The Fifteen Books of
Ovid's Metamorphoses, 1567

  The first translation into English -
      credited to Arthur Golding

The Arthur Golding Translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses

by B.Flues copyright © 2002

(OED refers to the OED compact disc; the full-volume set may well contain expanded entries.)
(FS means found in Shakespeare; NFS means not found in Shakespeare)

Glossary: Words, Phrases

abidden (v): endured. Book II (348). NFS.

(n): delay. Book I (833). FS (2-MV, A&C); Gascoigne Jocasta; (anon.) Mucedorus. OED contemp citation: 1577 Holinshed Chron.

(v): pay for, atone. Books VII (623), VIII (869, 961). FS (2-MND); Kyd Sol&Per; Greene George a Greene; Marlowe Edw2; Nashe Choice of Valentines; Munday Death of ... Huntington.

(a): acknowledged. Book VII (815). FS (1-Oth). Almost all contemporary references cited in the OED are in religious works.

(n): alleged mineral, ascribed with the hard, unbreakable properties of a diamond, while others ascribed to it properties of the lodestone or magnet. Golding uses both meanings, apparently according to need. Books IV (343, 563), VII (523), IX (728), XV (915). FS (3-1H6, MND, T&C); others. Common.

(a): adread/afraid. Book I (421). NFS. Cf. Greene Maiden's Dream; Sidney Arcadia.

(n): adultery. NFS. Books IV (210), VII (960), IX (869).

(a): afleet. Book VI (832).

(adv): southern pronunciation of again. Epistle, Book V, Used throughout Golding Ovid. NFS. Cf. Golding Abr Sac.

(n): the awn of barley or other corn. Book X (768). NFS.

(v): dilute. Book XV (364). FS (4-A&C, WT, Corio, H8),

(v): guess, conjecture. Book VII (868).

(adv): at any rate. Book V (514). NFS.

(n): aromatic plant, species unknown in early writings. Books X (339), XV (435). NFS. Cf. Nashe Menaphon. OED citation: Per OED:1551 Turner Herbal (1568) 26 Amomum is a small bushe ... Some call it a christenmase rose.

(v, a): satisfied. Book XIV (517).

(v): weaken. Books II (190, 375, 490), VIII (670), IX (620), XV (713). FS (2-1H6, Edw3); Edwards Dam&Pith; (anon.) Locrine. "Unappalled" in Brooke Romeus.

as tho
(adv): then. Used throught Golding Ovid.

attent (n): intent. Preface (125). NFS.

at all aventure:
at random. Book VII (441). NFS. Per OED a legal term.

raised. Book XIII (1049). See also "vaunst".

(v): begone. Books IX (606, 688), X (372). FS (16); Lodge Wounds; Whip, Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe Dido; Greene G a G, ? Selimus; Harvey Sonnet; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody; Chapman Bussy.

avoord/avord (v): afford. Epistle (548). NFS. Cf. Golding Abr Sac.

awk (adv): directed the wrong way. Book XIV (347). NFS. OED cites Golding De Mornay, Harvey New Letter.

axletree: see extree.

backs/backes (n): bats. Book IV (513).

bagged/bagd (a): big with child, pregnant. Books III (328), X (539). NFS.

bain/bane/bayne (a): limber. Book III (865), Books IV (435), VII (378), XV (222). NFS.

bale (n): misery. Book XIV (340, 557). FS (Corio); Greene Fr Bacon; (anon.) Locrine, Mucedorus.

balk(e) (n): (1) isthmus. Book VII (515). NFS. (2) tie-beam of a house, stretching from wall to wall. Book VIII (826).

ballace (n): ballast. Book II (213). NFS. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr.

ban (n, v): curse. Books II (774), V (124, 128, 593), XIII (401), XIV (225), XV (566). FS (1H6, 2H6, Ham, Titus, Lucrece, V&A, Lucrece, PP); Gascoigne Jocasta; 1555 Latimer Ser& Rem; Lyly Sapho; Greene Selimus; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Locrine, Arden; Marlowe Jew; Nashe Pierce Penniless; Munday Huntington.

base, bid the base/bace (v): challenge them. Book XII (73). Cf. Marlowe Edw2.

battling (a): fertile. Books VII (529), XV (526). NFS. Cf. Greene Fr Bacon.

bayard (n): one given to reckless, blind action. Epistle (118). FS (Edw3); Harvey 4 letters.

beace (n): beasts, cattle. Book XV (17).

beaking (a): projecting. Book IV (878). NFS.

bearbrich (a): bear's-breech, acanthus. Book XIII (833).

bedlem/bedlam (n): lunatic, madwoman. Books III (898), IV (636), IX (757). FS (John, Lear).

bedreint (a): drenched. Book IV (894).

behight (a): promised. Book III (149). NFS. Cf. Golding Abr Sac.

beldame (n): aged woman. Book XIV (747, 885). FS (5-John, 1H4, 2H4, Mac, Lucrece); Brooke Romeus; Lyly Bombie; Nashe Penniless, Saffron Waldon; (disp.) Greene's Groatsworth of Wit; (anon.) Penelope's Complaint.

belked (v): belched. Book XIV (246). NFS. belking (a): throbbing. Book II (758). NFS. OED relates this word to the gout.

bell, bear the bell/win the bell (v): win the prize. Books III (252), VII (596), XII (692), Book XIII (13). NFS. Cf. Sundrie Flowers (E/N); Watson Hek; Lyly Sapho, Whip; (anon.) Willobie.

beray (v): stain, befoul. Books V (52), VI (300), VIII (683), Book XIII (493, 589, 640, 677). FS (Titus); .OED contemp citations: 1530 Palsgr. 449/1 You have berayed your gowne with myer. 1570 Holinshed Scot. Chron. (1806) I. 296 ... and the bed all beraied with bloud. 1576 Gascoigne Steele Gl. (Arb.) 56 ... Berayde with blots of ... 1602 Return fr. Parnass. iv. v. (Arb.) 58 Our fellow Shakespeare hath giuen him a purge that made him beray his credit.

berent/beerent (a): torn. Book XIII (641). NFS. OED contemp citations: 1530 Palsgr. 449/1 You have berayed your gowne with myer.OED contemp citations: 1582 Breton Dolor. Disc. in Heliconia; 1596 W. Smith Chloris.

besprent (a): sprayed. Book VI (57), VII (208), XI (356), XIV (465). NFS. Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek.

bestad (v): beset, situated. Books IV (699, 863), VIII (691, 1052), Book XV (796). NFS. Cf. Gascoigne Jocasta; Spenser Shep Cal, FQ; Harvey Pierce's Super; Nashe Astrophel.

bestead (v): served (her purpose). Book VII (361). NFS. Cf. Drayton et al Oldcastle; Munday More.

