongue such speech shall use no more.
(LXIII.1) My tongue, my hand, my ready heart, / That spake, that felt, that freely thought,
Chapman D'Olive [I.1.234-35] RODERIGUE: ... too too manifest signs that her heart
went hand-in-hand with her tongue.

Breed ... Suspicion/Suspect
Kyd Sp Tr (III.1.217) LORENZO: ... For Bel-Imperia breeds suspicion,
Greene Orl Fur (II.1.82) SACRE: Which well may breed suspicion of some love.
Shakes 2H6 (I.3) GLOU: Because in York this breeds suspicion ...
H8 (III.1) CARD: I am sorry my integrity should breed ... so deep suspicion.
Anon. Weakest (V.107) ODILLIA: If this may breed suspicion of my love,
Ironside (IV.4.26): EDRICUS: To stay long here would breed suspicion.
Dodypoll (V.2.135): Ere I'll offend your Grace or breed suspect [suspicion].
Leic Gh (1522): And breed suspicion in the prince's heart.

Repent ... Folly
Edwards Dam&Pith (112) GRONNO: Then, come on your ways; you must
to prison in haste. / I fear you will repent this folly at last.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.6.404) HIER: Confess thy folly and repent thy fault;
Greene Fr Bac (V.3.36) BACON: Repentant for the follies of my youth,
Anon. Willobie (XXVIII.2): But they repent their folly past,
Nashe Summers (1434) WINTER: Wish'd, with repentance for his folly past,
Shakes H5 (III.6): ... England shall repent his folly, ...

Commandments: Blood for Blood; Eye for Eye, etc.
Golding Ovid met (XV.195): By slaughter: neither nourish blood with blood in any case.
Gascoigne ... Jocasta (II.1.546-47) POLY: And who is he that seeks to have my blood,
And shall not shed his own as fast as mine?
(IV.1.253-54) CHORUS: Can flesh of flesh, alas can blood of blood,
So far forget itself, as slay itself?
(IV.1.334) CREON: Why should my blood be spilt for other's guilt?
Marlowe T2 (IV.1.145) JERU: And with our bloods, revenge our bloods on thee
Kyd Sp Tr (III.6.410-12) HIER: Peace, impudent; for thou shalt find it so;
For blood with blood shall, while I sit as judge, / Be satisfied, and the law discharg'd.
Greene Fr Bac (IV.3.51) SERLS: Who will revenge his father's blood with blood.
Shakes 1H6 (IV.6) TALBOT: And misbegotten blood I spill of thine,
Mean and right poor, for that pure blood of mine
King John (I.1) KING: Here have we war for war and blood for blood,
(II.1) 1 CIT: Blood hath bought blood and blows have answered blows
R&J (III.1) LADY CAP: For blood of ours, shed blood of Montague.
Mac (III.4) MAC: It will have blood, they say. Blood will have blood.
Anon. Arden (V.5.10-11) ALICE: And let me meditate upon my Savior Christ,
Whose blood must save me for the blood I shed.
Penelope's Comp. (L.2): For blood shall I pay blood again.
Bible Gen. 3.6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.
Num. 35. (27) And the revenger of blood find him without the borders of the city of his refuge, and the revenger of blood kill the slayer; he shall not be guilty of blood:
(33) So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are: for blood it defileth the land: and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it.
1 Kings 21.19 Thus saith the Lord, In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine.
Matt. 23.35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.

