Pandosto by Robert Greene, 1588
Glossary and Appendices to Pandosto, The Triumph of Time
by B. Flues, copyright © 2002
(FS means found in Shakespeare.
(NFS means not found in Shakespeare)
Actaeon, son of Autonoe, who accidentally seeing Diana at her bath, was turned into a stag and torn apart by his own dogs.
Alpia (n): tree that is not harmed by fire but withers from dew. This seems to be an invention of Greene's? NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto.
anciently (adv): in the manner of an old man. NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto (only OED citation).
appeach (v): accuse, denounce. FS (3-Rich2, AWEW); Greene Pandosto.
bewray (v): reveal. FS (7); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Orl Fur, Fr Bacon, James IV, Pandosto, Maiden's Dream; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Massacre, Jew/Malta; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Endymion, Midas, Bombie, Whip; Pasquil Return; Drayton et al Oldcastle; (anon.) Marprelate; Locrine, Ironside, Arden, Willobie, Penelope, Leic Gh.
break/brake [one's mind] (v): discuss, disclose, reveal. FS (5-1H6, Errors, Ado, T&C, Mac); Golding Ovid; Oxford letter; Lyly Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Pandosto; (anon.) Arden, Willobie; (disp.) Cromwell.
cheer (n): provender, food. FS (20); Sundrie Flowers; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene G a G, Fr Bac, James IV, Pandosto, Maiden's Dream; Marlowe Faustus; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody, Arden; Nashe Valentines, Summers; Harvey Sonnet; (disp./Chettle) Greene's Groat; (disp.) Cromwell; Munday Huntington.
cockboat (n): ship's boat; small, light craft. FS (1-Lear); Lyly Euphues; Greene Pandosto.
currish (a): resembling a dog in the sense of vicious, malicious. FS (Shrew, MV). (2) base, ignoble. FS (3H6, TGV); Greene Pandosto.
descry (v): reveal, discover, perceive. FS (14); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lodge Wounds; Greene Pandosto, ? Selimus, James IV; Watson Tears; Nashe Saffron; Peele Wives; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Ironside, Willobie, Penelope; Harvey Pierce's Super.
despite (v): (1) feel, show contempt for. NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto. (2) spite. FS (Ado).
despite (n): (1) contempt. FS (Ado); Greene Pandosto. (2) aversion. Cf. Spenser FQ.
discourse (n): course of events. NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto.
discovert (a, n): exposed, off guard. NFS. Lodge Euphues Golden Legacy; Greene Arbasto, Pandosto.
dump (v): muse. mood. NFS. Cf. Stanyhurst Aeneis; Greene Orl Fur, Never Too Late, Fr Bacon, Pandosto.
ephemeron (n): A plant described by ancient writers. Some ancient authors distinguish two plants called ephemeron: one so named because springing up and dying in one day, the other as being a poison that causes death within a day. NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto. OED contemp. citations: 1578 Lyte Dodoens ii. xlv. 204 If it be Ephemeron as it seemeth to be, then it is good for the teeth. 1616 Hayward Sanct. Troub. Soul ii. (1620) To Rdr. 39 Many writings are like the plant Ephemeron; which springeth, flourisheth, and fadeth in one day.
fact (n): deed, act. FS (2H6, MM, Pericles); Marlowe T1; Greene Pandosto; (anon.) Willobie.
flea in one's ear (n): stinging or mortifying reproof or repulse, sending one away discomfited; also anything that surprises or alarms, matter for disquietude ... NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto.
fold (v): (1) hide, conceal. FS (4-Errors, Titus, Lucrece, V&A). (2) pen up [as sheep]. FS (1-Corio);. Greene Pandosto; (anon.) Pasquil Apology.
fond (a): foolish, rash. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Greene Pandosto. Common.
franion (n): gallant/fellow (n). NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (1st OED citation); Greene Pandosto (name of character); Peele Wives. OED contemp citations: 1587 Turbervile Epitaphs & Sonn; 1589 (anon.) Rare Triumphs; Spenser FQ.
froward (a): perverse, forward. FS (13); Golding Ovid; Common. frowardly (adv): perversely. NFS. Cf. Ox letter. frowardness (n): perversity, forwardness. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho; Greene Pandosto; (disp.) Greene's Groat; (anon.) Woodstock, Arden.
frush (v): strike violently to crush or smash. NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto (4th OED citation).
galactite (n): a precious stone of white color. Cf. Greene Pandosto.
hobby hawk/hauke (n): small falcon. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Greene Pandosto.
just (n): older form of joust. FS (1-Rich2). Cf. Golding Ovid. Rich2 (V.2.52): What news from Oxford? Do these justs and triumphs hold?
kite (n): bird of prey regarded as a scavenger. FS (7-2H6, Rich3, JC, Ham, WT, Corio, Lear); Greene Pandosto.