bewray (v): reveal. Epistle (89, 261), Books I (279, 494), II (540, 560, 683, 860, 866, 876,988, 1017), III (706), IV (195, 231), VI (42, 666, 694, 737), VII (234, 942, 1069), IX (614), IX (477), X (477), XI (213, 466), XIII (132, 303), XIV (212, 359, 402, 598, 855), XV (562, 668). FS (7); Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Orl Fur, Fr Bacon, James IV, Pandosto, Maiden's Dream; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Massacre, Jew/Malta; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Endymion, Midas, Bombie, Whip; Pasquil Return; Drayton et al Oldcastle; (anon.) Marprelate; Locrine, Ironside, Arden, Willobie, Penelope, Leic Gh.

bill (n): weapon, long pole with axe and pike on one end. FS (many); Golding Ovid; many others. bill [broad brown] (n): halberd (a kind of combination of spear and battle-axe, consisting of a sharp-edged blade ending in a point and a spear-head, mounted on a handle five-to seven-feet long). FS (Ado); Golding Ovid; Lyly Sapho, Endymion.

bird-flight/birdflyght (n): augury by interpreting flight of birds. Book XIII (910).

blazon/blaze (v): (1) describe in heraldic terms. (2) describe or proclaim openly. Book XIV (800). FS (8); Oxford poem, letter; Sundrie Flowers (E/N); Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sol&Per; Spenser FQ

blear/bleere (v): confuse, hoodwink. Book XI (362). FS (Shrew);Brooke Romeus; Lyly Gallathea; Kyd Sp Tr; Nashe Summers.

blin (v): stop. Books VI (371), IX (735). NFS.

blo (a): blackish-blue, livid, leaden-colored. Book III (68). NFS.

bobbed/bobd (v): struck. Book XII (147, 263). FS. 4-Rich3, T&C, Oth). ; Munday Sir Thomas More. OED contemp citations : 1578 Chr. Prayers in Priv; 1589 Nashe Martins Months; 1605 R. Armin Foole upon F..

bodkin (n): (1) pin or pin-shaped ornament used to fasten women's hair; also a short pointed weapon, dagger. Book II (515), IV (714). FS (Ham); Golding Ovid; Lyly Sapho, Endymion, Midas, Bombie, Pappe; Sidney Arcadia; Nashe Absurdity; (anon.) Arden; Marston, Chapman, Jonson Eastward Ho. (2) .

boined/boynd (v): swelled. VIII (1004,only OED citation). NFS.

boistous/boystous (a): rough, gross. Books V (759), VI (867), X (254, 660, 829), XI (496), XII (155), XIV (882), Book XV (25, 805). NFS.

bollen/bolled/bolne (a): swollen. Book VIII (1003). NFS.

bolt/bowlt (v): sift the matter. Book X (446). FS (WT)Nashe Penniless. OED contemp citations: 1562 J. Heywood Prov. & Epigr; 1544 R. Ascham Toxoph; ; 1576 Lambarde Peramb. Kent.

boon/boone (n): prayer. Book IV (462). FS.

boot (v, n): help. Books I (357), II (1029), VI (668) VII (52), VIII (151, 715), X (199, 511), XI (88), XII (428), XIV (555, 557), XV (614). FS (many); Brooke Romeus; Sundrie Flowers; Robinson Delights; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Greene G a G, Maiden's Dream; Lyly Bombie; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Leic Gh.

Bootes: constellation containing Arcturus. Book II (226).

bote (v): bit. Books XIII (1102), XV (109.

bought (n): coil, loop. Books III (48), Book XV (770). NFS.

bourd/boord (a): jest, idle tale. Book X (279). NFS. Cf. Golding Abr Sac. Abraham. OED contemp. citations: 1548 Cranmer Catech; 1593 Drayton Eclog.

bowels/bowelles (n): offspring, child. Book X (534). FS (MM). OED contemp citations: 1526 Tindale Philem; 1559 Morwyng Evonym; 1593 H. Smith Serm.

bowing (a): bent, curved. Books VIII (194), XI (395, 684), XII (622), Book XV (771). FS (2-Temp, Timon); Lyly Bombie, Woman ... Moon.

box (n): boxwood. Book IV (164). FS (12th).

brach (n): originally a kind of scent-hound, later always any kind of bitch-hound. Book III (256). FS (6-1H4, Shrew, Lear, T&C); Golding Ovid. Note especially Shakespeare Shrew (Prologue) Lord: Huntsman, I charge thee, tender well my hounds: ... And couple Clowder with the deep-mouth'd brach. ... Shakespeare seems to have been a master of the hounds.

bracke/brake (v): burst. Book XI (272). FS (Errors).

braid/brayd (n): sudden assault, movement. Books VII (820), XI (559, 612), XIII (297). NFS. Cf. Greene Orl Fur.

brast/brust (v): burst. Book II (238, 398, 1019).

brave (a): splendid, abundant. Book I (542, 696). FS (MND, 1H4, Temp); (anon.) Fam Vict; Woodstock; Marlowe T1.

bray (v): beat together, usually with a mortar. Book XIV (50). NFS. Cf. Greene Orl Fur.

break/brake [one's mind] (v): disclose, reveal. Books I (207), X (460). FS (5-1H6, Errors, Ado, T&C, Mac); Oxford letter; Lyly Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Arden, Willobie; (disp.) Cromwell.

breers (v): briars. Book XIII (946).

breme/breeme (a): widely spoken of. Book XII (183). NFS.

bruit (n, v): rumor, fame; spread rumor. Books I (251, 972), VII (519, 610, 891). FS (6-3H6, 2H4, T&C, Timon, Ham, Q2, Edw3); ; Brooke Romeus; Sundrie Flowers (E/N); Lyly Bombie; (anon.) Ironside, Arden; Harvey Pierce's Super; Chettle Kind Hart.

brunt (n): outburst, attack. Books III (93, 287), XIII (53, 275, 467), Book XIV (446)., NFS. Watson Hek; Gascoigne Jocasta; Lodge Wounds of Civil War; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Greene Fr Bac, ? Selimus; Marlowe T1, Massacre.

bug/bugg (n): bugbear, hobgoblin, bogey. Book XIV (68). FS (5-3H6, Ham, WT, Cymb, T&C); Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene? Selimus; (anon.) Pasquil Countercuff, Apology; Arden; Nashe Penniless; Harvey Pierce's Super.

bulchin (n): bull-calf. Book XIII (1023). NFS.

bulke (n): trunk, body. Books VI (214, 497), XV (629). FS (5-Rich3, 1H4, Ham, Oth, Lucrece); Lyly Woman ... Moon.

burd (n): maiden. Book IV (524). (Alternate of "bird"?

burgeons (n): buds, shoots. Books IV (492), Book VII (529). NFS.

burgonet/burganet (n): helmet with visor. Book XII (405). FS (2-2H6, Edw3); Greene Orl Fur, Upstart Court, ? Selimus; (anon.) Locrine.

buskling (v): bustling, prowling. Book XI (422). NFS.

bylive (adv): immediately, eagerly. NFS. Book IV (188).

caddow/cadowe (n): jackdaw. Book VII (601). NFS.

caitiff (n, a): wretchs, sometimes prisoner. Books I (179), II (983), III (810), XII (674). FS (13); Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Cornelia; Greene James IV, ? Selimus; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Mucedorus; Drayton et al Oldcastle.

