The Plays of John Lyly: Sapho and Phao
Glossary and Appendices
by Barboura Flues copyright © 2002
(FS means found in Shakespeare; NFS means not found in Shakespeare)
Note: Many of Lyly's works betray an avid interest in, and possible amusement by, ancient books of improbable flora and fauna, to which he often added his own delightful inventions. In this play imagination seems to have run riot. The editor speculates that these "specimens" may have been added for the amusement, or befuddlement, of the children's acting company for which Lyly then wrote, or possibly for the benefit of his own children..
aegitus (n): Lyly spurious natural history: an improbable mythical bird which never sleepeth for fear of his hen. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
anyta (n): Lyly spurious natural history: a sweet flower at the rising of the sun, a weed if it be not plucked before the setting, this plant appears to be Lyly's creation. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
asbeston (n): the qualities of asbestos were discussed similarly in Lyly Euphues, and Sapho; and Greene Alphonsus. Collins points out Solinus Polyhistor and Gesner De rerum fossilium ... as sources of Euphuistic natural history peculiarities and misconceptions.
asolis (n): Lyly possible spurious natural history: being made green by heavenly drops, shrinketh into the ground when there fall showers. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
ban (n, v): curse. FS (5-2H6, Lucrece, PP); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta; 1555 Latimer Ser& Rem; Lyly Sapho; Greene Selimus; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Locrine, Arden; Marlowe Jew; Nashe Pierce Penniless; Munday Huntington.
bane (n): destruction, poison. FS (8-2H6, T&C, MM, Cymb, Titus, Mac, Edw3, V&A); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Sapho; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Greene Alphonsus, Look Gl; Kyd Sol&Per; Harvey 4 Letters; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Woodstock, Penelope, Blast of Retreat, L Gh; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Chettle Kind Hart.
bawling (v): yelling at the top of one's voice, howling. FS (1-Tempest); Lyly Sapho; Drayton et al Oldcastle. OED 1st citation: 1629 Gaule Pract.
bell, bear the bell/win the bell (v): take the prize. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Sundrie Flowers (E/N); Watson Hek; Lyly Sapho, Whip; (anon.) Willobie.
bodkin (n): (1) pin or pin-shaped ornament used to fasten women's hair; also a short pointed weapon, dagger. FS (Ham); Golding Ovid; Lyly Sapho, Endymion, Midas, Bombie, Pappe; Sidney Arcadia; Nashe Absurdity; (anon.) Arden; Marston, Chapman, Jonson Eastward Ho.
bolt/bolts (n): fetters. FS (MM, 12th, Cymb, Temp, Corio); Lyly, Sapho; Marlowe Edw2; Greene Fr Bacon; (anon.) Woodstock.
broad head (n): i.e., for horns; a cuckold. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
brown bill (n): broadsword used by constables. FS (3-2H6, Ado, Lear); Golding Ovid; Lyly Sapho, Pappe; Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody.
cammock (a): crooked stick or piece of wood. NFS. Cf. Lyly Euphues, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Greene ? Selimus.
canker (n): spreading blight, corruption. FS (John, Ham, many); Lyly Sapho; Pasquil Countercuff.
carbonado (n): piece of meat or fish, slashed for broiling. FS (3-1H4, Lear, Corio); Marlowe T1 (1st OED citation); Lyly Sapho.
carouse (v): drink/toast (health, other good fortune), addressed to someone. FS (Shrew, Ham); Lyly Bombie.
cheer (n): provender, food. FS (20); Sundrie Flowers; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene G a G, Fr Bac, James IV, Pandosto, Maiden's Dream; Marlowe Faustus; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody, Arden; Nashe Valentines, Summers; Harvey Sonnet; (disp./Chettle) Greene's Groat; (disp.) Cromwell; Munday Huntington.
chrysocoll (n): 1657 Phys. Dict, a kind of mineral found like sand in the veins of some metals. Cf. Lyly Sapho; Greene Never too Late; Lodge Euphues Golden Legacy.
clout (n): (1) cloth. FS (4-R&J, Lear, Hamlet, A&C); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Sapho, Bombie, Endymion; Greene Orl Fur, James IV; Nashe Summers.
cog (v): deceive, as by tricks or flattery, cheat. FS (6-LLL, Rich3, MWW, Ado, Timon, Corio); Lyly Sapho, Bombie; Harvey 4 Letters; Greene Cony, James 4; (anon.) Ironside, Cromwell; Nashe Absurdity (1st of 2 OED citations); (disp.) Greene's Groat. cog (n): flatterer, deceiver. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho; Munday Huntington.
conceit (n): (1) intelligence, wit. FS (AsYou). (2) understanding, idea, imagination. FS (1H6, Errors, R&J, Ham, H8); Kyd Sp Tr; Puttenham Poesie; (anon.) Willobie, Dodypoll. (3) fears, imaginings, fantasy. FS (Errors, MND); Lyly Sapho; Watson Hek.
favor (n): appearance, features. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Greene Cony; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Arden, Weakest; Drayton et al Oldcastle; Nashe Summers; Chapman Revenge.
fletcher (n): one who makes bows and arrows. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho.
frame (v): prepare, create, arrange. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Lyly Gallathea, Sapho. Common.
frowardness (n): perversity, forwardness. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho; (disp.) Greene's Groat; (anon.) Woodstock, Arden.
garus (n): medicinal liqueur. Lyly spurious natural history: a fish called Garus that healeth all sickness, so as whilst it is applied one name not garus. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
gear (n): device, matter. FS (11); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Sundrie Flowers; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho, Bombie; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Kyd Sp Tr; Drayton et al Oldcastle; (anon.) Fam Vic; Munday Huntington.
glistering (a, n): glittering. Cf. Golding Ovid, Abraham; Lyly Sapho; Willobie.
inter-prater (n): one who prates at intervals. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho (only OED citation).
knack (n): choice dish, delicacy. NFS. Cf. Udall Erasmus; Lyly Sapho; Greene Disc. Cozenage.
liripoop (n): something to be learned, acted or spoken; a lesson , role, or part: to know or have (one's) liripoop, to teach (a person) his liripoop. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho, Pappe, Bombie. OED contemp citations: 1576 Newton Lemnie's Complex; 1577 Stanyhurst Descr.
lower (v): look down, often used with clouds to refer to threatening looks. FS (2H6); Watson Hek; Lyly Sapho; Greene Pandosto, James IV, ? Selimus.
lunary (n): moonwort, a fern; by many believed to have magical powers. NFS. Cf. Lyly Gallathea, Sapho, Endymion. OED missed all uses. This use, however, seems to be one of Lyly's natural history inventions.