lift (v): "lift against Egistus:" not in OED, undoubtedly means "life arm against." NFS.
lower/lour (v): look down, often used with clouds to refer to threatening looks. FS (2H6); Watson Hek; Lyly Sapho; Greene Pandosto, James IV, ? Selimus. lowering (a): gloomy. FS (Edw3); Golding Abraham; Sundrie Flowers; Greene Pandosto; (anon.) Ironside.
maugre: (fr) in spite of. FS (3-12th, Titus, Lear); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Midas; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Orl Fur, Alphonsus, Pandosto; (anon.) Mucedorus, Locrine, Ironside, Nobody/Somebody, Penelope, Leic Gh, Pasquil Countercuff; Harvey Sonnet, 3d Letter.
meed (n): reward, prize. FS (19); Golding Ovid; Sundrie Flowers (E/N); Kyd Sp Tr; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe T1; Greene Pandosto; (anon.) Arden; Nobody/Somebody.
policy (n): trickery, cunning. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Greene Pandosto, ? Selimus; (anon.) Woodstock, Locrine, Fam Vic, Ironside, Nobody, Leic Gh; Chettle Kind Hart. Wide contemp use. A major Shakespeare preoccupation, i.e.: 1H4: Neuer did base and rotten Policy / Colour her working with such deadly wounds.
post (v): travel speedily, gallop. FS (1H4); Greene Pandosto, ? Selimus.
pretermit (v): omit, neglect. NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto; Nashe Absurdity.
prone (a): (1) eager. FS (Luc). (2) base, submissive. FS (MM). Cf. Greene Pandosto (either meaning could apply).
puissance (n): power, military army/might. FS (7-2H6, 3H6, John, 2H4, H5, Lear, TNK); Golding Ovid; Greene G a G, Pandosto, ? Selimus; (anon.) Locrine, Leic Gh; Spenser FQ. puissant (a): powerful. FS (11); Golding Ovid; Marlowe T1; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Woodstock, Mucedorus, Leic Gh; Nashe Unf Trav.
quartan fever (n): characterized by a paroxysm, recurring every fourth (modern, third) day. NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto.
rehearse (v): give an account of. FS (many); Greene Pandosto.
sack (v): plunder, despoil, destroy. FS (AWEW); Greene Pandosto; Kyd Cornelia.
sackless (a): innocent. NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto; Nashe Lenten Stuff.
scot-free (a): free from payment of "scot", tavern score, fine, etc.; exempt from injury, punishment, etc.; scatheless. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus, Pandosto. OED contemp citations: 1548 Hall Chron., Edw. IV; 1567 J. Maplet Green Forest; 1579-80 North Plutarch, Tiberius & Caius
seely (a): silly, innocent, vulnerable. FS (many); Greene Pandosto; many others.
sleight/slight [of hand] (n): craft, trickery. FS (3H6, Mac); Greene Pandosto; others. Common.
slut (n): drudge. NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto.
stale (a): worn, exhausted, strained. Cf. Greene Pandosto. Here it could refer to common use of the word "stale" as a cant word for wanton.
stale (n): (1) decoy, lure, bait, decoy. FS (3H6); Golding Abraham; Gascoigne Supposes, Lodge Wounds, Greene ? Selimus; (disp.) Greene's Groat.
stay (v): detain, take in custody. FS (R&J); Greene Pandosto; Spenser FQ.
straggle (v): wander away NFS. Cf. Greene Menaphon. straggled (a). NFS. Cf. Greene Pandosto (OED missed 1st citation). straggling (a): FS (Timon).
submiss (a): submissive. NFS. Cf. Lyly Euphues; Greene Pandosto; Heywood 2nd Pt. Edw. IV.
toys (n): ideas, fancies, whims. FS (R&J); Greene Pandosto, Maiden's Dream.
tragium (n): strong-smelling plant or plants; identified by 16th c. herbalists with Dictamnus albus (D. Fraxinella, Lyte 343), and Chenopodium vulvaria (Tragium Germanicum, Lyte 548).
whist (a): hushed, silent. (v) hush. FS (1-Temp); Golding Ovid; Surrey Aeneas; Lyly Gallathea, Endymion, Midas, Bombie; Greene James IV, Pandosto, Never Too Late; Nashe Penniless; Harvey Pierce's Super.
Length: 19,89 words
Bullough, Geoffrey, ed. Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, Vol. VIII. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975.
APPENDIX II: Connections
Fancy ... dwell; Force ... love
Oxford poem (I am not as I seem to be.4): O cruel hap and hard estate, / That forceth me to love my foe:
Watson Hek (LXIIII): Whome love doth force to follow fond desire ...
Lyly Endymion (I.4.6-7) FLOSCULA: for there cannot be a thing more monstrous than to force affection by sorcery,
(V.4.231) CYNTHIA: Semele, I will not command love, for it cannot be enforced.