callet (n): trull. Book VI (179). FS (2H6, 3H6); Gascoigne Supposes; Greene James IV; (anon.) Willobie.

cankered/cancred (a): corrupt, infected. Books II (945, 971, 1011, 1044), VI (676), VIII (142). FS (6-John, R&J, 1H4, 2H4, Corio); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta; Lyly Love Met; others.

cannel bone/channel bone (n): neck, windpipe. Book XII (331).

canvas (v): discuss. Book I (460). NFS.

carack/carrack/carick (n): merchant ship. Book VIII (194). FS (3-Errors, Oth, TNK); (anon.) Woodstock.

carf (v): cut. Book VIII (950). NFS. Rare.

cark (n): anxiety, care. Books II (971), III, (497), XIII (449). NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; (anon.) Selimus; (disp.) Spenser FQ; Cromwell (as a verb).

carl (n): countryman, possibly slave, miser; after 1500, fellow of low birth.Epistle (124), Books I (623), VI (439, 469, 676), VII (917), VIII (142, 177). FS (1-Cymb); (anon.) Arden; Nashe Summers.

carpet knight (n): one who earns honors at court rather than in battle. Books XII (673), XIII (123). FS (1-12th); (anon.) Fam Vic; Munday Huntington.

cartware (n): team [of horses]. Book II (217). NFS.

cates (n): dainties, delicacies. Book VIII (844). FS (6-1H6, Errors, Shrew, 1H4, Edw3, Pericles); Udall; Sundrie Flowers; Marlowe T1, T2; Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Arden, Dodypoll; Drayton et al Oldcastle; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Jonson Cynthia.

chair/chare/char (n): chariot (n). Books II (83, 140), Book XI (293). NFS.

champion/champian (a): unbroken [fields]. Books I (46, 367, 650), II (336), VII (995, 1015), IX (763). FS (Edw3); (anon.) Locrine.

chank/chankt (v): chew. Books VIII (388, 994, 1025) X (826). Dialect of champ.

chaps/chappes (n ): jaws. Books III (88), IV (120), VI (451, 482), VIII (385, 546), IX (91), XI (66, 422, 430), XII (504, 564), XIII (681), XIV (74, 198). FS (7); Golding Ovid; Munday Huntington. Heminge's Post. OED contemp citations: 1555 Eden Decades W. Ind; 1575 Turberv. Bk. Venerie

Charles his waine (n): the Big Dipper. (See also "wain".) Books I (74), II (222), XIII (862) XV (392). FS (1H4); (anon.) Cromwell.

chase/chace (n): persecute, harass. Book XV (194). FS (Rich3, WT). Gascoigne Jocasta; OED cites: 1596 B. Griffin Fidessa xxix, Griefs, chase this earth, that it may fade with anguish.

chaufing/chafing (a): raging. NFS. Book IX (257).

cheer (n): expression. Books I (456), II (416, 571), IV (577), XIV (676, 860). FS (5-1H6, Shrew, 1H4, Edw3); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Sundrie Flowers (E/N); Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; (anon.) Locrine, Willobie, Penelope; Peele Wives. OED contemp citation: 1559 Mirr. for Mag.

childers (a): children's. Book XV (21).

chink (n, v): crack. Book II (269). FS (5: MND).

chuff/cuffe (n): rustic, churl. Book V (383). FS (1-1H4). OED cites only one earlier use; (anon.) Woodstock, Locrine, Nobody/Somebody; Nashe Penniless, Lenten Stuff; Bacon; Jonson.

cited (cyted): summoned, brought forth. Book XV (144).

cite/cyte (v): (1) summon, bring forth. Book XV (144). FS (H8).

clawback (n): one who claws another's back, a toady. Epistle (86). NFS. Cf. Nobody/Somebody.

clear/cleere (a): innocent. Book XV (49). FS (2-Timon, Temp); Greene Orl Fur.

clees/cleas (n): hoofs. Books I (930), II (111), IV (455, 768), VI (157), X (134), XIV (350), Book XV (406). NFS.

clerkly (a): clever, scholarly. Pref (189). FS (2-MWW, 3d OED citation). (adv): artfully, scholarly. FS (2-2H6, TGV, 4th citation); Edwards Dam&Pith. (OED missed Golding and Edwards 1st 2 citations.)
clepes: see clips.

clew (n): ball of yarn. Book VIII (232). FS (1-AWEW).

clifted (a): cleft, split. Books VII (339), VIII (822). NFS.

climes/clymes (n): regions, zones. Preface (200). FS (8).

clip/clepe/cleep (v): clasp. Books VIII (190, 916), IX (546), XIV (667, 858). FS (WT, Corio, A&C, V&A, PP#11); Lyly Mother Bombie, Woman ... Moon; Marston Malcontent.

clive/cleave/clave (v): cling. Book III (105), VIII (189). NFS. Cf. (anon.) Arden.

clive/clyve/cleave (v): split. FS (Ado/cleft). Book XIII (1044).

clod (n): clot. Books I (8, 24, 506), III (120), XII (267), XV (623, 624). FS (3-John, MM, Ado); Golding Abr Sac; (anon.) Locrine, Leic Gh.

clottered (a): clotted. Books I (8), Book XIV (248). NFS.

clout (n): cloth. Books VI (741), VIII (982), XIII (94). FS (4-R&J, Lear, Hamlet, A&C); Lyly Campaspe, Gallatea, Sapho, Bombie, Endymion; Greene Orl Fur, James IV; Nashe Summers.

clowres (n): sward, grassy ground. Books IV (366), VIII (944), X (174), XI (209), XIII (476), XV (643). NFS. Rare, Only 16th c. OED citation.

cloyne (n): clown. Book XIV (593). NFS.

clubbish (a): Book VII (556). NFS. OED: clumsy, boorish (Nims: "armed with a club").

clung (v): shriveled. Book VII (612). NFS.

coal carriers/colcaryers/colcariers (n): hirelings who do the dirty work. Epistle (86), Book XII (60). NFS. Cf. OED contemp citation: 1567 Fenton Trag. Disc. 70 ... who earst had bene colecaryor in amarous affaires.

cocker/cockering (v, a): humor, coddle/indulging. Epistle (78). FS (1-John); Lyly Bombie; Nashe Absurdity.

cods/coddes (n): husks, pods. Book IV (917). FS (AsYou, but with double meaning).

cods/coddes (n): male genitalia. Books V (162), VIII (531), Book X (839). FS (AsYou, wordplay); Gascoigne Supposes.

colewort (n): plant of the cabbage family. Book VIII (824).

coll/cull (v): embrace, hug. Books II (656), III (485), VI (120), IX (668), X (197, 462). NFS. Cf. Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Euphues, Love's Met; Kyd Sol&Per. OED contemp citations: 1564 Becon Jewel of Joy Wks.

collop/collup (n): slice, piece. Book V (651). FS (2-1H6, WT); Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Bombie; Kyd Sol&Per (referring to circumcision).