Innocent/Guilty blood ... Drink blood
Edwards Dam&Pith (796-97): ... whereas no truth my innocent life can save,
But that so greedily you thirst my guiltless blood to have,
(1472) EUBULUS: Who knoweth his case and will not melt in tears?
His guiltless blood shall trickle down anon.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.11.25-29) HIER: A habitation for their cursed souls,
There, in a brazen cauldron, fixed by Jove, / In his fell wrath, upon a sulfur flame,
Yourselves shall find Lorenzo bathing him / In boiling lead and blood of innocents.
Anon. Woodstock (V.1): ... and my sad conscience bids the contrary
and tells me that his innocent blood thus spilt heaven will revenge.
Fam Vic. (814) ARCH: Not minding to shed innocent blood, is rather content
Ironside (V.1.70): thirst not to drink the blood of innocents.
(V.2.159) EDRICUS: and made a sea with blood of innocents; innocent blood:
Shakes 1H6 (V.iv.44): Stained with the guiltless blood of innocents.
Rich3 (I.2.63) O earth! Which this blood drink'st, revenge his death!
Anon. Willobie (IX.5): A guilty conscience always bleeds
(XIII.2): I rather choose a quiet mind, / A conscience clear from bloody sins,
Bible Deut. 21.9: The cry of innocent blood.; Deut. 32.35. Jer. 2.34: In thy wings is found the blood of the souls of the poor innocents. Genesis 4.11: which hath opened thy mouth to receive thy brother's blood ... . Rom. 12.19, 13.4

Come with ... thunder
Kyd Sp Tr (III.11.754) HIER: They do not always 'scape, that is some comfort,
Aye, aye, aye; and then time steals on, / And steals, and steals, till violence leaps forth
Like thunder wrapped in a ball of fire,
Shakes H5 (II.4) EXETER: Therefore in fierce tempest is he coming,
In thunder and in earthquake, like a Jove, ...
MM (II.2) ISA: Could great men thunder / As Jove himself does, Jove would ne'er be quiet,
For every pelting, petty officer / Would use his heaven for thunder;
Cymb (V.4) LEONATUS: He came in thunder; ...
PP (5): Thine eye Jove's lightning seems, thy voice his dreadful thunder,
Anon. Dodypoll (III.4.14:): I come with thunder.
Weakest (XIII.84-85): Yet doth he look as big as Hercules,
And would be thought to have a voice like thunder.
Greene's Groat (892-93): he hath spoken unto me with a voice of thunder, ...
Bible 1 Sam. 7-10 ... but the Lord thundered with a great thunder that day ..., ; 1 Sam. 12.17-18 I shall call upon the Lord and he shall send thunder and rain, ... Then Samuel called upon the Lord, and the Lord sent thunder and rain the same day: ...;
2 Sam. 22.14; Ps. 77; Rev. 6.1, 14.12, 19.6

Burning/Fiery Lakes -- Acheron, the fiery lake of Greek mythology
Golding Ovid Met. (669-70): Save only one Ascalaphus whom Orphne, erst a dame
Among the other elves of Hell not of the basest fame,
Bare to her husband Acheron within her dusky den.
Kyd Sp Tr (I. Ind.19-20): When I was slain, my soul descended straight
To pass the flowing stream of Acheron: ...
(III.12.800): ... And 'twixt his teeth he holds a fire-brand
That leads unto the lake where hell doth stand.
(III.16.1405-07) GHOST: To combat Acheron and Erebus.
For ne'er, by Styx and Phlegethon in hell, / O'er-ferried Charon to the fiery lakes
(IV.4.227-28) VICEROY: Or to the loathsome pool of Acheron,
To weep my want for my sweet Balthazar:
Anon. Willobie (LVIII.2): Who so with filthy pleasure burns;
His sinful flesh with fiery flakes
Must be consumed; whose soul returns / To endless pain in burning lakes.
(XVIII.2): And dings them down to fiery lake.
Locrine (III.6.51-54) HUM: Through burning sulfur of the Limbo-lake,
To allay the burning fury of that heat / That rageth in mine everlasting soul.
(IV.2.62-64) HUMBER: The hunger-bitten dogs of Acheron,
Chased from the nine-fold Puriflegiton, / Have set their footsteps in this damned ground.
(IV.4.17) HUMBER: You damned ghosts of joyless Acheron,
Dodypoll (III.3.16): Eternal penance in the lake of fire.
Shakes MND (III.2) OBERON: The starry welkin cover thou anon
With drooping fog as black as Acheron,
TA (IV.3) TITUS: He doth me wrong to feed me with delays.
I'll dive into the burning lake below, / And pull her out of Acheron by the heels. ...
Macbeth (III.5) MAC: But make amends now: get you gone, / And at the pit of Acheron
Chapman D'Olive (IV.1.51-52) VANDOME: Of Heaven, and Earth, and deepest Acheron;
Bible Matt. 25.41, 46; Rev. 21.8.