Lydian steel (n): Lyly spurious natural history: Lydian steel which striketh a deep disdain of that which we most desire. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
mandrake (n): poisonous plant, having emetic and narcotic properties, and was formerly used medicinally. The forked root is thought to resemble the human form, and was fabled to utter a deadly shriek when plucked up from the ground. The notion indicated in the narrative of Genesis xxx, that the fruit when eaten by women promotes conception, is said still to survive in Palestine. (a) FS (R&J) Lyly Euphues, Sapho, Bombie; (anon.) Willobie. 1594 Moth. Bomb. v. iii, Your sonne Memphis, had a moale vnder his eare:..you shall see it taken away with the iuyce of mandrage. 1601 Holland Pliny II. 235 In the digging vp of the root of Mandrage, there are some ceremonies obserued. (b) term of abuse. FS (2H4). mandragora (n): juice of mandrake, a sleeping potion. FS (A&C).
medlar (n): (1) small brown fruit, similar to the apple but soft when ripe. FS (AsYou); Lyly Sapho, Endymion.
mithridate (n): composition of many ingredients in the form of an electuary, regarded as a universal antidote or preservative against poison and infectious disease; any medicine to which similar powers were ascribed. NFS. Lyly Sapho; Cf. (anon.) Arden; Chettle Kind Harts; Dekker Gull's Hornbook.
mouse [of beef] (n): dialect name for certain portions of beef. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
origanum (n): Lyly spurious natural history in this application: 'where the bear cannot find origanum to heal his grief, he blasteth all other leaves with his breath.' Origanum belongs to the genus of labiates (comprising herbs and low shrubs, with flowers in clustered heads, and aromatic leaves) as such as marjoram. In the old herbals, including Pennyroyal and other labiates. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
overslip (v): let pass, omit, pass without notice. FS (1-Lucrece); Lyly Sapho; Nashe Saffron Waldon; Harvey letter.
pantofle (n): slipper. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho, Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Arden, News/Heaven&Hell; Nashe Almond, Unf Trav. Common.
perillus (n): Lyly spurious natural history: stone which causes mistrust and jealousy. Cf. Lyly Sapho. The anonymous author of Edmund Ironside used Perillus correctly, to refer to an Athenian who fell victim to his own device: a brazen bull in which condemned men were roasted to death.
policy (n): trickery, cunning. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Greene Pandosto, ? Selimus; (anon.) Woodstock, Locrine, Fam Vic, Ironside, Nobody, Leic Gh; Chettle Kind Hart. Wide contemp use. A major Shakespeare preoccupation, i.e.: 1H4: Neuer did base and rotten Policy / Colour her working with such deadly wounds.
polyon (n): Lyly spurious natural history: a plant with leaves that are white in the morning and blue before night. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
prank (v): sport, show off. FS (3-12th, Corio, WT); Golding Ovid; Lyly Sapho; Greene James IV.
precise (a): guided by Puritan precepts; code word for Puritan. FS (9-1H6, TGV, MWW, AWEW, Ham, MM); Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Sapho, Midas, Whip; Marlowe Jew of Malta; Greene James IV; (anon.) Fam Vic. Blast of Retreat, Willobie, Leic Gh. preciser (a): probably referring back to precisianist, Puritan. NFS. Cf. a(non.) Willobie; Nashe Absurdity. precisian (n): puritanical guide in theology. FS (MWW); Marlowe Faustus; (anon.) Arden; Jonson Man in Hum; Leic Gh.
ramp (a): bold, vulgar, flirtatious woman or girl; tramp. FS (1-Cymb); Lyly Sapho. OED early citations: 1450 Knt. de la Tour; 1548 Hall Chron; 1573 G. Harvey Letter; 1611 Middleton & Dekker Roaring Girl
refel (v): deny, refute. FS (MM). Cf. Lyly Campaspe, Sapho.
salurus (n): Lyly spurious natural history: tree whose root is fastened upon knotted steel and in whose top bud leaves of pure gold. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
scamble (v): struggle, cope. FS (3-John, H5); Lyly Sapho. scambling (n): makeshift, blundering. Cf. Nashe Absurdity (1st OED citation); Lyly Sapho. Shakespeare's uses in Ado & H5 probably derived from Lyly/Nashe word.
Seres (n): people inhabiting silk-producting area of China. Cf. Lyly Euphues (2d OED citation), Sapho; Greene Euphues Censure.
simples (n): medicine or medicament concocted of only one constituent, esp. of one herb or plant; hence, a plant or herb employed for medical purposes. In common use from c 1580 to 1750, chiefly in pl. FS (4-R&J, AsYou, Ham, Lear); Lyly Sapho, Endymion (OED missed citation); Harvey Pierce's Super; Chettle Kind Hart. OED contemp citations: 1539 Elyot Cast. Helthe; 1563 T. Gale Antidot. 1588 Greene Perimedes Wks. (Grosart) VII. 15 Their stomacks bee made a verie Apotecaries shoppe, by receiuing a multitude of simples and drugges.
stockdove (n): wild pigeon. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
trencher (n): serving plate or dish [usually with connotation of trencher-knight or freeloader]. FS (7-2H6, TGV, R&J, A&C, Tempest, Corio, Timon); Lyly Sapho; many others.
turquie/turkey (n): turquoise. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
unpitiful (a): pitiless. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
willow [garland] (n): worn by a jilted woman or man. FS (3H6); Lyly Sapho; (anon.) Dodypoll.
woodquist (n): wild pigeon, stockdove. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho.
yerk (v): lash, whip, kick out. FS (1-H5) ; Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho.
venter non habet aures: a stomach does not have ears; talk of food does not ease hunger.
nemo videt manticae quod in tergo est: no one sees the bag that hangs from his back (his own faults).
caseus est nequam: cheese is nothing (?)
