Kyd's TRAGEDY OF SOLIMAN AND PERSEDA.
Anonymous, attributed to Thomas Kyd
Transcribed by BF. copyright © 2002
Abraham-colored (a): auburn-haired ("Abraham" is a corruption of auburn). FS (1-Corio, 2d OED citation); Kyd Sol&Per (1st OED citation).
aby (v): pay for, atone. FS (2-MND); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; (anon./Greene) George a Greene; Nashe Valentines; Munday Huntington.
adamant (n): an alleged mineral, ascribed with the hard, unbreakable properties of a diamond; others ascribed to it properties of the lodestone or magnet. FS (3-1H6, MND, T&C); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; many others.
alleavement (n): relief. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per (only OED citation).
bane (n): destruction, poison. FS (8-2H6, T&C, MM, Cymb, Titus, Mac, Edw3, V&A); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Sapho; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Greene Alphonsus, Look Gl; Kyd Sol&Per; Harvey 4 Letters; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Woodstock, Penelope, Blast of Retreat, L Gh; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Chettle Kind Hart.
basilisk (n, adj): A fabulous reptile, alleged to be hatched by a serpent from a cock's egg; ancient authors stated that its hissing drove away all other serpents, and that its breath, and even its look, was fatal. FS (3-2H6, 3H6, Rich3, 1H4, H5, WT, Cymb); many others. Note also the striking use by Kyd in Sol&Per (reg. 1592), in which a major coward, braggart and back-stabber is named Basilisco.
Basolus Manus: Besa las manos. Kiss hands; goodbye! (Sp). Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic; Kyd Sol&Per.
Bassow/Bashow/Bashaw: Pasha. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per.
bewray (v): reveal. FS (7); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Orl Fur, Fr Bacon, James IV; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Massacre, Jew/Malta; (disp.) Oldcastle; Lyly Bombie, Midas, Gallathea, Endymion, Campaspe, Whip; (anon.) Marprelate; Locrine, Ironside, Arden, Willobie, Penelope, Leic Gh.
boot (v): help. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Lyly Bombie; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Leic Gh.
brave (n): cry of bravado. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per.
buckler (v): apparently means "put on, hand him his buckler (shield)". Cf. Kyd Sol&Per. Not found in OED in that sense.
carcanet (n): ornamental collar or necklace, usually of gold or set with jewels. FS (2-Errors, Sonnet); Kyd Sol&Per
channel bone (n): neck, windpipe. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Marlowe T2; Kyd Sol&Per.
charactered (a): engraved, imprinted, written. FS (6-2H6, TGV (1st OED citation), Edw3, Lucrece, Sonnet); Kyd Sol&Per.
cock and pie (interjection): used in an oath. FS (1-MWW); Kyd Sol&Per.
cockatrice (n): basilisk; see above. FS (2-Rich3, R&J); Watson Hek; Lyly Campaspe; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Locrine; (disp.) Cromwell.
coistrel (n): knave. FS (1-Pericles); Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Bombie; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Arden, Nashe Penniless; Jonson in his Humor; others.
collop/collup (n): small slice, piece of flesh. FS (2-1H6, WT); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Bombie; Kyd Sol&Per (referring to circumcision).
counter cambio (n): exchange. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per. 1st OED citation Howell, 1645. Note that Cambio is a character in WS Shrew.
counterfeit (v): pretend, feign. FS (3-Errors, AsYou, Edw3); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Nashe Absurdity; Harvey 4 Letters; Marston Malcontent.
curtal (n): one [as a horse] with cropped tail. FS (1-AWEW); Kyd Sol&Per.
dart (n): spear, javelin. FS (Edw3, TNK); Golding Ovid; Marlowe T2; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Mucedorus, Locrine, Leic Gh; Sidney Antony; Munday More, Huntington.
dismount (v): unmount, cause to be thrown from a horse. FS (2-12th (1st use per OED), Lov Comp); Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Ironside .
dominere/domineer (v): dominate, lord it; live it up, live riotously. FS (1-Shrew); Kyd Sol&Per; Nashe Penniless; (anon.) Woodstock, Arden, Nobody/Somebody; Harvey 3d Letter.
drumsler (n): drummer, player, actor. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per.
dudgeon dagger (n): dagger with a hilt made of dudgeon, probably boxwood. FS (1-Mac); Kyd Sol&Per; Nashe Strange News (dedication).
expugnation (n): conquest. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per (OED missed citation).
faint (v): falter. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sol&Per; Lyly Midas; Marlowe Dido, Faustus; (anon.) Woodstock, Mucedorus, Arden, Penelope
fere/feere (n): mate, companion. FS (3-Titus, Pericles, TNK); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Locrine, Penelope.
fell (a): savage, cruel. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; (anon) Locrine, Mucedorus, Woodstock, Penelope.
fox in the hole (n): a child's game. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per. 1st OED citation 1633.
gamester (n): gambler and/or lewd person (m or fem). FS (AWEW, 1st OED citation as a lewd person, LLL, Pericles); Lyly Midas; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Willobie, Penelope; (disp.) Oldcastle, Maiden's
gloze/glose (n, v): specious, over-expansive talk, flattery; glozers: flatterers. FS (6-LLL, Rich2, H5, TA, T&C, Pericles); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Watson Hek; Lyly Campaspe; Kyd Cornelia, Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Ironside, Arden, Willobie; Nashe Menaphon, Summers, Absurdity; Harvey Pierce's Super; Greene's Groat; (disp.) Maiden's. Cf. (anon.) Nobody/Somebody as a verb.
hackney-man (n): coach man? Not in OED. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per; Nashe Penniless; Jonson Revels.
hest (n): behest. FS (3-1H4, Temp); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Locrine.
high-minded (a): proud, arrogant. FS (1-1H6); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sol&Per.
hire (n): payment, reward. FS (8); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Dainty Devices, Ironside, Willobie.