Legal term: Importunate suit
Brooke Romeus (2275): And with importune suit the parents doth he pray,
Oxford (11-24, 1569, to Sir Wm Cecil): Thus leaving to importunate you with my earnest suit ....
Kyd Sp Tr (III.13.46-47) SERVANT: Here are a sort of poor petitioners
That are importunate, and it shall please you, sir,
Anon. Dodypoll (I.3.4): Why being (of late) with such importunate suit.
Shakes Oth (IV.1) IAGO: By their own importunate suit.
Crucifixion: Judas ... Red hair: Judas was commonly believed to be a red-haired man.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.12.98-99) Oh, let them be worse, worse: stretch thine art, and let their
beards be of Judas his own color; and let their eyebrows ...
Shakes AsYou (III.4) ROSALIND: His very hair is of the dissembling colour. ...
ROSALIND: I' faith, his hair is of a good colour
Middleton Chaste Maid (III.2): ... Sure that was Judas with the red beard.

Quiet rest
Brooke Romeus (1854): So we her parents in our age, shall live in quiet rest.
(2100): I never gave my weary limbs long time of quiet rest,
(2542): In heaven hath she sought to find a place of quiet rest.
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (V.5.43) OED: Have greatest need to crave their quiet rest.
Oxford Poem: Who first did break thy sleeps of quiet rest ?
Kyd Sp Tr (III.13.1089-90) HIER: ... will I rest me in unrest, / Dissembling quiet in unquietness.
Shakes: Rich3 (V.3) BLUNT: ... And so, God give you quiet rest to-night!
King John (III.4) PANDULPH: One minute, nay, one quiet breath of rest ...
Greene Alphonsus (III.2.95) CALCHAS: Shall nere my ghost obtain his quiet rest?
James (V.1.80) Queen: How can it thrive or boast of quiet rest?
Anon. Woodstock (IV.3) BUSHY: her quiet soul rests in celestial peace:
Willobie (XLIIII.1): What sudden chance or change is this, / That doth bereave my quiet rest?
Greene's Groat (526-27): that we might rest quietly / without ... disturbing.
Oldcastle (V.8) LADY COBHAM: But where, my Lord / Shall we find rest for our disquiet minds?
Bible 1 Kings Arg. Because the children of God should look for no continual rest and quietness in this world ...

End ... Life
Brooke Romeus (2026: Will bring the end of all her cares by ending careful life.
Ovid Ovid Met. (XIV.156: Eternal and of worldly life I should none end have seen,
Gascoigne Jocasta (III.1.262) MENECEUS: Brings quiet end to this unquiet life.
(V.2.27) CREON: What hapless end thy life alas hath hent.
I loathe not life, nor dread my end.
Oxford poetry (My mind to me a kingdom is): I loathe not life, nor dread my end.
Watson Hek (XXXVI, comment): abandoning all further desire of life,
hath in request untimely death, as the only end of his infelicity.
Lyly Endymion (I.2) TELLUS: Ah Floscula, thou rendest my heart in sunder,
in putting me in remembrance of the end.
FLOSCULA: Why, if this be not the end, all the rest is to no end.
(II.1) TELLUS: She shall have an end.
ENDYMION: So shall the world.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.13.8-11) HIERONIMO: For evils unto ills conductors be,
And death's the worst of resolution. / For he that thinks with patience to contend
To quiet life, his life shall easily end.
Sol&Per (V.2.120) SOLIMAN: So let their treasons with their lives have end.
Shakes Lucrece (1208): My life's foul deed, my life's fair end shall free it.
Anon. Willobie (III.4): That is to lead a filthy life, / Whereon attends a fearful end:
Bible Wisdom 5.4 We fools thought his life madness, and his end without honor; Ecclus. 11.27: In a man's end, his works are discovered; Job 34.36.