Pliny, Natural History. (35:85-87).
The story of Sapho and Phaon, the beautiful ferryman, is told in Ovid's Epistles, relating the hopeless passion of Sapho for her former lover the haughty Phaon, who has deserted her to go to Sicilia, and her decision to end her life by throwing herself from a cliff.
The story has been reshaped by Lyly, now reflecting in Sapho the Elizabethan ideal of perfect wisdom, goodness, and beauty. In this retelling Sapho abandons Phao, who is then condemned to a life of exile (and implied adventure) far from Sapho's kingdom in Syracuse. Phao is young and naive rather than haughty and scornful; the portrait of Sapho (Elizabeth) is surprisingly earthy in scenes of longing; the ending somewhat unresolved and unsatisfying. Several years later Lyly maintained the same lyric intensity in the glorious Endymion, developing a complex romantic/mythic plot, creating the superbly comic Sir Tophas, and achieving in Endymion's renunciation of earthly love an ending appropriate to the growing legend of Gloriana.
Length: 13,866 words
Bond, R.W. Complete Works of John Lyly. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1902.
Daniel, Carter A., ed. The Plays of John Lyly. Lewisburg, N.J.: Bucknell University Press, 1988
Houppert, J.W. John Lyly. (Twaine's English Author Series). New York: 1975
Hunter, G.K. John Lyly: The Humanist as Courtier. London: Routledge, 1962.
Saccio, Peter. The Court Comedies of John Lyly. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.
APPENDIX II: Connections
Honey ... Surfeit
Lyly Sapho (Pro.): and in Hybla (being cloyed with honey) they account it dainty to feed on wax.
Endymion (V.1.143) ENDY: for bees surfeit sometimes with honey and the gods are glutted ...
Ironside (V.2.253-59) CANUTUS: How pleasant are these speeches to my ears,
Aeolian music to my dancing heart, / Ambrosian dainties to my starved maw,
sweet-passing Nectar to my thirsty throat, / rare cullises to my sick-glutted mind,
refreshing ointments to my wearied limbs, / and heavenly physic to my earth-sick soul,
which erst was surfeited with woe and war.
Shakes 1H4 (3.2.71-73): They surfeited with honey and began
To loathe the taste of sweetness, whereof a little / More than a little is by much too much.
Bible Prov. 25.16 ... eat (honey) that is sufficient for thee, lest thou be over-full, and vomit it.
Lyly Sapho (Pro.): who fearing to surfeit on spices, stoopeth to bite on worm-wood
Shakes LLL (V.2) ROSALINE: Oft have I heard of you, my Lord Biron, ...
To weed this wormwood from your fruitful brain,
Edw3 (III.3) K. EDWARD: If gall or wormwood have a pleasant taste,
Lucrece (128): Thy sugar'd tongue to bitter wormwood taste: .
Thy violent vanities can never last.
R&J has two nonapplicable uses.
Hamlet (III.2) HAM: [Aside] Wormwood, wormwood.
Anon. Willobie (XXXVII.3): Note: Prov. 5.4 Strange pleasure seems sweet at the beginning,
but their end is as bitter wormwood.
Bible Prov. 5. 3-4 (3) For the lips of a strange woman drop as an honeycomb, and her mouth is more soft than oil. (4) But the end of her is bitter as wormwood, & sharp as a two-edged sword.
Brooke Romeus (52): And each with outward friendly show doth hide his inward hate,
(360): Yet with an outward show of joy she cloaked inward smart;
(1324): His outward dreary cheer bewrayd his store of inward smart.
(2315-16): That by her outward look no living wight could guess
Her inward woe, and yet anew renewed is her distress.
(2893-94): My conscience inwardly should more torment me thrice,
Than all the outward deadly pain that all you could devise.
Golding Abraham (648) SARA: Both outwardly and inwardly alway,
Lyly Gallathea (V.2) HAEBE: your inward thoughts, the pomp of your outward shows.
Endy (IV.1) COR: the extremities of their inward passions are always suspected of outward perjuries.
(IV.3) TELLUS: not smother the inward fire but it must needs be perceived by the outward smoke;
Sapho (Pro.): Our intent was at this time to move inward delight, not outward lightness;
Marlowe T1 (I.2.163) TAMB: If outward habit judge the inward man.;
Shakes Rich3 (I.4) BRAK: An outward honour for an inward toil;
King John (I.1) BASTARD: Exterior form, outward accoutrement,
But from the inward motion to deliver
Pericles (II.2) SIM: The outward habit by the inward man.
A&C (III.13) ENO: A parcel of their fortunes; and things outward
Do draw the inward quality after them,
V&A (71): Had I no eyes but ears, my ears would love / That inward beauty and invisible;
Or were I deaf, thy outward parts would move ...
Lucrece (13): Whose inward ill no outward harm express'd:
(221) With outward honesty, but yet defiled / With inward vice: as Priam him did cherish,
Sonnet (16): Neither in inward worth nor outward fair,
Sonnet (46): As thus; mine eye's due is thy outward part,
And my heart's right thy inward love of heart.
Anon. Ironside (I.3.45) EDM: thank not thy outward foe but inward friend;
Dodypoll (V.2): Of outward show doth sap the inward stock in substance and of worth ...
L Gh. (364-65): To entertain all men (to outward show)
With inward love, for few my heart did know,
Bible 1 Sam. 16.7 For God seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord beholdeth the heart. 2 Sam.Arg ... who came of David according to the flesh, and was persecuted on every side with outward and inward enemies ...
Precise: a code-word for "Puritan"
Lyly Campaspe (Pro.): although there be in your precise judgments
an universal mislike, yet we may enjoy by your wonted courtesies a / general silence.
Gallathea (III.1) TELUSA: And can there in years so young, in education
so precise, in vows so holy, and in a heart so chaste,
Sapho (Pro.): yielding rather ourselves to the courtesy which we have ever found,
than to the preciseness which we ought to fear.