Bombie (II.3.2-3) CANDIUS: A fiend that seeks to place affection by appointment and to force love by compulsion.
Kyd Sol&Per (I.1.126-27) PER: If heavens were just, that power that forceth love / Would never couple wolves and lambs together.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 4): that his wife was a woman, and therefore subject unto love; and that where fancy forced, friendship was of no force.
(Para. 67): "Truth, sir," (quoth she) "but not to love, for constrained love is force, not love;
Fr Bac (III.3.149-50) POST: It grieves me, damsel; but the Earl is forced
To love the lady by the King's command.
Anon. Leir (1.73) PERILLUS: Do not force love, where fancy cannot dwell,
Willobie (XIII.1): Was't love or lust, that did intend / Such friendless force, as you did move?
Leic Gh. (494): For forced love will quickly back retire.
Shakes TGV (V.4) PROTEUS: To hazard life and rescue you from him / That would have forced your honour and your love;
Conscience ... Guilt ... Death ... Worm
Brooke Romeus (2893-95) My conscience inwardly should more torment me thrice,
Than all the outward deadly pain that all you could devise.
But (God I praise) I feel no worm that gnaweth me,
Greene Pandosto (Para. 6): conscience is a worm that ever biteth, but never ceaseth: ... and conscience once stained with innocent blood, is always tied to a guilty remorse.
Shakes 2H6 (III.2) SALIS: The mortal worm might make the sleep eternal;
Rich3 (I.3.221) The worm of conscience still begnaw thy soul!
As You (III.2.65): Thou worm's-meat.
Hamlet (IV.3) HAM: Your worm is your only emperor for diet: we fat all creatures else to fat us
HAM: A man may fish with the worm that hath eat of a / king, and ...
MM (III.1.16-17): For thou dost fear the soft and tender fork / Of a poor worm.
V&A (154): Death,-- / 'Grim-grinning ghost, earth's worm,
Nashe Summers (1595-96) SONG: Strength stoops unto the grave, / Worms feed on Hector brave,
(1679-81) AUTUMN: For feasts thou keepest none, cankers thou feed'st;
The worms will curse thy flesh another day, / Because it yieldeth them no fatter prey.
Lyly MB (V.2) VICINIA: my conscience (which these eighteen years hath been frozen with congealed guiltiness)
Disp. Greene's Groat (165-66): it is the worm of conscience
Anon. Willobie (XIII.2): ... and therein find / That gnawing worm that never lins
Cromwell (V.5.131) CROMWELL: The land of Worms, which dying men discover,
L. Gh. (2121): We fed on joys, but now for worms are food,
Oxford letter (#62, 11-22-1601) a vain fable can brandel the clearness of your guiltless conscience
Bible Job 24.20 ... The worm shall seal his sweetness: ... (No Match). Isaiah 51.8 the worm shall eat them (No Match)
Shame ... Infamy
Golding Ovid Met (VIII.207): Of double shape, an ugly thing. This shameful infamy,
Oxford (#10, Dainty Devices): I stayless stand, to abide the shock of shame and infamy.
Gascoigne Supposes (I.1) BALIA: a poor servant of your father's,
by whom shame and infamy is the best dower you can look for to attain.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 17): One mole staineth a whole face, and what is once spotted with infamy can hardly be worn out with time.
Anon. Locrine (IV.1.135-36) ESTRILD: Better to die renowned for chastity,
Than live with shame and endless infamy
Weakest (XVI.169) EPERNOUNE: Oh wherefore stain you virtue and renown With such foul terms of ignomy and shame?
Shakes Ado (IV.1) LEONATO: Who smirch'd thus and mired with infamy,
I might have said 'No part of it is mine; / This shame derives itself from unknown loins'?
Bible Prov. 25.9-10 ... Discover not the secret to another, Lest he that heareth it, put thee to shame, and thine infamy do not cease. (No Match)
Stop ... Breath
Golding Ovid Met (II.358): ... (the smoke had stopped her breath).
(II.1036)) Strake to her heart, and closed her veins, and lastly stopped her breath:
(VI.854): The sorrow of this great mischance did stop Pandion's breath
(VII. 772.73) ... Some with halters stopped their wind, by death expulsing fear of death:
(VIII.639): His trespass I confess deserves the stopping of his breath,
Edwards Dam&Pith (615) SONG: With speed now stop my breath!
Greene Pandosto (Para. 18): so stopping her breath that she could not utter more words,
Shakes Rich3 (III.5) GLOU: ... Murder thy breath in the middle of a word,
And then begin again, and stop again,
King John (III.4) CONSTANCE ... And stop this gap of breath with fulsome dust
To stop the air would hurt them.
Lucrece (169) ... 'Revenge on him that made me stop my breath.
Anon. Woodstock (V.3.89-90) KING: ... let drums sound death, and strike
at once to stop this traitor's breath.