Entreat ... Company
Kyd Sp Tr (III.14.166): Let us entreat your company today.
Marlowe Massacre (IV.246-47) MAN: And most humbly entreats your Majesty
To visit him sick in his bed.
Edw2 (I.2.78) BISHOP:ÊÊAnd in the mean time I'll entreat you all
To cross to Lambeth and there stay with me.
Shakes TGV (I.1) VAL: I rather would entreat thy company ...
MV (IV.2) GRAT: ... and doth entreat / Your company at dinner.
Anon. Mucedorus (V.2.94) MESS: ... Newly arrived, entreats your presence.
Dodypoll (II.1.122) ALBER: My Lord let me entreat your company.

Corn ... Blast ... Winds
Golding Ovid Met (V.601-02): The stars and blasting winds did hurt,
the hungry fouls did eat / The corn to ground:
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (I.1.453-54) BAILO: Is like a tender flower, that with the blast
Of every little wind doth fade away.
Kyd Sp Tr (IV.2.17-18) ISA: An eastern wind, ..., / Shall blast the plants and the young saplings;
(III.13.12-07-8) HIER: But suffer'd thy fair crimson-color'd spring
With wither'd winter to be blasted thus?
Greene Orl Fur (V.1.63-64) SACREPANT: Parched be the earth, to drink
up every spring: / Let corn and trees be blasted from above:
Lyly Love's Met (I.2)NISA: Of holly, because it is most holy, which lovely green
neither the sun's beams nor the wind's blasts can alter or diminish.
(IV.1.194-97) MELOS: May summer's lightning burn our autumn crop,
And rough winds blast the beauty of our plains,
Anon. Ironside (IV.1.82-83) EDMUND: A sunshine day is quickly overcast.
A springing bud is killed with a blast.
Nashe Summers (660-61) AUTUMN: They vomit flames, / and blast the ripened fruits;
(1770) BACK-WINTER: O that my looks were lightning to blast fruits!
Shakes Hamlet (III.4.64-65): Here is your husband, like a mildewed ear,
Blasting his wholesome brother
Bible Gen. 41.5-7 ... seven ears of corn grew on one stalk, rank and goodly ... seven thin ears, & blasted with the East wind, sprang up after them: ... and the thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears. ...; Gen. 41.22-24 (similar version of above)

Passing Strange
Kyd Sp Tr (IV.1.82) HIER: Assure you it will prove most passing strange,
ShakesOth (I.3) OTHELLO: She swore, in faith, twas strange, 'twas passing strange,
Anon. Dodypoll (III.5.37): Thou art grown passing strange, my love, ...

Manure ... Blood
Golding Ovid Met. (XIII.515-16): Against the place where Ilion was,
there is another land / Manured by the Biston men. ...
Kyd Sp Tr (IV.2.15-16) ISA: Barren the earth and blissless whosoe'er
Imagines not to keep it unmanur'd.
Sol&Per (I.5.35-36) HALEB: After so many Bassows slain,
Whose blood hath been manured to their earth, ...
Anon. Ironside (V.2.148) EDRICUS: ... this little isle, / whose soil is manured with carcasses
Shakes Rich2 (4.12.137): The blood of English shall manure the ground