Janissaries (n): Turkish troops drawn mostly from Christian population. They were fine fighters, well rewarded; and having no personal political hopes, loyally served as the Sultan's guard. Cf. Marlowe T1; Kyd Sol&Per.
jet/jetting (v): stroll/strolling, strut. FS (4-Rich3, 12th, Cymb, TA); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene James IV; Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Woodstock, Dodypoll, Willobie, Arden, Leic Gh; Nashe Ch. Tears.
kenning (n): sight (v. to ken). NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Kyd Sol&Per. OED contemp. citations: 1577 Holinshed Chron.; 1586 R. Lane in Capt. Smith Virginia; 1598 Tofte Alba
kerns (n): lightly-armed infantry (usually Scots or Irish). FS (8-2H6, Rich2, H5, Mac); Kyd Sol&Per.
lavolto/lavolta (n): lively dance for two persons, consisting a good deal in high and active bounds. FS (T&C); Kyd Sol&Per.
lawn (n): article of fine linen. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per.
maugre/mauger: in spite of (fr). FS (3-12th, Titus, Lear); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Midas; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Orl Fur, Alphonsus; (anon.) Mucedorus, Locrine, Ironside, Nobody/Somebody, Penelope, Leic Gh; Pasquil Countercuff; Harvey Sonnet, 3d Letter.
mot (n): motto. NFS. Kyd Sol&Per (OED missed citation); Marston Ant & Mel.
muliebrity (n): womanhood, womanliness. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per (OED 1st use; 2d in 1693).
mummery (n): (1) fancy dress, (2) play acting. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per (OED 4th use).
oratrix (n): female petitioner, pleader. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per (obvious misuse: a joke at the expense of speaker Basilisco. OED 1st use in this manner).
pack/packing (n): intrigue, conspiracy. FS (5-Shrew, MWW, Cymb, Lear, Edw3); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Kyd Sol&Per; Lyly Bombie.
pinky-eyed (a): small-eyed. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per. As a noun, Cf. Riche, Lodge, Nashe.
policy (n): trickery, cunning. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; many others. A major Shakespeare preoccupation, i.e.: 1H4: Neuer did base and rotten Policy / Colour her working with such deadly wounds.
porpuse (n): a deliberate corruption of "prepuce", foreskin. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per. Another joke at Basilisco's expense.
press (n): press of people. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Locrine; Oxford letter.
quiddit/quiddity (n): subtle argument, short for quiddity (below). NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per (OED missed this use); Greene Upst Court (1st use per OED).
rutter (n): trooper, dragoon. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per (3d use per OED).
sallet (n): salad greens. FS (2-2H6, AWEW); Kyd Sol&Per.
saunce/sans: without (fr). FS (many); Kyd Sol&Per.
scathe (n, v): harm. FS (5-2H6, Rich3, R&J, Titus, John); Golding Ovid; (anon.) Locrine; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon./Greene) G a G; Munday Huntington.
semblant (n): appearance, possibly expressing or pretending certain feelings. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per.
Septentrion (n): the northern regions. FS (1-3H6); Sol&Per.
Sophy: Shah of Persia. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per.
skene (n): dagger, used by Irish and Scots. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Kyd Sol&Per.
sooth (n): truth, sometimes flattery. FS (6-Rich2, H5, WT, 12th, AsYou, Pericles); Kyd Sol&Per, Cornelia; many others.
speed (v): fare, succeed. FS (19+, ); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Kyd Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Ironside, Willobie, Leic Gh; Peele Wives. Common
squich/squitch (v): flinch. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per (2d OED citation). OED also cites: 1570 Marr. Wit & Sci. v. iii, Mark how he from place to place will squich.
stealing (v): gliding steadily and imperceptibly. FS (6-Rich3, Errors, WT, Ham, V&A, Sonnet 33); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sol&Per. Common.
stripe (n): stroke, blow. FS (4-WT, Temp, A&C, Corio); Golding Ovid; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sol&Per; Spenser F.Q.
sugarloaf [hat] (a): conical. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol & Per (Higins Junius Nomen 1585 1st OED citation).
surquedry (n): arrogance, pride, presumption. NFS. Cf. Kyd Sol&Per.
targe/target (n): light shield or buckler. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Jocasta, Kyd Sol&Per; Lyly Campaspe; Marlowe Edw2; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Locrine. targe of proof (n): shield of proven strength. FS (Cymb); Kyd Sol&Per.
tickle [state]: excitable, changeable, unreliable. FS (2-2H6, MM); Watson Hek; Gascoigne Sonnet in Praise ...; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Cornelia, Sol&Per.
toil (n): net, snare. FS (5-LLL, JC, Ham, A&C, Pericles); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Fr Bac; Marlowe Dido, Massacre; (anon.) Woodstock, Arden.
train (n, v): trap. FS (4-Errors, Rich3, Mac); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta; Lyly Gallathea, Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; Chettle Kind Hart; (disp.) Oldcastle; Spenser FQ; (anon.) Willobie, Penelope.
uprise (n): rising (of the sun); dawn (of day). FS (2-Titus, A&C); Marlowe Dido; Kyd Sol&Per; Leic Gh.
weed (n): clothing. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; many others.
welkin (n): clouds, the firmament. FS (14); Golding Ovid; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe T1, Faustus; Kyd Sol&Per; Peele Wives; Marston Malcontent; Jonson: in his Humor; Marston, Chapman, Jonson Eastward Ho; Chapman Iliad.
wot (v): know. FS (30); Golding Abraham; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; many others.
yclipped (v): named, called. FS (5-LLL, Ham, Corio, Mac, V&A); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Kyd Sol&Per.
Glossary: Proper Names (Classical)
Sinon: cousin of Odysseus who tricked himself into the City of Troy, in order to persuade the Trojans that the wooden horse would be beneficial to them, if they were to bring it into the City. Personifies a deceiver or betrayer.
Tantalus: Phrygian king who cut up his son Pelops and added the pieces to a stew prepared for the gods. He was punished with eternal torment in the company of Ixion, Sisyphus et al, being condemned to hang, eternally consumed by thirst and hunger, from the bough of a fruit-tree which leans over a marshy lake.
Wotton, Henry. Courtlie Controversie of Cupids Cautels, 1578 (trans. of Jacques Yver's Printemps d'Iver, 1572).
Boas suggests a debt to Thomas Watson (Hekatompathia) in the following lines:
Watson Hek (XXI): With those her eyes, which are two heav'nly stars.