comb ... cut (v): comb is cut: to cut (rarely to cast down) the comb of: to lower the pride of, take the conceit out of, tame, take down, abash, humiliate. Book IX (117). NFS. Cf. (anon.) Ironside. OED cites: 1536 Tindale Expos; 1545 Udall Erasm; 1548 Hall Chron.

compassed/compast (a): arched. Book VI (77). FS (4-Shrew, MWW, T&C, V&A); Lyly Love's Met.

conveying neat (v): stealing cattle. Preface (42).

cope (v): Book XIV (108). (1) engage, encounter, come to blows. FS (T&C, V&A). (2) contend with. FS (3H6, AsYou).

cope (n): (1) covering, as a cape, canopy, cover over a coffin Cf. Sundrie Flowers (Ever/Never). (2) cope of heaven: over-arching canopy or vault of heaven. Book II (208). FS (1-Pericles); Spenser M. Hubbard, Hymn Hon. Love; (anon.) Ironside; Chapman Iliad. OED cites: 1380 Wyclif Serm. Sel. Wks. II. 3; 1385 Chaucer L.G.W.; 1460 Pol. Rel. & L. Poems; 1489 Caxton Sonnes of Aymon; 1549 Compl. Scot. Ded. 3; 1571 Campion Hist. Irel. 1591 Spenser M. Hubberd; 1611 Chapman Iliad.

copemate (n): adversary. Book XII (133), 1st OED citation. FS (1-Lucrece); (anon.) Arden; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Chapman All Fooles.

copped/chopt (v): let fall. Book X (204).

cornel (n): cherry [tree]. Books I (119, 867), XIII (960), throughout Golding's Ovid. The wood of Cornus mascula was celebrated for its hardness and toughness, whence it was anciently in request for javelins, arrows, etc.

corse (obs.): corpse, body. Books III (639, 911), IV (192, 297, 303, 322), VI (348, 355, 360, 374). Used throughout this work. FS (29); Sundrie Flowers; (anon.) Dodypoll, Leic Gh.

corsie (n): cause of grief, grievance. Books II (997, 1010), V (532). NFS.

costus (n): fragrant root of the plant Saussurea lappa, indigenous to Kashmir, that yields an essential oil used in perfumery, etc. Book X (340). NFS. 1st OED citation in 1607.

cote (v): pass, overtake. Books VII (1019), X (782). FS (1-Ham); Greene Fr Bacon. OED contemp citations: 1566 Drant Horace; 1599 Sandys Europae; 1602 Marston Antonio's Rev; 1611 Chapman Iliad.

coteplights (n): folds of one's garments. Book V (84). NFS.

courbed/courbde (a): curbed. Books III (35, 851), VIII (185, 999). NFS.

coy (v): caress. Books II (1084), VII (161, 290), X (126). FS (1-MND). OED contemp citations: 1567 Turberv. Ovid's Epist; 1575 Turberv. Faulconrie .

crack/crake (v): brag. Book VIII (527). Cf. FS (LLL); Peele Edw I; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Ironside, Willobie (n); (disp.) Greene's Groat; Munday More; Marston Fawn.

cracked (a): fissured. Book XIV (6). FS (3-Rich2, Lear, Temp).

crazed (a): Nims suggests weak, oblique. The context implies a meaning of crossed. Book VII (1044). NFS. Cf. (anon.) Locrine.

creak (v): croak, squawk. Book XIII (287). NFS.

cresset (n): iron vessel containing oil, used as a torch. Books IV (597), IX (914), Book XV (945). FS (1H4).

crisp (a): smooth, shining, clear. Book IX (47, 322). FS (2-Temp, Timon). Per OED very limited use after Golding's first.

crope (v): crept. Books VII (817), XIV (415). NFS.

cuckqueane (n): female cuckold. Book VI (682), Book X (385). NFS.

cull: see coll.

cullis/cullace (n): strong broth, esp. nourishing for the sick. Book XII (465). NFS.
Cf. Lyly Campaspe; (anon.) Ironside.

culm (n): soot. Book II (295). NFS.

culme (a): calm, motionless. Book VII (679). NFS.
PK curets (n): cuirass. Book III (123), XII (128). Cf. Greene Orl Furioso.

dad (n): father. Book V (12). FS (King John); others.

danger (n): power, dominion. Book XII (655). FS (4-Errors, MV, Oth, Lucrece); Brooke Romeus; (anon.) Locrine, Penelope, Leic Gh; Chapman Revenge.

dared/daarde (v): crouched. Book XIV (349). NFS.

dart (n): spear, javelin. Used throughout. FS (many); Marlowe T2; Kyd Cornelia, Sol&Per; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Mucedorus, Locrine, Leic Gh; Sidney Antony; Munday More, Huntington. dart (v): hurl, spear. Books I, II, V. NFS. Greene ? Selimus

daubaken (a): smeared. Book XI (423). NFS.

daunting (a): dimming, subduing. Book IV (245). NFS. Cf. Gascoigne Jocasta.

daw (n): simpleton (from jackdaw). Book VI (47). FS (6-1H6, Ado, Oth, T&C, Corio); Lodge Wounds; Greene Cony; Lyly Whip..

deft (a): handsome, well wrought. Book VIII (431). NFS.

delved (a): dug-out. Book IV (292). FS (Ham, Cymb); Kyd Sp Tr.

demean (v): express. Book VIII (554). NFS. Cf. Lyly Woman ... Moon.

depart(e)s (v): divides. Book XV (222). Cf. (disp.) Greenes Groat.

descry (v): reveal, discover, perceive. Book XV (162). FS (14); Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lodge Wounds; Greene Pandosto, James IV; Watson Tears; Nashe Saffron; Peele Wives; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Selimus, Ironside, Willobie, Penelope; Harvey Pierce's Super.

dight (a): constructed, equipped, prepared; ready dight: fitly prepared.
Books I (568), II (161, 892), III (640), IV (923), VII (318), XIV (733). NFS. Cf. Brooke Rom&Jul; (anon.) Penelope's Comp.

ding (n): hurl down. Books XI (912), Book XIV (240). NFS. Cf. Greene ? Selimus; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Willobie; Nashe Chr Tears; Drayton et al Oldcastle.

divorce (a): separate. Book VII (515). FS (5-LLL, Timon, 2H4, H5, Edw3). Lambarde uses it identically: 1570-6 Peramb. Kent (1826) 89 It was sometime divorced from the continent by a water.

dolles (n): palms. Book VI (458). NFS.

dopt (v): dipped. Book XIII (1031).

dossers (n): horns. Only OED citation. Book VII (410). NFS.

dowle/dowel (n): boundary marker. Book I (152). NFS.

dowle (a): double. Book XI (267).

dreeping/dreepe (a, v): drooping/droop. Book XI (415, 706). NFS. See also "overdreep".

dreint (a): drenched. Book III (773).

drib (v): shoots to miss the mark. Book XIII (65). FS (MM, "dribbling").; Lyly Gallathea. OEDcontemp citation: 1572 Churchyard To Rdr. in J. Jones Bathes of Bath, At rouers they but shot their Shafts, and dribbed wyde a skore.