Willobie (LXV.5): Till death so stop your husband's breath;
(LXVII.2): Conspire with grief to stop my breath,
Penelope (XI.4): Or wisely she had stopp'd his breath.
Pasquil Apology (Para. 9): even by the Sermons that spun him a hal-ter to stop his breath, he was no Protestant.
Brooke Romeus (618): Think that the whilst fair Juliet is not devoid of care.
Edwards Dam&Pith (765) EUBULUS: They live devoid of fear, their sleeps are sound, they dread no enemy,
Watson Hek (I): My heart devoid of cares did bathe in bliss,
(XXXVII): And yet through love remain devoid of blame:
(LXXXII): The life I led in Love devoid of rest
Greene Pandosto (Para. 24): the King, who quite devoid of pity commanded that without delay it should be put in the boat,
Anon. Leir (13.6) CORDELLA: When as I was devoyd of worldly friends,
(19.319) LEIR: Since the other two are quite devoyd of love;
(23.48) LEIR: In a strange country, and devoyd of friends,
(28.8) KING: Devoyd of sence, new waked from a dreame,
(29.5) 1 CAP: We are betrayd, and quite devoyd of hope,
(30.66) CORDELLA: Fy, shamelesse sister, so devoyd of grace,
Locrine (I.2.16) BRUTUS: Devoid of strength and of their proper force,
Shakes Titus (V.3.) LUCIUS: Her life was beast-like, and devoid of pity;
Brooke Romeus (975): For lo, the Montagues thought shame away to fly,
Golding Ovid Met (VII.103): ... and frantic love did fly away dismayed.
(XI.87): Aflaited for to fly away
Lyly Gallathea (I.1) TYTERUS: the fowls fly away,
and the cattle in the field for terror shun the banks.
Marlowe T2 (V.3.70) TAMB: Who flies away at every glance I give,
Greene Alphonsus (V.3.121-22) AMURACK: Can ere be fond to turn his heels and fly
Away for fear from such a boy as thou?
Geo a Greene (I.3.22) MUSGROVE: They fled away and posted thence amain,
Pandosto (Para. 25): she counseled them to fly away by night for their better safety.
Shakes 2H6 (II.1) SUFFOLK: True; made the lame to leap and fly away.
1H6 (IV.6) TALBOT: All these are saved if thou wilt fly away.
TGV (III.1) VAL: But, fly I hence, I fly away from life.
12th (II.4) CLOWN: Come away, come away, death, ... / Fly away, fly away breath;
WT (III.2) OFFICER: for / their better safety, to fly away by night.
Titus (V.2) TITUS: That so my sad decrees may fly away,
Anon. Willobie (XXXVIII.3): And though the body fly away, / Yet let me with the shadow play.
Penelope: (XLVI.2): And yet not one away would fly.
Dodypoll (III.5.70-71) LUCILIA: Ah, have I loosed thee then to fly from me?
Golding Ovid Met (III.290): As one by humbling of himself that mercy seemed to crave,
(IX.652): And mercy at thy gentle hand in fearful-wise to crave.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 25): for mercy she neither craved nor hoped for;
Anon. Willobie (LXIII.4): And though these lines for mercy crave,
Who can on papers pity have?
Shakes MM (V.1) ANGELO: ... That I crave death more willingly than mercy
Greene Pandosto (Para. 29) "The Oracle. Suspicion is no proof: Jealousy is in unequal judge: Bellaria is chaste: Egistus blameless: Franion a true subject: Pandosto treacherous: his babe an innocent, and the King shall live without an heir if that which is lost be not found."
Shakes LLL (IV.3.358-59): Let us once lose our oaths to find ourselves
Or else we lose ourselves to keep our oaths.
AWEW (I.1.130-32): Virginity, be being once lost, may be ten times found;
by being ever kept, it is ever lost.
Anon. Willobie (I.22): They find their vice by virtue crossed,
Their foolish words, and labor lost.
Golding Ovid Met (II.369): But put the case that my desert destruction duly crave,
(V.35): And which he hath by due desert of purchase dearly bought.
Oxford poem (Cardanus): With due desert reward will never be.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 30): should have cause to think his rigor proceeded of due desert:
Disp. Greene's Groat (265): He simply gave to due desert her right,
Anon. Willobie (commendation): But rather strive by due desert for like renown,
(LI.2): Love oft doth spring from due desert
(LVII.2): Whose eyes discern the due deserts,
Penelope (I.2): Of those whom due desert doth crown
(I.5): His perfect zeal by due desert
Blood ... Vital spirit ... Life
Golding Ovid Met (II.1032): For want of blood and lively heat, to wax both pale and wan.
(IV.297) And so a corse both void of blood and life thou didst remain.