Their beams draw forth by great attractive power
My moistened heart, whose force is yet so small,
That shine they bright, or list they but to lower,
It scarcely dare behold such lights at all,
Kyd Sp Tr (IV.1.77-83): Fair locks, resembling Phoebus' radiant beams;
Smooth forehead, like the table of high Jove,
Small penciled eyebrows, like two glorious rainbows;
Quick lamp-like eyes, like heaven's two brightest orbs;
Lips of pure coral, breathing ambrosia;
Cheeks, where the rose and lily are in combat;
The probability of this suggestion is enforced by Kyd's appropriation of Watson's sonnet XLVII (In time the savage Bull is brought to bear the yoke) in Spanish Tragedy (II.1.3-8): ... In time the savage bull sustains the yoke, See appendix to Spanish Tragedy for comparison of the complete texts.
Length: 17,441 words
Note: with 103 speeches, Piston may well be the true star of the play; Basilisco next. Soliman has 76 speeches, Perseda 76, Erastus 64. Length of the speeches casts a somewhat different light on this.
This old device is self-explanatory. Examples are found in (in chronological order) the Earl of Oxford's poetry, Lodge Civil War, Anon. Locrine, Kyd's Spanish Tragedy and Soliman and Perseda, and Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. Thomas Watson translated a sonnet to illustrate the form, with explanatory comments, presumably by his patron the Earl of Oxford.
Watson Hek (XLI). This Passion is framed upon a somewhat tedious or too much affected continuation of that figure in Rhetoric, which of the Greeks is called paltlsgia or anadiplosis, of the Latins Reduplicatio; whereof Susenbrotus (if I well remember me) allegeth this example out of Virgil, ...
O Happy men that find no lack in Love
I Love, and lack what most I do desire;
My deep desire no reason can remove;
All reason shuns my breast, that's set on fire;
And so the fire maintains both force and flame,
That force availeth not against the same;
One only help can slake this burning heat,
Which burning heat proceedeth from her face,
Whose face by looks bewitched my conceit,
Through which conceit I live in woeful case;
O woeful case, which hath no end of woe,
Till woes have end by favor of my foe;
And yet my foe maintaineth such a War,
As all her War is nothing else but Peace;
But such a Peace as breedeth secret jar,
Which jar no wit, nor force, nor time can cease;
Yet cease despair: for time by wit, or force,
May force my friendly foe to take remorse.
Oxford Grief of Mind: What plague is greater than the grief of mind?
The grief of mind that eats in every vein;
In every vein that leaves such clots behind;
Such clots behind as breed such bitter pain;
So bitter pain that none shall ever find,
What plague is greater than the grief of mind.
Lodge Wounds (IV.2.64-68): ANT: I wonder why my peasant stays so long,
And with my wonder hasteth on my woe,
And with my woe I am assail'd with fear,
And by my fear await with faintful breath
The final period of my pains by death.
Kyd Sp Tr (I.3.32): My late ambition hath distained my faith;
My breach of faith occasioned bloody wars;
These bloody wars have spent my treasure;
And with my treasure my people's blood;
And with their blood, my joy and best-beloved,
My best-beloved, my sweet and only son.
(II.1.120): And with that sword he fiercely waged war,
And in that war he gave me dang'rous wounds,
And by those wounds he forced me to yield,
And by my yielding I became his slave.
Now in his mouth he carries pleasing words,
Which pleasing words do harbor sweet conceits,
Which sweet conceits are limed with sly deceits,
Which sly deceits smooth Bel-imperia's ears
And through her ears dive down into her heart,
And in her heart set him where I should stand.
Sol&Per (V.2): No, no; my hope full long ago was lost,
And Rhodes itself is lost, or else destroyed;
If not destroyed, yet bound and captivate;
If captivate, then forced from holy faith;
If forced from faith, forever miserable;
For what is misery but want of God?
And God is lost, if faith be over-thrown.
See also opening of III.2.
Anon. Locrine (V.2.25) THRA: Sister, complaints are bootless in this cause;
This open wrong must have an open plague,
This plague must be repaid with grievous war,
This war must finish with Locrine's death;
His death will soon extinguish our complaints.
Shakes Errors (I.2.47-52): She is so hot because the meat is cold.
The meat is cold because you come not home,
You come not home because you have no stomach,
You have no stomach, having broke your fast;
But we, that know what tis to fast and pray,
Are penitent for your default today
Note fine Perseda speech at II.1.125
Act III.2, opening with a long dialogue between Perseda and Lucina, each interrupting and continuing the thought of the other's second line. Uniquely, Basilisco's bizarre interruption, offering to service each lady, one by day and one by night, continues the fugue, but in a manner so incredibly objectionable that in two lines it completely alters the mood of the scene, turning an elegy into low-comedy exposures of a character alternately laughable and contemptible.
Boas, Frederick. The Works of Thomas Kyd. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1901. (An essential book for the study of Renaissance drama, and especially Thomas Kyd. Usually available through used online booksellers.)
Shaheen, Naseeb. Biblical References in Shakespeare's Comedies. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1993.
APPENDIX II: Connections
(MARKED indicates marked passage in Oxford's Geneva Bible
No Match indicates no marking in Oxford's Geneva Bible.)
Foreign Words: Sans
Kyd Sol&Per (I.1.143) BASILISCO: What, saunce [sans] dread of our indignation?
Marprelate (#7): Why, sans merci, said I, etc. but alas, I have half forgotten the rest.
Shakes LLL; Errors; King John; AsYou; Oth; Timon; Ham; T&C; Temp
Anon. Willobie (LVI.6): That hatcheth horror sans relief,
Brooke Romeus (225) At last her floating eyes were anchored fast on him,
Greene Orl Fur (II.1.234-36) ORL: Dainty and gladsome beams of my delight,
Delicious brows: why smiles your heaven for those
That, wand'ring make you prove Orlando's foes?
James IV (I.1.81): O, then thy wandering eyes bewitch'd thy heart!
Kyd Sol&Per (I.2.35) PER: To keep the same until my wand'ring eye
Shakes Shrew (III.1) HOR: ... To cast thy wandering eyes on every stale, ...