Midas (I.1.) MARTIUS: Those that call conquerors ambitious are like those
that term thrift covetousness, cleanliness pride, honesty preciseness.
Woman/Moon (III.2.1) VENUS: Phoebus, away. Thou mak'st her too precise.
Shakes 1H6 (V.4)WARWICK: The greatest miracle that e'er ye wrought:
Is all your strict preciseness come to this?
TGV (IV.4.5-6) LANCE: I have taught him (his dog), even as one would say precisely,
MWW (I.1) EVANS: (to Slender) Therefore, precisely, can you carry your / good will to the maid?
(II.2) FALSTAFF: it is as much as I can do to keep the terms of my honour precise: ...
2H4 (II.3.40) L PERCY: To hold your honour more precise and nice
(IV.1.203) ARCH/YORK: He cannot so precisely weed this land
HAMLET (IV.4) ... Now, whether it be / Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple
Of thinking too precisely on the event, / A thought which, quarter'd, hath but one part wisdom
And ever three parts coward, Of thinking too precisely on the event, ...
AWEW (II.2.12) CLOWN: such a fellow, to say precisely, were not for the court.
MM (I.272-74) LUCIO: ... and he (Claudio) was ever precise in promise-keepimg.
(I.3.50) DUKE: Only, this one: Lord Angelo is precise;
(II.1.51-52) ELBOW: I know not well what they are: but precise villains / they are, that I am sure
In the speeches of Lance and Falstaff there is a good deal of humor directed at the Puritans; the excesses of Angelo (Measure for Measure) are viewed in a more critical light.
Greene James IV (II.2.159) ATEUKIN: She's holy-wise and too precise for me.
Anon. Famous Vic. (272) OXFORD: Perchance the Mayor and the Sheriff
have been too precise in this matter.
Marprelate (I): And therefore, has not the learned and prudent Mr. Dean dealt very valiantly (how wisely let John Cant. cast his cards and consider) in assaulting this sort of our precise brethren, which he has so shaken with good vincible reasons, very notably out of reason, that it has not one stone in the foundation more than it had. ... Our brethren (for so of his mere courtesy it pleases Mr. Dean to call them, whom men commonly call puritans and precisians) ... these fellows need not to be so precise of swearing by faith and troth, ... Who sees not by this example the folly of our precise brethren's reason evidently declared. ... to creep into acquaintance with some of the preciser sort, and look smoothly for a time, until he can execute his commission.
Leir (II.9-12) GONORILL: Besides, she is so nice and so demure;
So sober, courteous, modest, and precise, / That all the Court hath worke ynough to do,
To talke how she exceedeth me and you.
Willobie (IV.1): You show yourself so fool-precise, / That I can hardly think you wise.
(IV.5): But her thy folly may appear, / Art thou preciser than a Queen;
(V.4): If death be due to every sin, / How can I then be too precise?
(XXV.5): You talk of sin, and who doth live / Whose daily steps slide not awry?
But too precise doth deadly grieve / The heart that yields not yet to die:
L Gh. (174-75): And many though me a Precisian, / But God doth know, I never was precise;
Fall ... Climb
Oxford Poetry (My Mind to Me a Kingdom is) I see how plenty suffers oft,
How hasty climbers soon do fall;
Lyly Sapho (I.1.3) PHAO: Who climbeth, standeth on glass and falleth on thorn.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 54): if thou rest content with this, thou art like to stand, if thou climb thou art sure to fall.
Anon. Nobody (1461) CORNWELL: And that's prodigious! I but wait the time,
To see their sudden fall, that swiftly climb.
(1490-91) VIGENIUS: Then let's try mast'ries, and one conquer all.
We climbed at once, and we at once will fall.
Arden (III.5.15) MOSBY: But since I climbed the top bough of the tree
And sought to build my nest among the clouds,
Each gentlest airy [stirry] gale doth shake my bed
And makes me dread my downfall to the earth.
Cromwell (V.1.70) GARDINER: Here's honors, titles, and promotions:
I fear this climbing will have a sudden fall.
Leic. Gh. (82): He, too well known by his climb-falling pride,
Shakes Cymb (III.2)BEL: ... the art o'the court ... whose top to climb
Is certain falling, or so slippery that / The fear's as bad as falling"
Note Raleigh to Queen Elizabeth: "I feign would climb but fear to fall"
Nuptial fire ... Blow
Lyly Sapho (I.1.21) VENUS: ... to sojourn with Vulcan in a smith's forge,
where bellows blow instead of sigh,
Shakes A&C (II.6): then shall the sighs of Octavia blow the fire up in Caesar
H8 (5.2.148): Ye blew the fire that burns ye.
Anon. Dainty Devices (L.3.r): And to my hope I reap no other hire,
But burn myself, and I to blow the fire.
Dodypoll (I.3.16): Must suffer men to blow the nuptial fire.
Bible Ecclus: 28.12 If thou blow the spark, it shall burn. Job 20.26 ... the fire that is not blown, shall devour him ... Possibly a proverb
Yoke ... Necks (stubborn)
Golding Ovid Met. (VII.279): And caused their unwieldy necks the bended yoke to take.
Watson Hek(I): Cupid hath clapt a yoke upon my neck,
Lyly Campaspe (I.1.42-43) TIMOCLEA: We are here now captives, whose necks are yoked by force but whose / hearts cannot yield by death.
Sapho (I.1.35-36): I will yoke the neck that never bowed, ...
Anon. Woodstock (I.1.55) LANC: Would not throw off their vild and servile yoke
(II.1.512) KING: but time shall come, when we shall yoke their necks.
(II.1) TRESILIAN: and hath shook off the servile yoke of mean protectorship.
Ironside (I.1.108-09) 1 COUNTRY: We then did yoke the Saxons and compelled their stubborn necks to ear the fallow fields.
(I.1.135-41) USKA: a generation like the chosen Jews: stubborn, unwieldy, fierce and wild to tame, scorning to be compelled against their wills, abhorring servitude as having felt the overloading burden of the same.