(VII.186): And suddenly both void of blood and lively heat she sate
(X.527): Her color died; her blood and heart did clearly her forsake.
(XI.377): And as she strived for to speak, away went blood and life.
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (I.1.246) BAILO: With hideous cries betoken blood and death:
Oxford letter (9/72): to admonish you as one with whom I would spend my blood and life,
Marlowe T1 (II.1.41) COSROE: And with my blood my life slides through my wound,
Greene Pandosto (Para. 32): her vital spirits were so stopped that she fell down presently dead,
Anon. Ironside (I.1.261) LEOFRIC: We gave them life; for us they shed their blood.
Locrine (I.1.126) CORIN: I hazarded my life and dearest blood, ...
(I.1.137) And for this gift, this life and dearest blood,
Dodypoll (II.1.132) FLORES: Shall grow in me to blood and vital spirit, ...
Shakes 12th (II.5.135) MAL: ... let thy blood and spirit embrace them;
Shepherd (good, lax shepherd)
Oxford letter (4-25/27 1603): There is nothing therefore left to my comfort but the excellent virtues, and deep wisdom wherewith God hath endued our new master and sovereign Lord, who doth not come amongst us as a stranger but as a natural prince, succeeding by right of blood, and inheritance, not as a conqueror, but as the true shepherd of Christ's flock to cherish and comfort them.
Greene Alphonsus (II.1.58) BELINUS: Like simple sheep, when shepherd absent is
Far from his flock, assailed by greedy wolves,
Pandosto (Para. 35): that the Common-wealth consisted on his safetie, and that those sheepe could not but perish, that wanted a sheepheard; wishing that if hee would not live for himselfe, yet he should have care of his subjects,
Anon. Woodstock (IV.2) WOODSTOCK: ... where I compared the state (as now it stands, meaning King Richard and his harmful flatterers) unto a savage herd of ravening wolves, the commons to a flock of silly sheep who, whilst their slothful shepherd careless stood, those forest thieves broke in, and sucked their blood.
Shakes 2H6 (2.2.73-74): Till they have snar'd the shepherd of the flock,
that virtuous prince.
3H6 (V.6) HENRY 6: So flies the reckless shepherd from the wolf;
So first the harmless sheep doth yield his fleece ...
Rich3 (4.4.22-23): Wilt thou, O God, fly from such gentle lambs,
And throw them in the entrails of the wolf?
Edw3 (I.1) ARTOIS: Place the true shepherd of our commonwealth?
(III.3) PRINCE: Aye, that approves thee, tyrant, what thou art:
No father, king, or shepherd of thy realm,
Anon. Willobie (V.1): Needs must the sheep strake all awry,
Whose shepherds wander from their way:
Drayton et al Oldcastle (IV.1) KING: Your lives as lamps to give the people light,
As shepherds, not as wolves to spoil the flock.
Bible John 10.11-14 I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for his sheep But an hireling ... ... seeth the wolf coming, & he leaveth the sheep, and fleeth, and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep. ...I am the good shepherd and know my sheep, and am known of mine.
Love Thy Choice
Oxford Sonnet: Love Thy Choice
Watson Hek (XXXVII): Then may I love my peerless choice by right,
Lyly Woman/Moon (III.2.121) LEARCHUS: Make me thy love, though Stesias be thy choice;
Greene Pandosto (Para. 53): Blush, Dorastus, at thy fortune, thy choice, thy love:
James 4 (I.1.78) K. SCOTLAND: Misled by love, hath made another choice --
Shakes Shrew (I.2): That she's the choice love of Signior Gremio.
Anon. Willobie (LII.7): True love is constant in her choice,
Dodypoll (V.2.94) ALPH: ... go tell her so: / Or let her come, my choice is free in love.
Fall ... Climb
Oxford Poetry (My Mind to Me a Kingdom is) I see how plenty suffers oft,
How hasty climbers soon do fall;
Lyly Sapho (I.1.3) PHAO: Who climbeth, standeth on glass and falleth on thorn.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 54): if thou rest content with this, thou art like to stand, if thou climb thou art sure to fall.
Anon. Nobody (1461) CORNWELL: And that's prodigious! I but wait the time,
To see their sudden fall, that swiftly climb.
(1490-91) VIGENIUS: Then let's try mast'ries, and one conquer all.
We climbed at once, and we at once will fall.
Arden (III.5.15) MOSBY: But since I climbed the top bough of the tree
And sought to build my nest among the clouds,
Each gentlest airy [stirry] gale doth shake my bed
And makes me dread my downfall to the earth.
Cromwell (V.1.70) GARDINER: Here's honors, titles, and promotions:
I fear this climbing will have a sudden fall.