droopy/droupie (a): gloomy. Book VIII (2)

drumslade/dromslet (n): Form of drum. Book XII (532). Common in 16th c.

eared/earde/earing (n, a, v): plowed/plowing. Books III (118), V (595), XV (622). FS (3-Rich2, AWEW, A&C); (anon.) Ironside.

ech/eatch: increasing, enlarge, eke out. Book X (569). FS (Pericles).

eft (adv): again, back. Used throughout. NFS. Cf. Brooke Romeus; Sundrie Flowers (N/E).

eke (adv): also. Used throughout. FS (7-H5, MND, MWW, AsYou, AWEW); Brook Romeus; (anon.) Willobie, Leic Gh..

eme/eame (n): uncle. Book V (27). NFS. Cf. (anon.) Locrine.

emmet (n): ant. Book VII (843). FS (1-Edw3); (anon.) Mucedorus, Willobie.

escried/escryde (v): revealed. Book XIII (48). NFS.

evenlong/evelong (adv): straight along the way. Book VIII (712). NFS.

extree (n): axle-tree [of heaven]: imaginary line which forms the axis of the revolution of the earth, a planet, the heavens. Books II (378, 401), VI (222); XV (583). FS (2-1H4, T&C); Golding Ovid; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Marlowe 1 Tamburlaine (OED missed these citations); Pasquill Apology; Drayton et al Oldcastle.

fadom/fathom (n): The length covered by the outstretched arms, including the hands to the tip of the longest finger; hence, a definite measure of 6 feet ..., now chiefly used in taking soundings. Book VIII (936). FS (2-Oth, Lear).

fain/fayne (adv): pleased. Book XIV (91). FS (1H6, AsYou); Golding Ovid. (a): 2H6, 2H4). Common.

falchion/fauchon (n): broad sword. Book V (93). FS (8); Gascoigne Supposes; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Maiden's Dream; (anon.) Arden, Ironside.

faltered/foltred (v) [in the mouth]: stumbled in speech. Book III (340). NFS. Cf. Brooke Rom&Jul

fardle (v): furl. Book XI (558). NFS.

fat (n): vessel (obs.). Book II (35).

favor (n): appearance, features. Book XIII (989). FS (29); Brooke Romeus; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Greene Cony; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Arden, Weakest; Drayton et al Oldcastle; Nashe Summers; Chapman Revenge.

featly (a): well, fitly. Preface (204). FS (2- WT, Temp).

feere/fere (n): mate, companion. Epistle (183), Books I (470, 582, 594, 583), II (588, 719), III (573), V (630, 703), VI (546), VII (84), VII (84), VIII (53), XI (836), XIV (958). FS (3- TA, Pericles, TNK); Brooke Romeus; Sundrie Flowers (E/N); Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Locrine, Penelope.

feight (v): possibly feigh, to winnow. Book III (125). NFS.

fell (n): savage, cruel. Books I (167), II (110, 582), III (42, 255, 300), IV (536, 559, 624, 768), VI (434, 676), VII (42, 281, 311, 558), VIII (748, 1039), IX (234), XII (287). FS (any); Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek, Tears; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Greene ? Selimus; Marlowe Edw2; (anon) Locrine, Mucedorus, Woodstock, Penelope..

felly/folly (n): rim of a wheel, supported by spokes. Book II (145). FS (Ham).

fet (v): fetched. Books III (313), XV (545). FS (2H6, H5); Brooke Romeus; Lodge Wounds; Greene ? Selimus.

fetch (n): trick, stratagem. Book XIII (48). FS (1-Ham).Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Fr Bacon; Nashe Summers; Chettle Kind Hart.

fisking (v): frisking. Book XV (184). NFS. Cf. Harvey's Pierce's Super. OED contemp citation: 1523 Fitzherb. Husb. -45 ... ye shall perceyue it by her bytynge, or fyskynge.

fistocke (n): fist. Book IX (687). NFS. Only OED citation.

fitters (n): pieces. Book XII (475). NFS. OED cites: 1532 More Confut. Tindale Wks. 374/2 Whiche the deuil hath by ye blast of his mouth..frushed al to fitters.

flacker (v): flutter. Books VII (483), VIII (453). NFS. (See also "fleck"). OED cites earlier only the Coverdale Bible Isa. 6.2.

flaited/flited/flaighted/flayght (v, a): frightened. Books II (500), III (45), IV (600, 735), V (349), IX (490), XI (89, 782), XIV (468), XV (578). NFS. OED cites first use.

flask (v): splashed, fluttered. Books II (1096), V (680), VI (886), VIII (267), XI (544), XIII (1094). NFS. Only OED citations.

flat . Book XII (580), either of following meanings. (1) (a): directly, outright. FS (Ado). (2) (n): flatland, lowland, possibly swampland. FS (Ham, Temp).

flattering (a): coaxing, beckoning. Book IV (422). FS (3-3H6, R&J, AsYou).

flaw (n): sudden squall. Book IV (769). FS (4-2H6, Ham, Corio, Pericles); (anon.) Arden.

fleck (v): flutter about. Book VIII (340). NFS. (See also "flacker".)

fleece (n): flitch (slice). Book XIII (1035). NFS.

fleet (a): shallow. Book V (734). NFS.

fleet (v): drift. Books VII (88, 588, 825), XV (184, 192). FS (many); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Sundrie Flowers (STV); Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe T1, Edw2. fleeting (a): drifting. Book XV (199). FS (3-MV, AsYou, Edw3); (anon.) Locrine.

flewed (a): ref. to the large chaps of a deep-mouthed hound (e.g. the bloodhound). Book III (269). FS (MND); Lyly Midas. OED cites: Turberv. Faulconrie.

flightshot/flyghtshot (n): bowshot. Book VIII (875). NFS.

flintwort (n): aconite, suggested by Pliny's statement that it grows on bare rocks. Book VII (518).

flitch (n): side. Book VIII (825). NFS.

fode/foode (v): encourage, beguile. Books VII (932), Book XI (473, 567). NFS. Cf. Golding Calvin on Ps.

foil/foyle (n, v): stain, shame, defile. Books I (961), VI (817), VIII (533), IX (223), XII (332). FS (3-AsYou, Temp, Cymb); Gascoigne Jocasta (anon.) Mucedorus, Penelope; Sidney Antony.

foil/foyle (v): path, track. Book VIII (66, 448). NFS.

foin/foyne (n, v): thrust. Book XII (329). FS (3-MWW, Ado, Lear). ; Lyly Pap; Nashe Valentines.

fond (a): foolish, rash. (Book II (69, 120). FS (many). Common.

fondling (n): foolish/rash one. Book II (135). FS (1-V&A); Lyly Woman ... Moon; (anon.) Penelope.

footless (a): without a leg to stand on. Book XIV (253). NFS.
for the nonce/nones (adv): expressly for the purpose. Book I (569), VIII (398). FS (3-1H6, 1H4, Ham); Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Harvey Speculum; Bacon poetry; Marlowe Dido; (anon.) Marprelate.