Anon. Willobie (XXIII.3): That floating eye that pierced my heart
(LVIII.4): Their wandering eyes, and wanton looks
(LXVII.3): But while I wretch too long have lent / My wandering eyes to gaze on thee,
Men ... Big-boned
Kyd Sol&Per (I.2.59) ERAS: The sudden Frenchman, and the big-boned Dane,
Shakes Titus (IV.3) TITUS: No big-boned men framed of the Cyclops' size;
Nashe Penniless: : Danes: who stand so much upon their unwieldy burly-boned soldiery,
where this big-boned Gentleman should pass
Saffron Waldon: (being a lusty big-boned fellow, & a Golias or behemoth) ... a great big-boned thresher
Anon. Ironside (III.5.1047) CAN: ... even so my big-boned Danes, / addressed to fight,
Legal term: Enroll
Edwards Dam&Pith (1470) EUB: Yet for thy faith enroll'd shall be thy name
Kyd Sol&Per (I.3.3) PHILIPPO: Assembled here in thirsty honor's cause,
To be enrolled in the brass-leaved book
Marlowe Edw2 (I.4.269-70) MORT: And in the Chronicle enroll his name
For purging of the realm of such a plague.
Shakes 3H6 (II.1) WARWICK: ... His oath enrolled in the parliament;
MM (I.2): CLAUDIO: ... but this new governor / Awakes me all the enrolled penalties
JC (III.2) BRUTUS: The question of / his death is enrolled in the Capitol; his glory not
Anon. Woodstock (IV.3): SHRIEVE: ... I plead our ancient liberties
recorded and enrolled in the King's crown office,
Willobie (XXXVI.3): These strange effects I find enrolled, / Within this place since my return,
Penelope (III.3): A gift with fame worthy to be enroll'd.
Leic. Gh. (2086-87): ... when the Muses did enrol Their names in honor's everlasting scroll,
Kyd Sol&Per (I.3.130-31) BASILISCO: ... I am now captivated with the reflecting eyethat admirable comet Perseda.
Shakes V&A (187): Two glasses, where herself herself beheldthousand times, and now no more reflect; / Their virtue lost,(54): ... Even so, the curtain drawn, his eyes begunwink, being blinded with a greater light: / Whether it is that she reflects so bright,dazzleth them, or else some shame supposed;blind they are, and keep themselves enclosed.(I.4) CLARENCE: As 'twere in scorn of eyes, reflecting gems,
Anon. Weakest (XVI.6) EPERNOUNE: With the reflection of his feeble eye,
Lyly Sapho (I.4) ISMENA: I cannot but oftentimes smile to myself to hear men call us weak vessels,
Kyd: Sol&Per (I.3.72) BAS: Perdie, each female is the weaker vessel, ...
Shakes: LLL (I.1) FERD: 'For Jaquenetta, (so is the weaker vessel called)
2H4 (II.4.60): You, you are the weaker vessel, as they say
As You (II.4) ROSALIND: ... but I must comfort / the weaker vessel, ...
R&J (I.1.15)SAMPSON: Women, being the weaker vessels.
Geneva Bible: 1Peter 3.7 Giving honor unto the woman, as unto the weaker vessel
Gold ... Dust/Earth
Kyd Sol&Per (I.6.7) LOVE: Why, what is jewels, or what is gold but earth,
All hail ... Sovereign
Lyly Campaspe (II.1) PSYLLUS: All hail, Diogenes, to your proper person.
Endymion (II.2) SAMIAS: Sir Tophas, all hail!
(V.2) SAMIAS: All hail, Sir Tophas, how feel you yourself?
Kyd Sol&Per (II.1.30) BASILISCO: All hail, brave cavalier.
Shakes 3H6 (V.7) GLOUC: ... And cried 'all hail!' when as he meant / all harm.
Rich2 (IV.1) KING RICH: Did they not sometime cry, 'all hail!' to me? ...
TNK (III.5.102) SCHOOLMASTER Thou doughty Duke, all hail! ~~~ All hail, sweet ladies.
Nashe Summers (305-06): SOLS: All hail to Summer, my dread / sovereign Lord.
Anon. Mucedorus (III.5.6-7) MESS: All hail, worthy shepherd.
MOUSE: All reign, lowly shepherd.
Ironside (V.1.25-29) EDRICUS: Ñ All hail unto my gracious sovereign!
STITCH: Master, you'll bewray yourself, do you say
"all hail" and yet bear your arm in a scarf? That's hale indeed.
EDRICUS: All hail unto my gracious sovereign!
Leic. Gh. (1935): Even they betrayed my life that cried, 'All hail!'
Geneva Bible 2 Esd 8.2 it giveth much earthly matter to make pots,
but little dust that gold cometh of, so is it with the work of this world.
Note: Shaheen points out that no English Bible translation uses the phrase "all hail" and that Shakespeare seems to derive the phrase from the medieval play The Agony and the Betrayal.
Note that if Mucedorus and Lyly use this phrase deliberately, it is with supreme irony; whereas the Leicester's Ghost phrase is very obviously meant to relate to the Biblical narration, but also with ironic overtones.
Manure ... Blood
Golding Ovid Met. (XIII.515-16): Against the place where Ilion was,
there is another land / Manured by the Biston men. ...
Kyd Sp Tr (IV.2.15-16) ISA: Barren the earth and blissless whosoe'er
Imagines not to keep it unmanur'd.
Sol&Per (I.5.35-36) HALEB: After so many Bassows slain,
Whose blood hath been manured to their earth, ...
Shakes Rich2 (4.12.137): The blood of English shall manure the ground
Anon. Ironside (19001) EDRICUS: ... this little isle, / whose soil is manured with carcasses
Flattering, fawning courtiers/lovers
Kyd Sol&Per (I.5.56) HALEB: Why, his highness gave me leave to speak my will;
And, far from flattery, I spoke my mind, / And did discharge a faithful subject's love.
Thou, Aristippus-like, did'st flatter him,
(I.5.75-78) HALEB: Your highness knows I spake at your command,
and to the purpose, far from flattery.
AMURATH: Thinks thou I flatter? Now I flatter not.
(II.1.68) ERASTUS: They will betray me to Philippo's hands, / For love, or gain, or flattery.
Sp Tr (III.1.9) HIER: Sith fear or love to kings is flattery.
Greene James IV: A treacherous courtier moved the action.
(Pro) BOH: No, no; flattering knaves that can cog and prate fastest, / speed best in the court.
(I.1.53) KING ENG.: Make choice of friends, ... / Who soothe no vice, who flatter not for gain,
(I.1.187) ATEUKIN: Most gracious and imperial majesty ...
A little flattery more were but too much.