Leic. Gh. (82): He, too well known by his climb-falling pride,
Shakes Cymb (III.2)BEL: ... the art o'the court ... whose top to climb
Is certain falling, or so slippery that / The fear's as bad as falling"
Note Raleigh to Queen Elizabeth: "I feign would climb but fear to fall"
Proud aspiring boy
Lodge Wounds (II.1.41-43) SCILLA: As for his son, the proud aspiring boy,
His beardless face and wanton smiling brows / Shall, if I catch him, deck yond Capitol.
Greene ? Selimus (I.105): And wink at Selimus' aspiring thought,
Pandosto (Para. 54): thy proud desires an aspiring mind:
Anon. Nobody [271-74]ARCH: Ambitious boys, we doom you prisonment;
... In which we'll bound your proud aspiring thoughts.
Painted bait, words, faces, hooks
Oxford Sonnet: (Love thy Choice): Who first did paint with colors pale thy face ?
Lyly Sapho (II.1.22) SYBILLA: Be not proud of beauty's painting,
whose colors consume themselves because they are beauty's painting.
(III.4) VENUS: But truth is a she, and so always painted.
PHAO: I think a painted truth.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 64):"Nay therefore," (quoth Dorastus) maids must love, because they are young; for Cupid is a child, and Venus, though old, is painted with fresh colors."
Anon. Locrine (IV.2.91): Oh that sweet face painted with nature's dye,
Willobie (XLII.10): Esteem not this a painted bait,
(XXX.1): How fine they feign, how fair they paint,
(LVIII.4): Catch fools as fish, with painted hooks.
Shakes Shrew (I.1) KATH: And paint your face and use you like a fool.
Hamlet (III.1.51-53) CLAUDIUS: [Aside] The harlot's cheek, beautied with plastering art,
Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it ...
Hamlet (III.1.150): I have heard of your paintings, too.
Also see Hamlet (II.1.142.46)
Timon (IV.3) TIMON: No matter: -- wear them, betray with them: whore still;
Paint till a horse may mire upon your face, / A pox of wrinkles!
Nashe Penniless: since her picture is set forth in so many painted faces here at home.
Absurdity: for fear of pricking their fingers when they are painting their faces;
Chapman D'Olive (I.1.203-5) RODERIGUE: Thou believst all's natural beauty that shows
fair, though the painter enforce it, and sufferst in soul, I know, / for the honorable lady.
Bible Shaheen ascribes cosmetic references to Isa. 3.16.
Crack ... Heart
Greene Pandosto (Para. 65): had made such a deep impression in her heart, as it could not be worn out without cracking,
Shakes John (V.7) KING: The tackle of my heart is crack'd and burn'd,
MWW (II.2) FORD: ... My heart is / ready to crack with impatience.
Pericles (III.2) CERIMON: If thou livest, Pericles, thou hast a heart
That even cracks for woe! ...
Hamlet (V.2) HORATIO: Now cracks a noble heart. ...
Lear (II.1) GLOUCESTER: O, madam, my old heart is crack'd, it's crack'd!
Corio (V.3) CORIO: This last old man, / Whom with a crack'd heart I have sent to Rome,
Anon. Yorkshire HUSBAND: Here's weight enought to make a heartstring crack.
Love ... Prick
Watson Hek (XVI): He feel the prick, that seeks to pluck the Rose.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 77): Dorastus, whom love pricked forward with desire,
Shakes R&J (I.4) MER: Prick love for pricking, and you beat love down.
ROMEO: Is love a tender thing? it is too rough, / Too rude, too boisterous, and it pricks like thorn.
Sonnet (20): But since she prick'd thee out for women's pleasure,
Mine be thy love and thy love's use their treasure.
Anon. Dodypoll (I.1.77-78): What thing is love? ... It is a prick, ...
Stream ... stop
Greene Pandosto (Para. 80): great streams are to be stopped by sleight, not by force:
Anon. Leir (1.74) PERILLUS: Lest streames, being stopt, above the banks do swell.
Foul ... Fair
Golding Abraham's Sac (545) SONG: All kind of things both foul and fair,
Ep. (17): The fair, the foul, the crooked, and the right.
Brooke Romeus (57): Hath founde a mayde so fayre (he found so foul his happe)
(159): No lady fayre or fowle, was in Verona towne (159)
(178): That Ladies thought the fairest dames were foul in his respect.
Watson Heck (I): But now (alas) all's foul, which then was fair,
Lyly Campaspe (II.1) HEPH: Ermines have fair skins but foul livers, ...
(III.3) CAMPASPE: A fair woman -- but a foul deceit.
(IV.1) PSYLLUS: I will not lose the sight of so fair a fowl as Diogenes is, ...
(V.3) LAIS: ... to make foul scars in fair faces and crooked maims in straight legs?
Sapho (II.1) PHAO: I fear me fair be a word too foul for a face so passing fair.
SYBILLA: ... beauty, which is fair in the cradle and foul in the grave ...
(II.4) SYBILLA: There is none so foul that thinketh not herself fair.