Leic. Gh. (179-180): As Numa, when he first did seek to draw / The Roman people underneath his yoke,
Shakes 1H6 (II.3.63) yoketh your rebellious necks
Edward III (I.1.) KING EDW: Able to yoke their stubborn necks with steel
Bible Exodus 33.3-5: For the Lord had said unto Moses, Say unto the children of Israel, Ye are a stiffnecked people, I will come up suddenly upon thee, and consume thee: therefore now thy costly raiment from thee, that I may know what to do unto thee.
Deut. 31.27, 2 Chron. 36.13, Pss. 75.5, Jer. 17.23, Bar. 2.33.
Flowers ... Weeds
Oxford (poem: dedication of Cardanus): He pulls the flowers, he plucks but weeds.
Lyly Sapho (I.1.97-99) SYBILLA: anyta, which being a sweet flower at the rising of the sun becometh a weed if it be not plucked before the setting.
Greene James IV (II.1.22-25) IDA: ... Some men like to the rose
Are fashion'd fresh; some in their stalks do close
And born, do sudden die; some are but weeds, / And yet from them a secret good proceeds.
Anon. Ironside (IV.1.71-72) MESS: Their flags and banners, yellow, blue and red,
resembles much the weeds in ripened corn.
Arden (III.5.142-43) ALICE: Flowers do sometimes spring in fallow lands,
Weeds in gardens, roses grow on thorns;
Willobie (X.1): Well then I see, you have decreed, / And this decree must light on me;
Unhappy Lily loves a weed, / That gives no scent, that yields no glee:
Thou art the first I ever tried, / Shall I at first be thus denied?
Shakes Sonnet (94): The basest weed outbraves his dignity:
For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds; / Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds.
Oth (IV.2) OTHELLO: O, ay; as summer flies are in the shambles,
That quicken even with blowing. O thou weed, / Who art so lovely fair and smell'st so sweet
That the sense aches at thee, would thou hadst / ne'er been born!
Gore ... Blood (bloody gore)
Golding Ovid Met (XIII.470): This must I use against myself: this blade that heretofore
Hath bathed beene in Trojane blood, must now his mayster gore
Gascoigne Jocasta (V.1.6) CREON: All gored with blood of his too-bloody breast,
Lyly Sapho (IV.3.29-30) MILETA: I was all in gore-blood, till one with a few fresh flowers staunched it.
Greene Selimus (4.32) SELIMUS: And on the ground his bastards' gore-blood shed.
(14.37) ACOMAT: And color my strong hands with his gore-blood.
Shakes R&J (III.2) NURSE: A piteous corse, a bloody piteous corse;
Pale, pale as ashes, all bedaub'd in blood, / All in gore-blood; I swounded at the sight.
12th (II.5) MALVOLIO: But silence, like a Lucrece knife,
With silent stroke my heart doth gore.
Spenser FQ (V.1.330-332): Their greedy vengeaunces, but goary blood,
That at the last like to a purple lake / Of bloudy gore congeal'd about them stood,
Anon. Arden (V.1.328-29) ALICE: See, Susan, where thy quondam master lies Ñ
Sweet Arden, smeared in blood and filthy gore.
Shadow ... Substance
Plato 'Fable of the Cave' (The men at the back of the cave, see only shadows and think they are real)
Oxford (to Burghley) and Queen Elizabeth (to James I and VI) use the 'Neo-Platonic ' reference in their letters. James I (and VI) Neo-Platonism was a major influence on 16th c. thought.
Oxford letter July 1581 to Lord Burghley (#18): But the world is so cunning, as of a shadow they can make a substance, and of a likelihood a truth.
Lyly Campaspe (IV.4.13-14) APELLES: will cause me to embrace thy shadow continually in mine arms, of the which by strong imagination I will make a substance.
Gallathea (III.4) DIANA: embrace clouds for Juno, the shadows of virtue instead of the substance.
Sapho (I.3.22-23) MOLUS: raw wordlings in matters of substance, passing wranglers about shadows.
Endy (V.3) DIPSAS: I renounce both substance and shadow of that most horrible and hateful trade,
Woman/Moon (Pro.12-23) This, but the shadow of our author's dream,
Argues the substance to be near at hand;
Greene Geo a Greene (III.2.119-20) GEORGE: Is this my love? Or is it but a shadow.
JENKIN: Aye, this is the shadow, but here is the substance.
Fr Bac (II.3.129) PRINCE. Made me think the shadows substances. note: within the looking glass: shown in the looking glass (a tool of necromancy) is a reflection of reality but also a warning or prophecy, that Bacon can then try to alter. Richard II deals extensively with this mirror/reality image, especially in a magnificent soliloquy by Richard. The sonnets also dwell on this as aspect of perception, as do many other works by Shakespeare.
Shakes 2H6 (I.1) SUFFOLK: To your most gracious hands, that are the substance
Of that great shadow I did represent;
MV (III.2) BASSANIO: Yet look, how far / The substance of my praise doth wrong this shadow
In underprizing it, so far this shadow / Doth limp behind the substance. ...
Rich2 (II.2.14-15) BUSHY: Each substance of a grief hath twenty shadows,
Which shows like grief itself, but is not so;
(IV.1.298-304) RICHARD: Say that again.
The shadow of my sorrow! ha! let's see: / 'Tis very true, my grief lies all within;
And these external manners of laments / Are merely shadows to the unseen grief
That swells with silence in the tortured soul; / There lies the substance:
MWW (II.2) FORD: 'Love like a shadow flies when substance love pursues;
Sonnet 37: Whilst that this shadow doth such substance give
That I in thy abundance am sufficed / And by a part of all thy glory live.
Anon. Nobody (560) LADY: She's shadow;
We the true substance are: follow her those / That to our greatness dare themselves oppose.
L Gh (132-33): Under the shadow of my countenance;
The substance of the earth did make them rich;
(1529): No shadow, but the substance we embrace.
Nashe Absurdity: Young men are not so much delighted with solid substances as with painted shadows,
Bible: possible origin: The thoughts expressed above, with use of the word 'shadow' are rife in the Bible but certainly could not be attributed to any particular quotation. A very close analogy to MV and MWW, for instance, can be found in Ecclus 34.2 Who so regardeth dreams, is like him that will take hold of a shadow, and follow after the wind. This verse is very close to marked passage 34.5 in Oxford's Geneva Bible, but an attribution of origin would be pure speculation. Ecclus 34.5 is not known to have been used in any Shakespeare play.