Wit ... Will
Brooke Romeus (2296): And said that she had done right well by wit to order will.
Oxford poem (Fain would I sing): Till Wit have wrought his will on Injury.
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (III.2) MENECEUS: ... Yet evil it were in this / to yield your will.
CREON: Thy wit is wily for to work thy woe.
Watson Hek (XXXVIII): And for whose sake I lost both will and wit,
(LXXVIII): That wit and will to Reason do retire:
Lyly MB (I.3) SPERANTUS: He hath wit at will.
Kyd Sp Tr (IV.3.307) HIERON: Erasto, Soliman saluteth thee,
And lets thee wit by me his Highness' will,
Shakes TGV (II.6.12) PRO: And he wants wit that wants resolved will
To learn his wit t'exchange the bad for better.
LLL (II.1.49-50) MARIA: Is a sharp wit matched with too blunt a will,
Whose edge hath power cut, whose will still wills ...
12th (I.5.29) FESTE: Wit, an't be thy will, put me into good fooling!
Hamlet (I.5.44-46) GHOST: O wicked wit and gifts, that have the power
So to seduce -- won to his shameful lust / The will of my most seeming-virtuous queen.
Corio (II.3.27-28) 3 CIT: Nay your wit will not so soon out as / another man's will, ...
Lucrece (1230:) What wit sets down is blotted straight with will;
Anon. Ironside (V.1.34) EDR: See, see, what wit and will can bring about.
Willobie (XXXII.2): If wit to will, will needs resign,
(LIII.1): If fear and sorrow sharp the wit, / And tip the tongue with sweeter grace,
Then will & style must finely fit, / To paint my grief, and wail my case:
(LVII.5): Can wit enthralled to will retire?
(Auth. Conc. 1): Whom gifts nor wills nor force of wit / Could vanquish once with all their shows:
Penelope (I.4): For what my wit cannot discharge, / My will surely supplies at large.
Nashe Summers (498-99) WINTER: Let him not talk; for he hath words at will,
And wit to make the baddest matter good.

Edwards Dam&Pith (1101) WILL: It is some brain-sick villain, I durst lay a penny.
Watson Hek (XCVIII): Love is a Brain-sick boy, and fierce by kind;
Kyd Sp Tr (IV.4.119): And rated me for brain-sick lunacy,
Greene Maidens Dream (Complaint/Religion, 274): The brainsick and / illiterate surmisers, ...
Shakes 2H6 (III.1): Did instigate the bedlam brain-sick duchess
(V.1): Thou mad misleader of thy brain-sick son!
Titus (V.2): Whate'er I forge to feed his brain-sick fits, / Beaten away by brain-sick rude desire.
T&C (II.2): Because Cassandra's mad: her brain-sick raptures
Marlowe Edw2 (I.1.125) MORT: Come uncle, let us leave the brain-sick King
Anon. Willobie (XVIII.3): A brain-sick youth was stricken blind,
Penelope's Complaint (XI.6): Than did the brain-sick doting queen:
(XXI.5): Should match with such a brain-sick boy
(XLIII.2): Which wiser men doth brain-sick make,
L Gh. (1156): What brainsick lightness, and what furious mood


This device is self-explanatory. Examples are found in (in chronological order) the Earl of Oxford's poetry, Lodge Civil War, Anon. Locrine, Kyd's Spanish Tragedy and Soliman and Perseda, and Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. Thomas Watson translated a sonnet to illustrate the form, with explanatory comments, presumably by his patron the Earl of Oxford.