(I.1.277) ATEUKIN: Did not your Grace suppose I flatter you,
There are 16 similar uses of "flatterer" in James IV.
Shakes V&A (69): Dismiss your vows, your feigned tears, your flattery;
Anon Willobie (XI.3): For who can trust your flattering style,
(LVII.3): With flattering tongues, & golden gifts, / To drive poor women to their shifts.
(LVIII.5): Their tongues are fraught with flattering guile;
(LXVI.3): Though flattering tongues can paint it brave,
Watson Hek (XXXIX): Conjoined with fawning heaps is sore oppressed,
Kyd Sol&Per (I.3.180) BASILISCO: Better a dog fawn on me than bark.
Shakes 1H6 ((IV.4) SOMERSET: ... And take foul scorn to fawn on him by sending.
3H6 (IV.1, IV.8); Rich3 (I.3); Rich2 (I.3,(III.2,V.1); IH4 (I.3)
Comedies: TGV (III.1); LLL (V.2); MND (II.1); MV (I.3); AsYou (II.7)
Tragedies: JC (I.2, III.1), Ham (III.2); Timon (III.4); Coriolanus (I.6, 3.2)
Poetry: Venus & Adonis (144); Sonnets (149)
Marlowe Jew of Malta (II.3.20): We Jews can fawn like spaniels when we please: ...
Anon. Ironside (V.1.112) EDRICUS: Twas not your highness but some fawning mate
that put mistrust into your grace's head, ...
Willobie (I.16): Disdain of love in fawning face.
(VI.4): A fawning face and faithless heart
(III.5): Whose fawning framed Queen Dido's fall,
(LXIX.2): Whose fawning features did enforce
Forged truth (lies, dissimulations)
Brooke Romeus (321): With forged careless cheer, of one he seeks to know,
Golding Ovid Met. (V.13): Upholding that Medusa's death was but a forged lie:
(IX.167): Through false and newly-forged lies that she herself doth sow),
Edwards Dam&Pith (1726): Away, the plague of this court! Thy filed tongue that forged lies
Watson Hek (XLVII): No shower of tears can move, she thinks I forge:
So forge, that I may speed without delay;
Greene Alphonsus (IV.Pro.21) VENUS: Did give such credence to that / forged tale
Kyd Sp Tr (I.2.92) VIL: Thus have I with an envious, forged tale ...
Sol&Per (II.1.117) PER: ... Ah, how thine eyes can forge alluring looks,
Shakes TA (V.2) TAMORA: ... Whate'er I forge to feed his brain-sick fits,
1H6 (III.1) EXETER: Burns under feigned ashes of forged love
(IV.1): VERNON: ... For though he seem with forged quaint conceit
Rich3 (IV.1) FITZ: ... And I will turn thy falsehood to thy heart, / Where it was forged,
Hamlet (I.5) ... the whole ear of Denmark / Is by a forged process of my death / Rankly abused:
V&A (132): Love is all truth, Lust full of forged lies.
Sonnet 137: Why of eyes' falsehood hast thou forged hooks, ...
AWEW (IV.1): 2d Lord: ... and then to return and swear the lies he forges.
Othello (IV.2): OTHELLO: I should make very forges of my cheeks, ...
Anon. Ironside (IV.1.101) EDM: not to believe each smooth-face forged tale.
(V.2.83) CANUTUS: Then to confute thy forged argument,
Arden (III.5.56) MOSBY: To forge distressful looks to wound a breast
Oldcastle (Pro.14): Since forged invention former time defaced.
Geneva Bible Pss 119.69, Job 13.4, Ecclus 51.2
Legal term: Free consent
Shakes 3H6 (IV.5-6.36) CLARENCE: And therefore I yield thee / my free consent.
Kyd Sol&Per (I.4.1) CYPRUS: Brave Gentlemen, by all your free consents,
Munday Huntington (XII.133): With free consent of Hubert Lord York,
Anon. Ironside (I.1.4-5) CAN: and how his son Prince Edmund
wears the crown / without the notice of your free consent
Willobie (XXII.2): Excepting him, whom free consent / By wedlock words hath made my spouse;
(XXIX.5): Till fancy frame your free consent,
(LXVI.5): With free consent to choose again:
(Res.10): With free consent to live in holy band.
(Res.12): When I had given my heart and free consent,
Crave ... Liberty
Edwards Dam&Pith (1567): Commend me to thy master, ... / And of him crave liberty
Kyd Sol&Per (III.1.97) ERASTUS: Then this, my gracious Lord, is all I crave:
That, being banish'd from my native soil, / I may have liberty to live a Christian.
Shakes 1H6 (III.4) BASSET: But I'll unto his majesty, and crave
I may have liberty to venge this wrong;
Greene Orl Fur (II.1.348) MARSILIUS: In prison here and craved but liberty,
Anon. Dodypoll (I.1): ... And must crave liberty to provide for them.
Twinkling ... Eye
Kyd Sol&Per (III.2.37) BASILISCO: But he was gone in twinkling of an eye.
Shakes MV (II.2) LAUNCE: ... Come; I'll take my leave ... in the twinkling of an eye.
Geneva Bible 1 Cor. 15.52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye; also Luke 4.5
According to Shaheen, this was a well-used expression, known to be based on scripture.
Turn Turk (become a renegade)
Kyd Sol&Per (III.6) BRU: What say these prisoners? Will they turn Turk or no?
Shakes Much Ado (III.4): Well, and you be not turned Turk, there's no more ...
Hamlet (III.2): the rest of my fortunes turn Turk with me with two ...
Peele Wives (555) SACRA: And for this villain, let him wander up and down,
In naught but darkness and eternal night.
Kyd Sol&Per (I.Ind.27) DEATH: I will not down to everlasting night
(V.1.110) SOLIMAN: To send them down to everlasting night,
Arden (III.2.9) SHAKEBAG: And Arden sent to everlasting night.
Chapman D'Olive (I.1.107-09) VAUMONT: In never-ceasing darkness, never sleeping
But in the day, transform'd by her to night, / With all sun banish'd from her smother'd graces;
Bible Many references, several in Jude 1 are close. Also verses in Rev.
Tongue ... Woe
Oxford poem (Love thy choice): Who taught thy tongue / the woeful words of plaint ?
Edwards Dam&Pith (592, Song): My woe no tongue can tell.