Lyly Sapho (I.3.37) MOLUS: You are gross-witted, master courtier.
Nashe Absurdity: ... a gross-brained man which fed on anything but fish.
Penniless: that every gross-brained Idiot is suffered to come into print
Shakes H5 (IV.1) KING: In gross brain little wots ...
Anon. Dodypoll (II.1): Ass that I was, dull, senseless, gross-brained fool.
Lyly Sapho (I.4.30-31) ISMENA: I cannot but oftentimes smile to myself to hear men call us weak vessels,
Kyd: Sol&Per (I.3.72) BASI: Perdie, each female is the weaker vessel, ...
Shakes: LLL (I.1) FERD: 'For Jaquenetta, (so is the weaker vessel called)
2H4 (II.4.60): You, you are the weaker vessel, as they say
As You (II.4) ROSALIND: ... but I must comfort / the weaker vessel, ...
R&J (I.1.15)SAMPSON: Women, being the weaker vessels.
Bible: 1 Peter 3.7 Giving honor unto the woman, as unto the weaker vessel.
Word Games: Fair and Foul
Brooke Romeus (1562): Hath founde a mayde so fayre (he found so foul his happe) (57)
No lady fayre or fowle, was in Verona towne (159)
That Ladies thought the fairest dames were foul in his respect. (178)
Watson Heck (I) But now (alas) all's foul, which then was fair,
Lyly Campaspe (II.2) HEPHES: Ermines have fair skins but foul livers, ...
(III.3) CAMPASPE: A fair woman -- but a foul deceit.
(IV.i) PSYLLUS: I will not lose the sight of so fair a fowl as Diogenes is, ...
(V.3) LAIS: ... to make foul scars in fair faces and crooked maims in straight legs?
Sapho & Phao (II.1.7) PHAO: I fear me fair be a word too foul for a face so passing fair.
SYBILLA: ... beauty, which is fair in the cradle and foul in the grave ...
(II.4.71) SYBILLA: There is none so foul that thinketh not herself fair.
Gallathea (V.2) HAEBE: Tear these tender joints with thy greedy jaws,
this fair face with thy foul teeth.
Midas (I.ii) PETULUS: ... they are ... too fair to pull over so foul a skin.
Mother Bombie (II.iv) SILEN: ... because that I am so fair, therefore are you so foul; ...
(III.iv) RIXUL: ... and yet I hope foul water will quench hot fire as soon as fair.
HALFPENNY: ... let fair words cool that choler / which foul speeches hath kindled; ...
Anon. Willobie (XXXV.4): So foul within, so fair without,
Dodypoll (II.1.95) FLORES: To make fair mends for this foul trespass done,
What a foul knave and fairy!
Shakes: 3H6 (IV.7) EDWARD IV: ... By fair or foul means we must enter in, ...
LLL (IV.i) PRINCESS: ... Where fair is not, praise cannot mend the brow.
Here, good my glass, take this for telling true:
Fair payment for foul words is more than due.
PRINCESS: A giving hand, though foul, shall have fair praise.
Much Ado (IV.1) CLAUDIO: But fare thee well, most foul, most fair! farewell,
Cymbe (I.6) IACHIMO: Thanks, fairest lady. ... and can we not
Partition make with spectacles so precious / 'Twixt fair and foul?
Oth (II.1) IAGO: There's none so foul and foolish thereunto,
But does foul pranks which fair and wise ones do.
Timon (IV.3) TIMON: Thus much of this will make black white, foul fair,
Mac (I.1) ALL:. Fair is foul, and foul is fair: / Hover through the fog and filthy air.
(I.3) MACBETH: So foul and fair a day I have not seen.
V&A (170) The foul boar's conquest on her fair delight;
Lucrece (50): That his foul thoughts might compass his fair fair, ...
(173): My life's foul deed, my life's fair end shall free it. ...
Sonnet (137): To put fair truth upon so foul a face?
Marlowe Tamburlaine I: Fair is too foul.
Sidney Antony (1075) Ant. Fair and foul subjected) Aegypt ah! thou knowst
Ben Jonson, Bartholemew Fair
Shaheen quotes the proverb cited in Tiley (F3): 'Fair face foul heart'
It is likely that this Shakespeare favorite arose within the text of a common proverb.
Painted bait, words, faces, hooks
Oxford Sonnet: (Love thy Choice): Who first did paint with colours pale thy face ?
Lyly Sapho (II.1.22) SYBILLA: Be not proud of beauty's painting,
whose colors consume themselves because they are beauty's painting.
(III.4) VENUS: But truth is a she, and so always painted.
PHAO: I think a painted truth.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 64):"Nay therefore," (quoth Dorastus) maids must love, because they are young; for Cupid is a child, and Venus, though old, is painted with fresh colors."
Anon. Locrine (IV.2.91): Oh that sweet face painted with nature's dye,
Willobie (XLII.10): Esteem not this a painted bait,
(XXX.1): How fine they feign, how fair they paint,
(LVIII.4): Catch fools as fish, with painted hooks.
Shakes Shrew (I.1) KATH: And paint your face and use you like a fool.
Hamlet (III.1.51-53) CLAUDIUS: [Aside] The harlot's cheek, beautied with plastering art,
Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it ...
Hamlet (III.1.150): I have heard of your paintings, too.
Also see Hamlet (II.1.142.46)
Timon (IV.3) TIMON: No matter: -- wear them, betray with them: whore still;
Paint till a horse may mire upon your face, / A pox of wrinkles!
Nashe Penniless: since her picture is set forth in so many painted faces here at home.
Absurdity: for fear of pricking their fingers when they are painting their faces;
Chapman D'Olive (I.1.203-5) RODERIGUE: Thou believst all's natural beauty that shows
fair, though the painter enforce it, and sufferst in soul, I know, / for the honorable lady.
Bible Shaheen ascribes cosmetic references to Isa. 3.16.