Watson Hek (XLI) This Passion is framed upon a somewhat tedious or too much affected continuation of that figure in Rhetoric, which of the Greeks is called paltlsgia or anadiplosis, of the Latins Reduplicatio; whereof Susenbrotus (if I well remember me) allegeth this example out of Virgil, ...
O Happy men that find no lack in Love
I Love, and lack what most I do desire;
My deep desire no reason can remove;
All reason shuns my breast, that's set on fire;
And so the fire maintains both force and flame,
That force availeth not against the same;
One only help can slake this burning heat,
Which burning heat proceedeth from her face,
Whose face by looks bewitched my conceit,
Through which conceit I live in woeful case;
O woeful case, which hath no end of woe,
Till woes have end by favor of my foe;
And yet my foe maintaineth such a War,
As all her War is nothing else but Peace;
But such a Peace as breedeth secret jar,
Which jar no wit, nor force, nor time can cease;
Yet cease despair: for time by wit, or force,
May force my friendly foe to take remorse.
Oxford Grief of Mind: What plague is greater than the grief of mind?
The grief of mind that eats in every vein;
In every vein that leaves such clots behind;
Such clots behind as breed such bitter pain;
So bitter pain that none shall ever find,
What plague is greater than the grief of mind.
Lodge Wounds (IV.2.64-68): ANT: I wonder why my peasant stays so long,
And with my wonder hasteth on my woe,
And with my woe I am assail'd with fear,
And by my fear await with faintful breath
The final period of my pains by death.
Kyd Sp Tr (I.3.32): My late ambition hath distained my faith;
My breach of faith occasioned bloody wars;
These bloody wars have spent my treasure;
And with my treasure my people's blood;
And with their blood, my joy and best-beloved,
My best-beloved, my sweet and only son.
(II.1.120): And with that sword he fiercely waged war,
And in that war he gave me dang'rous wounds,
And by those wounds he forced me to yield,
And by my yielding I became his slave.
Now in his mouth he carries pleasing words,
Which pleasing words do harbor sweet conceits,
Which sweet conceits are limed with sly deceits,
Which sly deceits smooth Bel-imperia's ears
And through her ears dive down into her heart,
And in her heart set him where I should stand.
Sol&Per (V.2): No, no; my hope full long ago was lost,
And Rhodes itself is lost, or else destroyed;
If not destroyed, yet bound and captivate;
If captivate, then forced from holy faith;
If forced from faith, forever miserable;
For what is misery but want of God?
And God is lost, if faith be over-thrown.
See also opening of III.2.
Anon. Locrine (V.2.25) THRA: Sister, complaints are bootless in this cause;
This open wrong must have an open plague,
This plague must be repaid with grievous war,
This war must finish with Locrine's death;
His death will soon extinguish our complaints.
Shakes Errors (I.2.47-52): She is so hot because the meat is cold.
The meat is cold because you come not home,
You come not home because you have no stomach,
You have no stomach, having broke your fast;
But we, that know what tis to fast and pray,
Are penitent for your default today

APPENDIX III: Vocabulary, Language

Often-used words/phrases:
to content, counterfeit (v, pretend),
distress, in many forms: distressful (distressed) is especially unusual.
forgery, forged (ref. to lies, slandering), for why, good liking (n), in time
know the cause, meanwhile, praise and worth, quench
quiet, unquiet with unquiet, unquietness wordplay
stand thereto, suffice thee/it, therefore (18 times)

Distinctive phrases/word (*surely unusual):
add fuel to the fire, bankrupt of my bliss, bethink thyself, coy (v, trans.), (deceased) by fortune of the war, farewell til soon, first love, second love, half-dismayed (a), here-hence (adv), his last depart (n), jest himself to death, sit as judge, nine-days' wonder (n), now stands our fortune on a tickle-point, quiet wordplay: quiet/unquietness, unquiet/quietness, sable weed (n), only soothe me up, to sound the bottom (v, explore). sound not well the mystery, this works like wax (keeps coming apart), unsquared and unbevelled (description of a young man)

Use of word "up": (mount me up, soothe me up, clap me up). upon our privilege
uprear her state (improve position), water-breach (n),
where then became* (what happened to?

Compound Words (surely unusual): 77 words
after-times (n), ambitious-proud* (a), battle-ranks (n), best-beloved (a), brain-sick (a), cheerly-sounding (a), coming-down (n), countercheck (v), crimson-colored (a), ever-glooming (a), everlasting (a), face-to-face (adv), ferry-man (n), fire-brand (n), fountain-water (n), full-fraught (a), garden-plot (n), gentleman-like (a), half-dismayed (a), half-heir (n), handy-blows* (n), hand-to-hand (adv), here-hence* (adv), horse-colt (n), ill-advised (a), ill-maimed (a), ill-plucked (a), kind-ship (n), knight-marshal (n), late-confirmed (a), left-hand (a), Lord-General (n), marshal-sessions (n), men-at-arms/man-of-war (n), men's-kind* (n), mid-day's (poss), mountain-top (n), neighbor-bounding (a), never-dying (a), never-killing (a), new-begun (a), new-kindled (a), newly-healed (a), night-cap (n), nine-days' (a), oil-colors (n), over-cloud (v), over-cloying (a), o'er-ferried (v), over-long (adv), overspread (v), overthrow (n), overwhelmed (v), pale-faced (a), right-hand (a), seld-seen (a), self-same (a), short-lived (a), spring-tides* (n), standers-by (n), stately-written (a), such-like* (a), sun-bright* (a), sun-god (n), through-girt* (a), tickle-point (n)*, tribute-payment (n), triple-headed (a), up-rear (v), war-like (a), water-breach (n), well-advised (a), whipstalk (n), willful-mad* (a), woe-begone (a), yester-night (n)