Gallathea (V.2) HAEBE: Tear these tender joints with thy greedy jaws, this fair face with thy foul teeth.
Midas (I.2) PETULUS: ... they are ... too fair to pull over so foul a skin.
MB (II.4) SILEN: ... because that I am so fair, therefore are you so foul; ...
(III.4) RIXUL: ... and yet I hope foul water will quench hot fire as soon as fair.
HALF: ... let fair words cool that choler / which foul speeches hath kindled; ...
Marlowe Tamburlaine I: Fair is too foul.
Greene Pandosto (Para. 95): Meleagrus, I feare this smooth tale hath but small trueth, and that thou coverest a foule skin with faire paintings.
Shakes 3H6 (IV.7) EDW IV: ... By fair or foul means we must enter in, ...
LLL (IV.1) PRINCESS: ... Where fair is not, praise cannot mend the brow.
Here, good my glass, take this for telling true:
Fair payment for foul words is more than due.
PRINCESS: S... A giving hand, though foul, shall have fair praise.
Much Ado (IV.1) CLAUDIO: But fare thee well, most foul, most fair! farewell,
Cymb (I.6) IACHIMO: Thanks, fairest lady. ... and can we not
Partition make with spectacles so precious / 'Twixt fair and foul?
Oth (II.1) IAGO: There's none so foul and foolish thereunto,
But does foul pranks which fair and wise ones do.
Timon (IV.3) TIMON: Thus much of this will make black white, foul fair,
Mac (I.1) ALL: Fair is foul, and foul is fair / Hover through the fog and filthy air.
(I.3) MACBETH: So foul and fair a day I have not seen.
V&A (170) ... The foul boar's conquest on her fair delight;
Lucrece (50): ... That his foul thoughts might compass his fair fair, ...
(173): ... My life's foul deed, my life's fair end shall free it. ...
Sonnet (137): ... To put fair truth upon so foul a face?
Anon. Willobie (XXXV.4): So foul within, so fair without,
Dodypoll (II.1.97) FLORES: To make fair mends for this foul trespass done,
What a foul knave and fairy!
Sidney Antony (1075) Ant. Fair and foul subjected) Aegypt ah! thou know'st
Jonson Bartholemew Fair (II.2): Let me drink, boy, with my love, thy Aunt, here; that I may be eloquent: but of thy best, lest it be bitter in my mouth, and my words fall foul on the Fair.
(III.6): I was mov'd in spirit, to be here, this day, in this Fair, this wicked,
and foul Fair; and fitter may it be a called a foul, then a Fair:
(IV.5): All the fowl in the Fair, I mean, all the dirt in Smithfield,
Shaheen quotes the proverb cited in Tiley (F3): "Fair face foul heart"
It is likely that this Shakespeare favorite arose within the text of that common proverb.
Word ... Sword
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (II.1.396) ETEOCLES: Sweet words prevail, where sword and fire do fail.
II.1.549) ETEOCLES: Lo here the sword that shall perform his word.
Lyly Campaspe (II.2) HEPH: Campaspe whose smooth words wound deeper than sharp swords.
Marlowe T1 (I.1.73) MYCETES:ÊGo, stout Theridamas, thy words are swords,
Greene Pandosto (Para. 101): and whose sweet words pierce deeper than sharp swords.
Pasquil Apology (Para. 44): some of their Elders to be governing and preaching Elders, to handle the word and the sword together;
Shakes 2H4 (4.2.10): Turning the word to sword and life to death
MWW (III.1.44-45): What? The sword and the word? Do you study them both, /Master Parson?
Hamlet ((III.2.421): I will speak daggers to her.
Anon. Willobie (XVIII.1): To jest at God and at his word, / Look for his just revenging sword.
(XVIII.4): Where is thy law, where is thy word, / That did condemn the wedlock crime,
To present death, with bloody sword?
Bible (No Match) Eph.l 6.17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. Heb. 4.12 For the word of God is lively, & mighty in operation, and sharper than any two-edged sword, ...
Punishment: blinding ... grind in a mill
Greene Pandosto (Para. 116): I therefore award that thou shall have thine eyes put out, and continually while thou diest, grinde in a mil like a brute beast.
Bible Judges 16.21: Therefore the Philistines took him, and put out his eyes, and brought him down to Assah, and bound him with fetters: and he did grind in the prison house .