Brooke Romeus (To the Reader): So the good doings of the good, & the evil acts of the wicked
Gascoigne Jocasta (I.1.395-96) ANT: Yet, for because itself partaker am
Of good and evil with this my country soil,
(II.1.456) JOCASTA: If the head be evil the body cannot be good.
(III.1..195) TIRESIAS: Though evil for thee, yet for thy country good.
Edwards Dam&Pith (1583): It is an evil wind that bloweth no man good.
Lyly Sapho (II.2.22) SAPHO: It is pity in so good a face there should be an evil eye.
Kyd Sp Tr (I.2.339) ALEX: Nay, evil news fly faster still than good.
Shakes Rich3 (I.3.334): do good for evil. Also I.2.69 and I.3.315-16.
TNK (I.2.38-40) ARCITE: It is for our residing where every evil
Hath a good color, where every seeming good's / A certain evil,
Anon. Willobie (To the ... Reader): That speak good of evil, and evil of good
Willobie seems a perfect inversion of both the Bible and Shakespeare citations.
Bible 1 Thess. 5.15 See that none recompense evil for evil unto any man; but ever follow that which is good (No Match). 1 Sam. 24,18 Thou art more righteous than I; for thou has rendered me good, and I have rendered thee evil.
Rom. 12.21 Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with goodness.
Tongues ... Filed/Smooth
Brooke Romeus (1017): Whether thy sugared talk, and tongue so smoothly filed,
Gascoigne Jocasta (II.1.256) CHORUS: Yet thou O queen, so file thy / sugared tongue,
Edwards Dam&Pith (1726): ... the plague of this court! / Thy filed tongue that forged lies
Lyly Campaspe (IV.2.31) CAMP: Whet their tongues on their hearts.
Sapho (II.4.105) SYB: whose filed tongue made those enamored that sought to have him enchanted.
Greene James IV (I.1.236) ATEU: But princes rather trust a smoothing tongue
Selimus (3.4) SELIMUS: And feigned plaints his subtle tongue doth file
T'entrap the silly wand'ring traveler
Shakes LLL (V.1) HOLO: ... discourse peremptory, his tongue filed, ...
Lear (I.4.288): How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is.
Pass Pilgrim 19 (2): Smooth not thy tongue with filed talk, ...
Nashe Will Summers (1366): Smooth-tongue Orators, the fourth in place
Anon. Willobie (I.10): A filed tongue which none mislikes.
Ironside (II.3.149-50) CAN: Sirs, temper well your tongues and be advised if not, I'll cut them shorter by an inch.
(V.2.162) CAN: Edmund, Report shall never whet her tongue / upon Canutus to eternize thee.
Bible Ps. 140.3 They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent: adder's poison is under their lips.
Crakes/croaks like a craven
Lyly Sapho (III.3.58-59) EUGENUA: I mistrust her not, for that the owl hath not shrieked
at the window or the night raven croaked, both being fatal.
Anon. Ironside (III.5.8): crakes like a craven and bewrays himself;
Shakes Shrew (II.1) KATH: No cock of mine; you crow too like a craven.
Bible Matt 26.34... before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice, also Matt.26. 75; Mark 14.30, 72, Luke 22.34, 61, John 13.38.
Spirit ... Fainting
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (V.2.174-75) NUNCIUS: he yielded up
His fainting ghost, that ready was to part.
Lyly Sapho (III.3.109-110) SAPHO: ... and thy spirits faint, die before his face.
Anon. Willobie (LXX.3): It then behooves my fainting spirit / To lofty skies return again,
Shakes Sonnet 80: O, how I faint when I of you do write,
Knowing a better spirit doth use your name,
Wink ... Sleep
Brooke Romeus (366): Not half a wink of quiet sleep could harbor in her bed;
Golding Ovid Met. (VII.204-05): By force of chanted herbs to make the
watchful dragon sleep, Within whose eyes came never wink,
Lyly Campaspe (V.4.4) ALEX: Be of good cheer; though I wink, I sleep not.
Sapho (III.4.58-59) PHAO: Yet Medea made the ever-waking dragon to snort
when she (poor soul) could not wink.
Anon. Ironside (V.2.300) EDR: and till occasion fits them, sleeping wink.
Willobie (XXX.2): But you can wake, although you wink,
Penelope (XXXII.2): But you can wake, although you wink,
Shakes Cymb (III.4) PISANIO: I have not slept one wink.
Eyes ... Pierce/Piercing
Brooke Romeus (203): And whilst he fixed on her his partial-pierced eye,
(415): His fixed heavenly eyne, that through me quite did pierce
Golding Ovid Met. (II.40): The Sun thus sitting in the mids did cast his piercing eye
(II.125,126) O would to God thy sight / Could pierce within my woeful breast,
(IV.234): What now avail thy glist'ring eyes with clear and piercing sight?
Lyly Sapho (IV.2.3-4) CUPID: ... then why should not I give him eyes to pierce?
Gallathea (Pro.): Augustus Caesar had such piercing eyes that ...
Marlowe Dido (III.4.13) DIDO: Aeneas no, although his eyes do pierce.
T1 (II.1.13-14) MEN: Wherein by curious sovereignty of Art,
Are fixed his piercing instruments of sight:
T2 (I.2.46) CALL: Fit objects for thy princely eye to pierce.
Shakes 3H6 (V.2) WAR: These eyes have been as piercing ...
Lear (I.4) ALBANY: How far your eyes may pierce I cannot tell.
Corio (V.4) MENEN: Able to pierce a corslet with his eye.
H8 (I.1) ABER: Let some graver eye pierce into that ...
Anon. Dodypoll (II.1): See what a lively piercing eye is here.
Willobie (XXIII.3) That floating eye that pierced my heart
Have done and have done
Lyly Campaspe (I.2.12) MANES: It is a sign ... that you have done that today which I have not done these three days.
Sapho (IV.4.54-55) VULCAN: When I have done working, you have done wooing.
Shakes 1H6 (IV.1) TALBOT: ... Which I have done, because unworthily ...
Then judge, great lords, if I have don: Sir, you have done enough, and have perform'd ...