forbod (n): forbidding, interdiction. Book XIII (891). (v): past tense of forbad. FS (Lucrece, Lov Comp).

ford/foord (n): sea. Book VI (653). NFS.

forfend (v): forbid. Books VI (423, 443, 444), Book XI (324). FS (8); Udall Erasmus; Lodge Wounds; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Woodstock; Ironside.

forgrown (a): shaggy, covered with hair, foliage. Book XIV (196, 584). NFS.

forpined (v): pined away. Book IV (702). NFS.

frame (v): prepare, create. Books I (297, 632), II (4), IV (388), V (620), VI (228, 259, 599), VIII (861, 915), IX (12, 44, 621), X (153), XII (48), XIII (885, 905, 940), XIV (63, 182, 879), XV (413, 643). FS (many); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Gallathea, Sapho.

frank (v): cram. Book XV (84, 96). NFS.

frayed/frayd (v): assaulted, scared/driven off. Books IX (76, 401), Book XV (754). FS (T&C); Brooke Romeus. OED cites one contemp (legal) use: 1575 Durham Depos. (Surtees) 286 Neither this examinate nor his brother..ever did lay in wayt nor frayd off the said Sir Richard Mylner.

frayne (v): No OED appropriate definition; translates Ovid's "ardet" (burn, glow). The noun "frayne" can mean an ash. Book XII (248). NFS.

frith (n): field, wood, possibly a protected area. Books III (205), VII (310), Book XII (370). NFS.

froshes/frosshes (n): frogs. Book XV (412). NFS.

frows/froes/frowes (n): women, maenaeds, often Dutch or German, may refer to Bacchantes. Books IV (32), VI (752),VII (337), IX (760), XI (21, 99). NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Pasquil Return; (anon.) Penelope; Chapman d'Olive.

froward (a): perverse, forward. Books IV (459), VI (248), XI (467). FS (13).Common.

frusshing (n): crushing, crashing. Book XV (372).

furniture (n): clothing, personal effects. Book II (913). FS (3-2H6, 1H4, AWEW); Greene Orl Fur.

gad (n): metal bar or spike, kalso stylus. Book IX (210). FS (1-Titus).

gaincope/gainecope (v): catch up with, intercept. Book III (283). NFS.

gate (n): way, path. Books VIII (274), X (182). Cf. Gascoigne Supposes; (anon.) Locrine.

gear/geere (n): furnishings, equipment. Books VIII (817), XIV (357), XV (173). Cf. Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Bombie.

gear/geere (n): device, matter. Book XIV (874). FS (11); Golding Abraham; Sundrie Flowers; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho, Bombie; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Kyd Sp Tr; Drayton et al Oldcastle; (anon.) Fam Vic; Munday Huntington.

gear/geere (n): clothes. Book VIII (1065). FS (2H6, LLL); Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sp Tr.

geat (n): goat. Book V (418). NFS.

gird/gyrd (v): rush, dart, move suddenly. Books I (655), II (209), X (765), XII (425, 622), Book XIV (575). FS (1-Corio?).

gird (v): jibe. Book II (750). FS (2-1H6, Shrew); Lyly Pap.

gla(u)nced down (v): moved obliquely. Book VII (289). NFS.

glebeland/glebland (n): cultivated land, part of a church/clergy benefice. Book X (759). NFS.

glister/glaster (v): glitter. Books I (80, 975), II (54, 156, 231, 320, 853), III (201), IV (234, 279, 437, 502, 655, 736), VIII (376), IX (812), XI (128, 424), XIII (132), XIV (756 "glistering grape"), Book XV (765, 952). FS (9); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Sundrie Flowers (Ever/Never); Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek; Lyly Gallathea, Woman ... Moon, Midas; Greene Fr Bacon; (anon.) Locrine, Willobie; (disp.) Cromwell.

gloze/glose (n, v): specious, over-expansive talk, flattery. Epistle (530). glozers (n): flatterers. FS (6-LLL, Rich2, H5, TA, T&C, Pericles); Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Watson Hek; Lyly Campaspe; Kyd Cornelia, Sol&Per; Lodge Wounds; Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Ironside, Arden, Willobie; Nashe Menaphon, Summers, Absurdity; Harvey Pierce's Super; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Greene Maiden's. Cf. (anon.) Nobody/Somebody (v).

gnarring/gnoorring/gnoring (v, n): snarling. Books III (269), XIII (680); Golding Calvin on Deut; Harvey 4 Letters.

gobbits/gobbets (n): per OED sweetmeats. Here and in Shakespeare, shredded uncooked flesh. Book VI (815). FS (2H6). Neither use cited in OED.

goles (v): gullets. Book VI (481). NFS.

gorget (n): collar. Cf. Jocasta. Book VIII (429); FS (1-T&C); Gascoigne Jocasta.

graned/graand (v): choked, strangled. Book IX (90). OED cites first use in 1613.

greces/greeces (n): flight of stairs. Books VI (120), VII (752), Book XV (765). FS (TNK).

greedy/greedie gut (n): glutton. Books III (81, 256); V (562), XV (102). NFS. Cf. Gascoigne Supposes; (anon.) Mucedorus. OED cites Protestant invective: 1550 Lever Serm. (Arb.) 63 Disceitful Merchauntes, couetous greedyguttes,...; 1579 Tomson Calvin's Serm. Tim. 638/1 ... play the greedie guts without all measure.

greff (n): graft. Book XIV (718).

greund/grewnde (n): greyhound, probably a bitch. Books I (649, 654), III (257), VII (980, 982, 984, 998, 1001, 1013, 1018). FS (5-LLL, 1H4, Shrew, MWW, Corio); Golding Ovid; Oxford poem (Cardanus); illustration on title page of Willobie (Actaeon). Apparently adopted by the Earl of Oxford as a heraldic animal during the reign of Henry VIII.

grins/grinnes (n): animal or bird snares, probably with a running noose. Books XI (287), XV (527). NFS.

grip/grype (n): vulture. Books IV (566), Book X (44). FS (1-Lucrece); Norton & Sack Gorboduc.

gripple (a): gripping, greedy. Book VII (599). NFS. Cf. Spenser FQ; (anon.) Ironside. OED contemp. citations: 1574 Rich Mercury & Soldier; 1589 Warner Alb. Eng.

groin/groyne (n): snout of a pig. Books VIII (497), X (836), XIV (326), Book XV (122).
FS (V&A); Golding Abraham.

guard/garde (n, v): decorative border. Books II (914), V (64). FS (1-MM); (anon.) Mucedorus, Ironside.

guerdon (n, v): prize, recompense. Books II (361), IV (232), VIII (653, 956). FS (4-2H6, LLL, Ado, Edw3); Brooke Romeus; Lyly Woman/Moon; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sp Tr; Marlowe Massacre; Nashe Summers; Munday Huntington; (anon.) Ironside, Leic Gh.

gulfe/golf (n): quantity of corn held in one bay of a barn. Book VI (583).

gull (n): gullet. Book IV (547).

gut (n): passage. Book XI (157). NFS.