Kyd Sol&Per (II.1.84) PER: My tongue to tell my woes is all too weak;
Shakes Rich3 (IV.4): That my woe-wearied tongue is mute and dumb.
Hot coals, hot vengeance ... upon [my] head
Golding Ovid Met (I.266-67): ... I overthrew
The house with just revenging fire upon the owner's head,
Edwards Dam&Pith (1768): From heaven to send down thy hot consuming fire
To destroy the workers of wrong, which provoke thy just ire?
Anon. Ironside (III.1.38) YORK: So heapest thou coal of fire upon my head
Kyd Sol&Per (II.1.114) ERASTUS: Which if I do, all vengeance light on me.
Marlowe T2 (IV.1.) JERUSALEM: ... heaven, filled with the meteors
Of blood and fire ..., / Will pour down blood and fire on thy head:
(V.1) TAMB: Where men report, thou sitt'st by God himself,
Or vengeance on the head of Tamburlaine,
Edw2 (IV.5.16) KENT: Rain showers of vengeance on my cursed head,
Shakes: 2H 6 (5.2.36): Hot coals of vengeance!
Rich2 (I.2.8): Will rain hot vengeance on offenders' heads.
Anon. Locrine (I.1.164-165) BRUTUS: Or let the ruddy lightning of great Jove
Descend upon this my devoted head.
(IV.1.174-75) CORINEIUS: But if thou violate those promises,
Blood and revenge shall light upon thy head.
(V.1.) THRASI: If there be gods in heaven, ... / They will revenge this thy notorious wrong,
And power their plagues upon thy cursed head.
Arden (I.1.336) MOSBY: Hell-fire and wrathful vengeance light on me
If I dishonor her or injure thee.
Ironside (849): YORK: So heapest thou coal of fire upon my head
Willobie (XXXVII.4): What bosom bears hot burning coals.
Cromwell (II.3) MISTRESS BAN: To that same God I bend and bow my heart,
To let his heavy wrath fall on thy head,
(III.1) CROMWELL: All good that God doth send light on your head;
Geneva Bible "vengeance fall" invokes Pss. 7.16 His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his cruelty shall fall upon his own page. Ps. 140.10 Let coals fall upon them: let him cast them into the fire, & into the deep pits, that they rise not.
Brooke Romeus (495): In ruth and in disdain I weary of my life,
Golding Ovid Met. (VII.697-98): to yield / His weary life without renown of combat in the field.
(X.735): But that thou wilt be weary of thy life, die: do not spare.
Gascoigne ... Jocasta (II.1.132) POLY: What weary life my loving sisters lead,
(III.5) O weary life, why bidest thou in my breast
Oxford (letter 4-27-76, to Lord Burghley): I mean not to weary my life any more
(letter 5-18-91, to Lord Burghley): I am weary of an unsettled life
Watson Hek (L): or if he fail, upon death to cut off his wearisome life
(LX): Of this my weary Life no day shall fall,
Kyd Sol&Per (II.2.76) BASILISCO: Why, art thou weary of thy life?
Marlowe T2 (III.2.19) TECH: Nay Captain, thou art weary of thy life,
Greene James IV (IV.4.5) QUEEN: Oh weary life, where wanteth no distress,
Shakes: 1H6 (I.2.26): He fighteth as one weary of his life;
AsYou; Ham; JC; H8
Anon. Woodstock (III.3.154-55): whoever are weary of their lives ...
(V.5.13) TRESILIAN: and so, unknown, prolong my weary life
Arden (I.1.9): ARDEN: Franklin, thy love prolongs my weary life;
Dodypoll (IV.3): O weary of the way and of my life,
Nobody/Somebody (393-94) SOME: before we end this strife, / I'll make thee ten times weary of thy life.
(1634) MARTIANUS: Who now in prison leads a wearied life,
Penelope (XXIV.1): If by this means he do miscarry, / then of my life shall I be weary.
Geneva Bible: Gen. 27.46 I am weary of my life, Wisd. 2.1, Ps. 90.9. Biblical origin is dubious.
Two bodies, one heart
Edwards Dam&Pith (1417) CARIS: Are such friends both alike in joy and also in smart.
(1418) ARIS: They must needs, for in two bodies they have but one heart.
(V.5.7) LOVE: Their souls are knit, though bodies be disjoined:
Shakes MND (IIII.2) So, with two seeming bodies, but one heart;
See also Kyd Sol&Per (IV.1.30) SOL: For what are friends but one mind in two bodies?
Anon. Willobie (res.2): To join in heart the bodies that are twain,
Feign ... Love
Kyd Sol&Per (IV.1.168) ERASTUS: Witness the heavens of my unfeigned love.
Sp Tr (III.1.20) VILUPPO: That feigned love had colored in his looks
Brooke Romeus (266): And well he wist she loved him best, unless she list to feign.
Shakes V&A (69): Dismiss your vows, your feigned tears, your flattery;
1H6 (V.3): That Suffolk doth not flatter, face, or feign.
Anon. L Gh. (623): How some with feigned love did me beguile,
Willobie - Feigned love: (VIII.5): Still feign as though thou godly art,
(IX.6): To bear a show, and yet to feign,
(XI.6):To faithless heart, to lie and feign,
(XXX.1): How fine they feign, how fair they paint,
(LV.II): Assure yourself, I do not feign, / Requite my love with love again.
(praise/contented ): As in the feigned love that lives with discontented mind.
Geneva Bible II Samuel Argument: ... what horrible & dangerous insurrections, uproars, & treasons were wrought against him, partly by false counselors, feigned friends & flatterers, and partly by some of his own children and people and how by God's assistance he overcame all difficulties, and enjoyed his kingdom in rest and peace. In the person of David the Scripture setteth forth the Christ Jesus the chief King, who came of David according to the flesh, and was persecuted on every side with outward and inward enemies, as well as in his own person, as in his members, but at length he overcometh all his enemies and give his Church victory against all power both spiritual & temporal: and so reigneth with them, King for evermore.
Fond ... Fair
Oxford Poetry: If women could be fair and yet not fond,
Or that their love were firm not fickle, still, ...
Lyly Campaspe (III.3.31-32) CAMPASPE: Were women never so fair, men would be false.
APELLES: Were women never so false, men would be fond.