More penitence than done trespass: at the last, / Do as the heavens have done, ...
Othello: (I.3) BRABANTIO: God be wi' you! I have done.
... To hang clogs on them. I have done, my lord.
Corio (I.9) MARCIUS: ... When she does praise me grieves me. I have done
As you have done; that's what I can; induced / As you have been; that's for my country:
Anon. Willobie (To ... constant Ladies): I have done that I have done
Cry ... Mercy
Brooke Romeus (2661): With stretched hands to thee for mercy now I cry,
Golding Abraham (816) ISAAC: Alas my father, mercy I cry you.
Lyly Sapho (V.2.78) VENUS: or lady I cry you mercy, I think you would be called a goddess
Endymion (II.2.32) FAVILLA: I cry your matronship mercy.
MB (IV.2) SILENA: I cry you mercy; I took you for a joined stool.
SILENA: I cry you mercy; I have killed your cushion.
(V.3) SYNIS: I cry you mercy, sir. I think it was Memphio's son that was married.
Anon. Locrine (II.2) STRUMBO: King Nactaball! I cry God mercy! what have we to do
(II.3.49) STRUMBO: Place! I cry God mercy: why, do you think that such
(II.3.80) STRUMBO: Gate! I cry God mercy!
Woodstock (I.1.99) NIMBLE: if ever / ye cry, Lord have mercy upon me, I shall hang for it, ...!
(III.2) WOOD: cry ye mercy, I did not understand your worship's calling.
(III.2) WOOD: cry ye mercy, have you a message to me?
Arden (IV.4.128) ALICE: And cried him mercy whom thou hast misdone;
APPENDIX III: Vocabulary, Word Formation
Compound Words (*unique): 14 words (8 nouns, 6 adj).
black-brow (a), butter-box (n), candle-snuff (n), ever-waking (a), female-content (a), gore-blood (n); gross-witted (a), inter-prater* (n), male-content (a), mind-glasses (n), pit-a-pat (n), shag-hair (adj), slender-witted (a), standard-bearer (n), tap-house (n)
Words beginning with "con": 23 words (16 verbs, 6 nouns, 3 adj, 1 adv).
conceal (v), conceit (n), conclude (v), conclusion (n), condemn (v), conduct (v), confess (v), conjecture (v), conquer (v), consent (v, n), constancy (n), constant (a), constrain (v), consume (v), contemplate (v), contend (v), content (n, a, v), continually (adv), continue (v), contrary (a), control (v), convey (v), conveyance (n)
Words beginning with "dis": 21 words (12 verbs, 6 nouns, 4 adj).
discern (v), disclose (v), discouraged (v), discourse (n), discredit (n), discreet (a), disdain(n, v), disdainful (a), disdaining (a), disease (n), disgest (v), disgrace (v), disliking (v), dismayed (v), dispense (v), dispose (v), dispute (v), disquited (a), dissemble (v), dissembler (n), dissembling (n)
Words beginning with "mis": 10 words (3 verbs, 5 nouns, 3 adv).
misconster (v), misconstrued (a), miserable (a), miseries (n), misfortune (n), mislike (n), mistake (v), mistaken (a), mistress (n), mistrust (v, n)
Words beginning with "over" (*surely unusual): 4 words (2 verbs, 2 nouns).
overcome (v), oversights (n), overslipped (v), overwatching (n)
Words beginning with "pre": 6 words (3 verbs, 2 nouns, 1 adj, 1 adv).
precepts (n), preciseness (n), prefer (v), present (v, a), presently (adv), prevent (v)
Words beginning with "re": 29 words (20 verbs, 9 nouns, 2 adj).
recall (v), receive (v), redress (v), refel (v), regards (n), rejoice (v), rejoicing (n), relenting (a), religion (n), relish (v), remedy (n, v), remember (v), remembered (a), remove (v), repair (v), repent (v), repine (v), report (n), reproach (n), request (v), require (v), resemble (v), resist (v), resolution (n), resolve (v), respect (n), return (v), revel (v), revenge (n, v)
Words beginning with "un","in" (* unique or unusual): 60 words (22/34/4).
(10 verbs, 13 nouns, 28 adj, 2 adv, 3 prep, 4 conj)
inconstancy (n}, incredible (a}, increase (v}, incur (v}, indeed (conj}, inferiors (n}, indifferent (a}, ingratitude (n}, iniquity (n}, injuries (n}, inquire (v}, insomuch (conj}, instead (conj}, instruct (v}, instructions (n}, instrument (n}, intent (n}, inter-prater* (n}, interpreter (n}, into (prep}, intolerable (a}, inward (a)
unacquainted (a}, unbridled (a}, uncertain (a}, uncivil (a}, uncomfortable (a}, undo (v}, unfaithful (a}, unfit (a}, unfortunate (a}, unhappy (a}, university (n}, unkind (a}, unlawfulness (n}, unless (conj}, unlike (a}, unlikely (a}, unluckiness (n}, unlucky (a}, unmannerly (a}, unmeet (a}, unnecessary (a}, unpitiful* (a}, unpossible (a}, unproperly (adv}, unreverently (adv}, unrewarded (a}, unseemly (a}, unspotted (a}, unto (prep}, untold (a}, untruss (v}, unwholesome (a}, unworthy (a}, unwrap (v)
under (prep}, undermine (v}, understand (v}, undertake (v)
Words ending with "able": 7 words (all adj).
affable (a), answerable (a), amiable (a), intolerable (a), miserable (a), reasonable (a), uncomfortable (a)
Words ending with "less": 2 words (1 adj, 1 conj). careless (a), unless (conj)
Words ending with "ness": 29 words (all nouns).
bitterness (n), brightness (n), business (n), comeliness (n), dryness (n), fairness (n), frowardness (n), giddiness (n), greatness (n), hardness (n), highness (n), humbleness (n), lightness (n), madness (n), peevishness (n), pensiveness (n), plainness (n), preciseness (n), ripeness (n), rottenness (n), rudeness (n), sharpness (n), sickness (n), sourness (n), sweetness (n), tediousness (n), unlawfulness (n), unluckiness (n), witness (n)
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