hair-lace (n): headband, tie, fillet. Book V (759). NFS.

hallow (v): sanctify, purify. Book XIV (588). FS (2H6).

hallows (n): holy or heathen shrine/relic. Books XIV (359), Book XV (758). NFS. Cf. Nashe Valentines.

hame (n): stubble. Book I (596). NFS.

handsel/hansel (n): omen. Books VI (556, 557, 574), VII (799), IX (683), X (5, 302), XII (245), XV (658, 717). NFS. Cf. Lyly Bombie. OED contemp citations: 1573 Twyne Aneid; 1579-80 North Plutarch.

handsomness (n): ease, dexterity. Book VI (71). NFS.

handwarp/handywarp (n): a 16 c. cloth. Books IV (215), Book VI (26). NFS.

harbrough/harbrowgh (n, v): harbor. Books II (91), III (557, 689, 757, 761, 809, VII (567), VIII (131), IX (705), XI (526, 549). NFS. Cf. Gascoigne Jocasta; (anon.) Arden. (See also herbroughless.)

hardels (n): OED defines as hurdles(?). Book I (138). NFS.

hardly/hardely (adv): (1) with difficulty. Book II (118). FS (12th, Oth, Edw3); Oxford letter, Kyd Sp Tr; Sidney Antony; Nashe Summers; Marlowe Edw2; Drayton et al Oldcastle, (anon.) Mucedorus. (2) forcefully, boldly, firmly. Book XIV (827). Not uncommon.

harry (v): drag. Epistle (577), Books XII (651), XV (588). NFS.

hault/haut/haught/hawlt (a): (1) haughty. Epistle (251), Books VIII (785), XII (559); Book XIII (432, 540), XIV (514). NFS. Cf. Greene James IV; Marlowe Edw2. (2) high, mighty (seas, majesty). Book IV (657, 668, 786).

havers (n): in the original Latin, the word means beast. Book VIII (510). Not in OED.

heare (n): hair. (This spelling has been kept at the end of lines, to illustrate rhyming patterns.)

hedge wine (n): cheap wine; possibly blackberry (OED). Book VIII (851).

height, in height (adv): to the utmost, completely. Book XIII (491). FS (many); (anon.) Leic Gh.

hems/hemmes (n): border. Book II (147). NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid.

hent (a): surrounded, taken. Books II (296), XIII (1091). FS (1-Ado); Sundrie Flowers; Gascoigne Jocasta; Sundrie Flowers/Spreta tamen vivunt.

hent (v): seized. Books IX (211, 428), XI (358). FS (2-MM, WT); Brooke Romeus.

herbroughless (a): harborless. Book I (255).

herce (n): form of hearse -- frame. Book III (640).

heronshaw/hernesewe (n): heron, young heron. Book XIV (661). FS.

hest/heste (n): behest. Preface (141), Books II (847), VIII (940), Book XIV (339, 685), Book XV (613, 718, 962). FS (LLL, 1H4, Temp); Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Locrine.

high-minded (a): proud, arrogant. Book XIII (916). FS (1-1H6); Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sol&Per.

hight/hyght (v): is/was called/named. Epistle (381), Books I (7, 194, 366, 369, 702), II (471, 800, 857, 923, 1050), III (180, 385, 443, 753), IV (843), V (158, 801), VII (640, 890), VIII (337, 738, 807), X (323), XI (336, 360, 745), XII (127, 312), XIII (1077), XIV (338). FS (4-LLL, MND, Pericles); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene G a G, Alphonsus; Kyd Sp Tr; Peele Wives; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Leic Gh; Munday Huntington.

hight (v): provide. Book VII (717). NFS.

hill/hille [your heads] (v): hide, cover. Books I (452), V (824)..

hire/hyre (n): payment, reward. Epistle (179, 189), Books VIII (166), XIV (16). FS (8); Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sol&Pers; (anon.) Dainty Devices, Ironside, Willobie.

hittymissie (adv): Shakespeare used hit-or-miss in Troilus. Book VIII (548). Uses per OED: 1553 T. Wilson Rhet; 1602 Warner Alb. Eng.

hoar/hore (a): grey-white. Alternate word "hore" would mean filthy or decayed. Books I (277), VI (670).

Hobby hawk/hauke (n): small falcon. Book VIII (191).

hoise/hoyse (v): hoist. Book XIV (495).

host (v): be a guest. Book V (798). FS (1-Edw3).

hotchpotch/hodgepodge (n): stew, mixture. Book V (557, 563). NFS. Cf. Lyly Bombie; Nashe Chr Tears, Saffron; (anon.) Cromwell; Marston Scourge.

hounce (n): ornament on a horse-collar. Book II (147). NFS.

hugger-mugger/hudther mudther (n): secrecy. Book XIII (16). FS (Ham); Nashe Summers. OED contemp citations: 1553 Becon Reliques of Rome; 1590 in Acc. & Pap. relating to Mary Q. of Scots; 1601 Holland Pliny II. 563 Say that this is done in secret and hucker mucker.

hugy/howgie (a): huge. Book V (440). FS (Edw3); Brooke Romeus; Robinson Delights; Gascoigne Jocasta; Kyd Sp Tr; Harvey poem/Shakerly; (anon.) Penelope.

hurly-burly (n): commotion. Book IX (510). FS (4-John, Shrew & 2H4 as hurly only, 1H4); Golding Calvin on Ps; Edwards Dam&Pith; Greene Fr Bacon; Nashe Penniless; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Penelope. OED also cites: 1580 Baret Alv.

imp (n): denotes a child of. Used throughout.

incontinent (adv): immediately. Book X (10). FS (4-Rich2, AsYou, Oth, Timon); Lyly Woman ... Moon; Greene Alphonsus; Marlowe T1; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody, Locrine, Leic Gh; Chapman Iliad.

infest (a): hostile, envenomed. Book IV (610). FS (1-Temp, as a verb); Gascoigne Jocasta.

infringed (a): uninfringed. Book VII (622).

ingrain/ingrayne (a): dyed in grain, dyed with fast colors. Book X (223).

intermitted (v): interrupted. FS (1: JC). Book I (938). Cf. Sidney Mark Antony.

iwis/ywis/ywus (adv): surely. Books I (949), X (374, 721), XIII (936), XIV (753). FS (4-Rich3, Shrew, MV, Pericles); Sundrie Flowers; (anon.) Ironside, Willobie Nobody/Somebody, Penelope; Nashe Almond; (disp.) Harvey 4 Letters; Cromwell. Common.

jennet/genet (n): small horse, originally Spanish-bred. Books II (211), VI (158). FS (3-Edw3, Oth, V&A); Brooke Romeus; Lodge Wounds.

jet/jetting (v): stroll/strolling. Book II (721). FS (4-Rich3, 12th, Cymb, TA); Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene James IV; Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Woodstock, Dodypoll, Willobie, Arden, Leic Gh; Nashe Chr. Tears.

job (v): peck, stab at. Books XIII (733), XIV (448). NFS. Cf. Golding Calvin on Deut.