Gallathea (III.1.61) TELUSA: Oh fair Melebeus! Oh fond Telusa!
MB (I.2.8-9) STELLIO: ... that youths seeing her fair cheeks may
be enamored before they hear her fond speech.[I.2.10]
Kyd Sol&Per (V.2.110): SOLIMAN: Ah that Perseda were not half so fair,
Or that Soliman were not so fond, / Or that Perseda had some other love,
Shakes R&J (II.2) JULIET: In truth, fair Montague, I am too fond,
Edw3 (I.2.163-64): K. EDWARD: As wise as fair; what fond fit can be heard,
When wisdom keeps the gate as beauty's guard?
Anon Greene's Groat (177): and the most fair are commonly most fond, ...
Marrow-burning ... Marrow/marrow-prying
Kyd Sol&Per (V.2.14) Such is the force of marrow-burning love.
Shakes V&A (#22) My flesh is soft and plump, my marrow burning;
Anon. Arden (I.1.135) ALICE: And these my narrow-prying neighbors' blab
In Quarto 2 "narrow-prying" compares to WS/Errors: "The narrow-prying father, Minola."
Duty ... Bound
Gascoigne ... Jocasta (I.1.20) SERVUS: For hereunto I am by duty bound,
Edwards Dam&Pith (747): EUB: But yet, O might [king], my duty bindeth me.
(1758) EUBULUS: But chiefly yet, as duty bindeth, I humbly crave
Shakes 1H6 (II.1) TALBOT: How much in duty I am bound to both.
Oth (I.3) DES: I do perceive here a divided duty: / To you I am bound for life and education;
(III.3) IAGO: Though I am bound to every act of duty, ...
Lucrece (Prologue): Were my worth greater, my duty would show greater,
meantime, as it is bound to your lordship ,...
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.59) PEDRINGANO: My bounden duty bids me tell the truth,
Sol&Per (V.2.66) 2 WITNESS: And, as our duty and allegiance bound us,
Greene Alphonsus (III.1.24) ALPH: So that, perforce, I must by duty be
Bound to you all for this your courtesy.
Anon Dodypoll (I.1): O, that my rival bound me not in duty ...
Cromwell (I.2.97-98) CROM: With all my heart, sir, and / I much am bound,
In love and duty for your kindness shown.
Brooke Romeus (2348): Whilst honest love did strive with dread of / deadly pain,
Kyd Sol&Per (V.2.91) SOL: Where filthy lust must murther honest love.
Shakes 3H6 (III.3) Q MARG: ... Springs not from Edward's / well-meant honest love,
Lyly Midas (III.3) SUAVIA: ... as I know honest love to be a thing inseparable from our sex,
Anon. Willobie (XXIV.6): If honest love be meant thereby,
(XLII.5): Whose honest love shall never fail, / A faithful friend in honest love ...
(XLII.7): 'Twixt wicked lust and honest love.
(XLII.10): In honest love your faithful friend.
(LVI.2): To love, excepting honest love,
(LXIV.6): If honest love could breed content,
Geneva Bible Ecclus 40. 18-19-- 18. To labor and be content with that a man hath, is a sweet life: but he that findeth a treasure, is above them both. 19. Children, and the building of the city make a perpetual name: but an honest woman is counted above them both.
End ... Life
Brooke Romeus (2026: Will bring the end of all her cares by ending careful life.
Ovid Ovid Met. (XIV.156: Eternal and of worldly life I should none end have seen,
Gascoigne Jocasta (III.1.262) MENECEUS: Brings quiet end to this unquiet life.
(V.2.27) CREON: What hapless end thy life alas hath hent.
I loathe not life, nor dread my end.
Oxford poetry (My mind to me a kingdom is): I loathe not life, nor dread my end.
Watson Hek (XXXVI, comment): abandoning all further desire of life,
hath in request untimely death, as the only end of his infelicity.
Lyly Endymion (I.2) TELLUS: Ah Floscula, thou rendest my heart in sunder,
in putting me in remembrance of the end.
FLOSCULA: Why, if this be not the end, all the rest is to no end.
(II.1) TELLUS: She shall have an end.
ENDYMION: So shall the world.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.13.8-11) HIERONIMO: For evils unto ills conductors be,
And death's the worst of resolution. / For he that thinks with patience to contend
To quiet life, his life shall easily end.
Sol&Per (V.2.120) SOLIMAN: So let their treasons with their lives have end.
Shakes Lucrece (1208): My life's foul deed, my life's fair end shall free it.
Anon. Willobie (III.4): That is to lead a filthy life, / Whereon attends a fearful end:
Geneva Bible Wisdom 5.4 We fools thought his life madness, and his end without honor; Ecclus. 11.27: In a man's end, his works are discovered; Job 34.36
Kyd Sol&Per (V.4.153) And with revenging ire doth tyrannize,
Anon. Willobie (LX.6) This sign of God's revenging ire;
Geneva Bible Nahum 1.2 ... thy Lord revengeth: even the Lord of anger, the Lord will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies.
APPENDIX III: Vocabulary, Word Formation
give [thee] leave (10); if heaven were just (5); as occasion serves (2); far from flattery (2, none in Sp Tr); fraud-full (2)
Distinctive Words, Phrases:
dismount (throw); fortune's tennis-ball; muliebrity (1st use/OED); squicht (2d use/OED)
Compound Words (surely unusual): 94 words.