Words beginning with "con": 40 words (23 verbs, 14 nouns, 5 adj, 1 adv)..
conceal (v), concealment (n), conceit (n, v), conceived (v), concern/concerning (v), conclude (v), conclusion (n), condemn (v), condescent (n), condition (n), conditional (a), conduct (v), conductors (n), confederate (n), confer (v), confess (v), confirm (v), conflict (n), confused (a), confusion (n), conquer (v), conquering (n), conscience (n), consent (n), considering (v), consort (v), conspiring (v), constrain (v), constrained (a), consume (v), containing (v), contend (v), contemn (v), content (v, a), continue (v), contrary (n), control (v), convenient[ly] (a, adv), convey (v), conveyance (n)

Words beginning with "dis" (*surely unusual): 30 words (14 verbs, 11 nouns, 7 adj).
discharge (v), discomfort (n), discontent (v), discord (n), discourse (n), discretion (n), disdain (n), disfurnish* (v), disease (n), disgrace (n), disguised (a), dishonor (n, v), disjoin (v), dismal (a), dismayed (a), dismiss (v), disparagement (n), dispatched (v), disperse (v), dispose (v), disrobed (v), dissemble (v), dissemble* (v, trans), dissension (n), dissuade (v), distain (v), distract[ed] (a], distraught (a), distress (n, a), distressful* (a), distrust (n)
Note disfurnish: a rare word, found in earlier Oxford letter; later WS Timon of Athens.

Words beginning with "mis": 13 words (5 verbs,7 nouns, 1 adj).
miserable (a), mischance (n), mischief (n), misconceive (v), misconster (v), miscreant (n), misdeed (n), misdone (v), misdoubt (n), misery (n), mishap (n), mistake (v), mistrust (v)

Words beginning with "over": 9 words (6 verbs, 1 noun, 2 adj, 1 adv).
over-blow/blown (v, a), over-cloud (v), over-cloying (a), o'er-ferried (v), over-long (adv), overspread (v), overthrow (n), o'erturn (v), overwhelm (v)

Words beginning with "pre": 16 words (8 verbs, 6 nouns, 1 adj, 1 adv).
precise (a), prefer (v), prefigure (v), prefix (v), prepared (v), presence (n), present (n), presently (adv), presuming (v), preserve (v), presumption (n), pretense (n), prevail (v), prevalence (n, primacy), prevent (v), preventing (n)

Words beginning with "re": 64 words (40 verbs, 22 nouns, 7 adj).
rebound (n), recall (v), receive (v), reconcile (v, a), record (v), recover (v), recount (v), recure (v), redeem (v), redress (n), refuge (n), refuse (v), regard (n, v), register (v), relate (v), release (v), relentless (a), relief (n), remain (v), remedy (n, v), remember (v), remembrance (n), remiss (a), remorse (n), remove (n, v), renew (v), renown[ed] (n, a), [un]repaid (a), repair (v), repent (v), repentance (n), repining (v), report (n, v), reposeth (v), represent (v), reproach (n), reputation (n), request (n), require (v), requisite (a), rescue (n, v), resemble (v), resembling (v), reserve (v), reserving (n), resign (v), resist (v), resolute (a), resolution (n), resolved (v), resort (n), respect (n), restrain (v), retain (v), retired (v), retort* (v trans., return), retreat (n), return (v), reveal (v), reveling (n), revenge (n, v), revenging (a), revive (v), reward (n)