APPENDIX III: Vocabulary, Word Formation
Distinctive, Favorite Words, Phrases: doubtful, lingering in doubtful; something (as in somewhat); fortune as a verb
Compound Words: 13 words (5 nouns, 8 adj).
bed-chamber (n), best-beloved (a), cup-bearer (n), half-healed (a), half-penny (n), new-betrothed (a), new-conceived (a), scot-free (a), such-like (a), sun-setting (n), tale-bearers (n), too-private (a), unlooked-for (a)
Words beginning with "con": 33 words (15 verbs, 14 nouns, 5 adj,1 adv)
conceal (v), concealing (n), conceit (n), conceive (v), conclude (v), conclusion (n), concubine (n), condemn (v), conditions (n), confess (v), confirm (v), conjecture (n, v), conquest (n), conscience (n), consent (v), consider (v), consideration (n), consist (v), conspiracy (n), conspire (v), constrain (v), constraint (n), contain (v), contempt (n), content (n, a), contented (a), continually (adv), continue (v), continued (a), contract (n), contrary (a), convenient (a), convey (v)
Words beginning with "dis": 30 words (15 verbs, 13 nouns, 7 adj).
disburden (v), discharge (v), discontent (a), discourse (n), discourtesy (n), discovert (n), discredit (v, n), disdain (v, n), disdainful (a), disgrace (v), dishonor (n, v), dismayed (a, v), disobedience (n), disordinate (a), dispatch (v), dispense (v), displease (v), displeasure (n), disposition (n), disquiet (n), disquieted (a), dissemble (v), dissever (v), dissuade (v), distance (n), distant (a), distress (n), distressed (a), distrust (v, n), disturb (v)
Words beginning with "in": 32 words (9 verbs, 10 nouns, 11 adj, adv, 1 prep, 2 conj).
incensed (a), incessant (a), incestuous (a), incite (v), inconstancy (n), inconvenience (n), increase (v), incur (v), indictment (n), indifferent (a), induce (v), infamous (a), infamy (n), infancy (n), infant (n), infect (v), infectious (a), infer (v), inferior (a), inflame (v), infortunate (a), injured (a), injury (n), innocence (n), innocent (a, n), insomuch (conj), instead (conj), intend (v), intent (n), into (prep), invade (v), inward (a)
Words beginning with "mis": 13 words (4 verbs, 7 nouns, 2 adj).
mischance (n), mischief (n), misconstrue (v), miserable (a), misery (n), misfortune (n), mishap (n), mislike (v), mistake (v), mistress (n), mistrust (n), mistrusted (a), misuse (v)
Words beginning with "over" (*surely unusual): 4 words (2 verbs, 2 adj).
overboard (a), overcast (a), overcome (v), overtake (v)
Words beginning with "pre": 14 words (5 verbs, 7 nouns, 2 adj, 2 adv).
precious (a), prefer (v), preferment (n), prejudice (n), premise (n), preparation (n), presence (n), present (a, n), presently (adv), presume (v), pretend (v), pretense (n), prevail (v), prevent (v)
Words beginning with "re": 50 words (34 verbs, 16 nouns, 2 adj, 1 adv).
recall (v), receive (v), recompense (v), reconcile (v), recount (v), recover (v), redressed (v), refer (v), refuse (v), regard (v), rehearse (v), reject (v), rejoice (v), rejoicing (n), relate (v), release (v), relieve (v), remain (v), remedy (n), remorse (n), repair (v, n), repay (v), repent (v), repentance (n), repine (v), reply (n), report (n), reproach (n), reprove (v), request (n), requite (v), resemble (v), resist (v), resolute (a), revolve (v), resort (v), respect (v, n), restraint (n), retain (v), retinue (n), retrieve (v), return (v), reveal (v), revenues (n), revenge (n, v), reverence (n), reverent (a), reverently (adv), revive (n), reward (v)
Words beginning with "un": 32 words (3 verbs, nouns, 22 adj, 3 adv, 3 prep, 1 conj).
unaccustomed (a), unacquainted (a), unadvised (a), unbridled (a), uncasing (v), unchaste (a), undone (v), unequal (a), unfeigned (a), unfeignedly (adv), unfit (a), unfortunate (a), ungrateful (a), unjust (a), unjustly (adv), unknown (a), unlawful (a), unless (conj), unlike (a), unlooked-for (a), unnatural (a), unreasonable (a), unseemly (a), unspotted (a), until (prep), untimely (a), unto (prep), unwilling (a), unwillingly (adv), unwise (a) under (prep), understand (v)
Words ending with "able": 7 words, all adj. - acceptable (a), answerable (a), honorable (a), marriageable (a), miserable (a), profitable (a), [un]reasonable (a)
Words ending with "ize": none.
Words ending with "less": 13 words (12 adj, 1 conj).
blameless (a), breechless (a), causeless (a), endless (a), faultless (a), guiltless (a), hapless (a), merciless (a), reckless (a), restless (a), sackless (a), unless (conj), witless (a)
Words ending with "ness": 15 words, all nouns.
baseness (n), clearness (n), comeliness (n), covetousness (n), fondness (n), frowardness (n), guiltiness (n), happiness (n), loathsomeness (n), madness (n), readiness (n), sharpness (n), sickness (n), witness (n), worthiness (n)
Words ending with "ship": friendship (n)
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