Abraham-colored (a); air-bred (a); Aristippus-like (a); back-bone (n); back-door (n); bawdy-house (n); best-beloved (n); big-boned (a); blind-fold (a); brand-bearing (a); brass-leaved (a); cake-bread (n); cannon-shot (n); channel-bone (n); cloud-compacted (a); club-man (n); counter-check (v); covered-over (a); death-bed (n); dry-shod (a); ever-thirsting (a); ever-turning (a); face-to-face (adv); faint-hearted (a); fair-spoken (a); fairest-shaped (a); fire-works (n); flint-heart (a); fire-brand (a)' foe-man (n); fore-passed (a); foul-mouthed (a); foulest-minded (a); fraud-full* (a); gold-abounding (a); high-minded (a); honor-bound (a); ill-born (a); ill-plucked (a); lady-ware (n); lamb-like (a); lamp-like (a); laughing-stock (n); light-foot (a); long-continual (a); man-at-arms (n); marrow-burning (a); men-children (n); milk-white (a); moist-compacted (a); never-failing (a); never-wasting (a); out-of-arms* (n); over-borne (n); over-come (v); over-eyed (v); over-flowing (a); over-gone (a); over-loving (n); over-match (v); over-past (a); over-spread (a); over-taken (v); over-throwing (n); over-thrown (v); over-whelmed (v); pent-in (a); pin-proof (a); pinky-eyed (a); pistol-proof (a); red-guild (a); run-away (n); self-same (a); she-sword (n); shin-bone (n); slaughter-house (n); son-in-law (n); sun-god (n); sun-shine (a); swift-winged (a); taking-up (n); tennis-ball (n); thigh-bone (n); thrice-renowned (a); tragic-comical (a); turn-coat (n); under-prop* (v); unlooked-for (a); well-approved (a); well-assured (a); well-conveyed (a); well-exercised (a); well-governed (a); well-knit (a); well-proportioned (a)
Words beginning with "con": 31 words (12 verbs, 13 nouns, 6 adj, 1 adv, 1 prep).
concerning (prep), conclude (v), conclusion (n), condemned (v), condition (n), conduct (n), confess (v), conflict (n), conjecturing (v), conquer (v), conquered (a), conqueror (n), conquest (n), consent (v, n), consenting (a), consequence (n), consider (v), consideration (n), considered (v), consort (v), conspire (v), constancy (n), contain (v), contemplate (v), contemptible (a), [dis]content (n, a), contentedly (adv), continued (a), continuance (n), controversy (n), convenient (a)
Words beginning with "dis" (*surely unusual): 23 words. (13 verbs, 7 nouns, 4 adj).
disarm (v), discharge (v), discipline (n), discontent (n), discourse (n, v), disdain (v), disgrace (v), disgracious* (a), dishonor (n), disjoin* (v), dishonorable (a), disloyalty (n), dismal (a), dismiss (v), dismount* (v), dispatch (v), disperse (v), displease (v), displeasure (n), dissemble (v), dissembling *(a), distilled (v), distress (n)
Note: Unusual use of "dismount, both as a transitive andas a passive verb.
Meaning: in tournament, being thrown from a horse by opponent.
Words beginning with "mis" *surely unusual): 10 words (5 verbs, 4 nouns, 1 adj).
miscarry (v), mischief (n), misdeed (n), misdo (v), misdoubt (v), miserable (a), misery (n), misintend* (v), mislead (v), mistress (n)
Note: misintend is the first of only 2 OEC citations, both late 16th c.
Words beginning with "over": 13 words (7 verbs, 2 nouns, 4 adj),
over-borne (a), o'ercome (v), over-eyed (v), over-flowing (a), over-gone (v), over-loving (n), over-match (v), over-past (a), o'er-spread (a), over-taken(v), over-throwing (n), over-thrown (v), over-whelmed (v)
Words beginning with "pre": 10 words (5 verbs, 4 nouns, 3 adj).
precious (a), prejudicial (a), prepare (v), presence (n), present (a, n, v), preserved (v), presume (v), presumer (n), presumption (n), prevail (v)
Words beginning with "re": 55 words (33 verbs, 21 nouns, 5 adj, 1 adv).
rebuke (v), recall (v), receive (v), rechange (v), reckoning (n), recompense (n), recover (v), redouble (v), reflecting (a), refuse (v), refusing (n), regard (v, n), reject (v), rejoice (v), relief (n), relieve (v), religious (a), religiously (adv), remain (v), remainder (n), remedy (n), remember (v), remit (v), remorse (n), remove (v), renown[ed] (a, n), repaid (v), repent (v), repentance (n), reply (n), repent (v), report (n, v), repossess (v), repute (v), request (n), require (v), rescue (v), resemble[ing] (v), resist (v), resolute (a), resolution (n), respect (n), restore (v), retaining (n), retire (n), retreat (n), return (n), reveal (v), revenge (n, v), revenging (a), revile (v), revive (v), revolt (v), revolved (v), reward (v, n)
Words beginning with "un","in": 68 words 38/26/4.
(16 verbs, 22 nouns, 24 adj, 2 adv, 6 conj, 1 prep).
incision (n), incline (v), inconstant (a), increase (v, n), indeed (conj), indignation (n), infamy (n), infancy (n), infant (n), infer (v), inferior (a), infirmities (n), influence (n), inform (v), infringe (v), ingenious (a), inhuman (a), injurious (a), injury (n), innocence (n), innocent (n,a), inquire (n, v), inquiry (n), insolence (n), insomuch (conj), inspire (v), instance (n), instruction (n), insulting (v), intemperance (n), [mis]intend (v), intent (n), interest (n), interlaced (v), interpreter (n), interred (v), into (prep), inward (a), unarmed (a), unclasp (v), unclasping (n), undo (v), uneducate (a), unfeigned (a), unfortunate (a), ungracious (a), unhappy (a), universal (a), unjust (a), unkind(a), unkindly (adv), unkindness (n), unknown (a), unless (conj), unlikely (a), unlooked-for (a), unmask (v), unnoted (a), unpleasant (a), unprovided (a), until (conj), untimely (a), unto (conj), unwise (a)
under (conj), underhand (adv), under-prop (v), understand (v)
Words ending with "able": 7 words (7 adj).
admirable (a), affable (a), dishonorable (a), favorable (a), miserable(a). passable (a), reasonable (a)
Words ending with "ize": 2 verbs -- moralize, tyrannize (3).
Words ending with "less": 15 words (13 a, 1 adv, 1 conj).
careless (a), comfortless (a), dauntless (a), doubtless (adv), faithless (a), fruitless (a), graceless (a), hapless (a), mastless (a), matchless (a), reckless (a), spotless (a), supperless (a), unless (conj), worthless (a)
Words ending with "ness": 12 words (1 verb, 12 nouns).
business (n), fullness (n), happiness (n), hardness (n), highness (n), [un]kindness (n), madness (n), mightiness (n), mildness (n), willfulness (n), witness (v, n), worthiness (n)
afflict thyself, condemn myself, couch'd myself, demeaned himself, forget himself, frame myself, grew myself, humble himself, keep myself, lament me, lost herself, to purge myself, regard themselves, repute myself, undo myself, unmask thyself, vow myself, wound myself
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