Words beginning with "in, un" (*surely unusual;): 98 words (51 /44/3)
(22 verbs, 20 nouns, 49 adj, 4 adv, 3 conj, 1 prep).
incense (n, v), incertain (a), incessant (a), inclined (v), incomparable (a), inconstant (a), increase (v), indebted (a), indeed (conj), inestimable (a), inevitable (a), inexpected (a), inextricable (a), infamy (n), infant (n), infect/infect[ed] (v), infect/infective* (a), inferior (a), infernal (a), inflamed (a), influence (n), inform (v),
infortunate (a), ingratitude (n), inhuman (a), inquire (v), iniquity (n), injuries (n), injurious (a), innocence (n),innocents (n), insatiate* (a), instance (n), instead (adv), instrument (n), insult (v), intend (v), intention (n), intercept (v), interdict (v), interrupt (v), intimate (v), inured (v), intent (n), intimate (v), into (conj), invent (v),invention (n), inviolate (a), invocate (v), inward (a) unbevelled* (a), unbind (v), unbowelled* (a), unburied (v), uncertainty (n), undelved* (a)undeserving (a),uneffected (a), unexpected (a), unfold (v), unfortunate (a), unfrequented (a), unfriendly (a), unfruitful (a),ungrateful (a), unhallowed (a), unhappy (a), unhorsed (v), unjust (a), unjustly (adv), unkind (a), unkindly (adv),unkindness (n), unknown (a), unless (conj), unmanned (a), unmanured* (a), unpunished (v), unquenched (a),unquiet (a), unquietness (n), unrepaid (a), unresolved (a), unrest (n), unrevealed (a), unrevenged (a), unseen (a),unsquared* (a), untamed (a), unthankful (a), untimely (adv), unto (prep), unvalued (a), unworthy (a) underground (n), understanding (n), understood (v)

Words ending with "able": 9 words (9 adj).
amiable, honorable, impregnable, incomparable, inestimable, inevitable, inextricable, miserable, mutable

Verbs formed by adding "ize" to an adjective: 1 word/3 uses(1 verb).
solemnise (3)

Words ending with "less": 29 words (26 adj, 3 adv, 1 conj).
blissless (a), bootless (a), careless (a), causeless (a), ceaseless (a), cheerless (a), doubtless (adv), endless (a), fearless (a), fruitless (a), guiltless (a), hapless (a), harmless (a), heartless (a), helpless[ly] (a, adv), hopeless (a), leafless (a), lifeless (a), merciless (a), pitiless (a), relentless (a), restless (a), ruthless (a), shameless[ly] (adv), speechless (a), spotless (a), thoughtless (a), unless (conj), worthless (a)

Words ending with "ment": 16 words (2 verbs, 16 nouns).
appointment (n), argument (n), blandishment (n), commandment (n), concealment (n), disparagement (n), entertainment (n), garment (n), instrument (n), judgment (n), lament (n, v), languishment* (n), payment (n), punishment (n), raiment (n), torment (n, v)

Words ending with "ness": 16 words (1 verb, 16 nouns).
baseness (n), boldness (n), brightness (n), business (n), darkness (n), forwardness (n) gentleness (n), happiness (n), highness (n), (un)kindness (n), madness (n) (un)quietness (n), readiness (n), tediousness (n), witness (n, v), wretchedness (n)

absent yourself, affright yourself, arm myself, apply me, assure yourself/yourselves, attire yourself, bathing him, bethink thyself, constrain myself, content thee/thyself/yourself, enlarge yourself, entertain thyself, fear yourself, find yourself, hides herself, hold exempt ourself, hung himself, intercepts itself, jest himself*, kill myself, mounts me, plied myself, revenge myself/thyself, show themselves/thyself, slain herself, soothe me up, stab herself, sworn myself, submits me, thought himself, trust myself, ward thyself, yield him

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