jowle; wide-jowled/wydegoawld (a): wide-cropped. Book XI (867). NFS.

just (n): joust. Book IX (58).

keeverings (n): coverings. Book XI (710). NFS.

kell (n): kiln. Book VII (151). NFS.

ken (v): espy, see. Books VII (490, 627), XI (543), XIII (991), XIV (280). FS (4-2H6, T&C, Edw3, TNK); Greene Alphonsus. kenning (n): sight. Book X (58). NFS.

kew/cue (n): frame of mind. Book IX (725). NFS.

kindle (v): give birth. Book IX (389). FS (5-John, AsYou, A&C, H8, Lucrece); Golding Ovid; Sidney Antony; Drayton et al Oldcastle; (disp.) Cromwell, (anon.) Leic Gh.

kirtle (n): cloak. Book II (841). FS (2-PP, Sonnet 20).

kiver (n): cover. Book XV (62).

knap (n): summit. Books VII (1010), XI (391), XII (368). NFS. OED contemp citation: 1548 Hall Chron.

knapped/napt (v): struck, knocked. Book XII (283). FS (2-MV, Lear).

kneeler-down (n): Hercules constellation. Book VIII (244). NFS.

knops (n): knobs. Book I (406.

kye /kie (n): cattle. Book II (870)

labels of her socks (n): narrow strips of fabric/laces for her foot-coverings/sandals. Book X (690).

Lapiths: tribe of Thessaly. Ancestral home of many of the eponymous Hellenic ancestors. Humans who fought the Centaurs at the wedding of their King Pirithous, companion of Theseus. Book XII. Cf. Lyly Pap.

latch (v): grasp. Book VIII (544, 762). FS (1-Sonnet 113).

lawnd/laund (n): pasture, open field. Books II (566, 608), V (717), Book VII (1009), Book X (619), XI (165), XIII (1023). FS (3-3H6, TNK, V&A); Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe Edw2; Greene Fr Bacon, Orl Fur; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Nashe Penniless.

at ... lay (v): urged. Book IX (804).

leaning lake (n): lake with sloping banks. Book IX (403). NFS.

leech/leache (n): physician. Book VII (717). FS (1-Timon); Brooke Romeus; (anon.) Penelope.

leechcraft (n): medicine. Books X (197), XV (598). NFS.

leef: see lief.

[un]leeful: [un]lawful. Book III (419). NFS.

leese (v): lose. Book I (742). FS (1: Sonnet 5); Watson Hek; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Supposes; Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Geo a Greene, ? Selimus.

leesings (n): idle labors. Epistle (537). NFS.

leet (n): district, often created for legal purposes. Book VIII (977). FS (2-Oth, Shrew/both possibly legal terms).

leman (n): sweetheart, lover. Books I (755, 771), IV (286, 336), IX (171, 175). FS (3-2H4, MWW, 12th); Greene G a G; Nashe Valentines. Common.

let/letteth [his course] (v): hinder, slow down, prevent. Epistle (538), Books II (209, 1022), III (723), IV (78, 79, 91, 96, 931), V (673), VIII (269), X (270), XV (544). Used throughout, common.

let (n): hindrance. Books III (61), VI (862), IX (568), XIII (451, 954). Used throughout.

lever (adv): rather. Apparent form of "liefer". Book XV (93). NFS. Cf. Golding Abraham.

lief/leef/liefe (n, a):beloved. liefest (a): dearest. Books II (814), V (650), XIV (773). NFS. Cf. Lyly Woman ... Moon; Greene George a Greene.

lights (n): lungs. Books II (1004), XII (405). NFS.

lime twig/lymetwigge (n): twig spread with birdlime. Book XV (528). FS (2-2H6, AWEW); Lyly Gallatea; Nashe Penniless; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody.

line (v): lain. Book VII (1040).

lithe/lither/lythe (a): (1) yielding, soft, pliant Book III (613, 865), IV (435), V (536), VII (170, 378), VIII (303, 453, 1027), X (109, 206), XIII (943), XIV (489). FS (1-1H6); Golding Ovid. OED contemp citation: 1565 Cooper Thesaurus, s.v. Brachium, Cerea brachia, Nice and liether arms. (2) weak, sluggish, calm, lazy. Epistle (116), Books XI (711), XII (351). NFS.

losel/lozell (n): scoundrel. Book XIII (139). NFS. Cf. Lodge Wounds; Greene G a G; (anon.) Locrine; Munday Huntington.

lucert (n): lizard. Book V (570, 571). NFS.

luring (v): calling. Book XIV (453). NFS.

luskish (a): lazy, sluggish. Book XI (752). NFS. Cf. Gascoigne Supposes.

main/mayne (a): solid. Book XIII (954). FS (6-2H6, H8, T&C, A&C).

main (n): force, strength. Book XIII (272), FS (4-1H4, MV, T&C, Sonnet 60); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Whip.

mainly/maynely (adv): rapidly. Book IX (96). FS (1-H4).

make (n): mate. Books VII (1038), VIII (883), XI (478), XII (443), XIV (775). FS (Lear); Sundrie Flowers.

manchet/mancheate (n): fine wheaten bread. Book XI (133). NFS. Cf. Oxford Cardanus poem. OED also cites: 1577 Harrison England

marcusotte (v): cut a beard in the marquisotte fashion. Book XIII (904). NFS. Cf. Greene Coney-Catching. OED contemp citations: 1580 J. Jeffere Bugbears; 1588 Losses Span. Navy in Harl. Misc. (1753).

maree/marie (n): marrow. Books IX (214, 575), X (565), Boox XIV (244, 400, 487).

marish/marris (n): marsh. Book XV (3810.

mast (n): fruit (nuts etc.) from various forest trees. Books VII (751), Boox XIV (252). FS (Timon).

mastic/masticke (n): gum, resin. Book XV (799). NFS.

masty (n): large dog, probably mastiff. Book XIV (77). NFS. Cf. (anon.) Locrine.

mattock (n): digging tool with a blade with an adze on one side, and a kind of pick on the other. Book XI (38, 880). FS (3-R&J, Titus); Peele Wives; Lyly Midas.

maugre/mauger: (fr) in spite of. Books IV (444), VI (427). FS (3-12th, Titus, Lear); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Midas; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Orl Fur, Alphonsus, Pandosto; (anon.) Mucedorus, Locrine, Ironside, Nobody/Somebody, Penelope, Leic Gh, Pasquil Countercuff; Harvey Sonnet, 3d Letter.

maund/mawnd (n): woven basket with handles. Books V (493), VIII (853), XIV (307). FS (1-Lov. Comp).

mauther/modther/moother (n): young girl. Books IX (929), Book XII (518, 519). NFS. Chiefly found in East Anglia; also found in Gloucestershire, Herts, and Sheffield. OED contemp citations: 1573 Tusser Husb. 1591 Fraunce Yuychurch; 1610 B. Jonson Alch.

may (n): maiden. Book II (561).

mazer (n): hardwood drinking-bowl, originally made of "mazer" (maple) wood. Book VIII (848). FS (Ham); Lyly Pap.

meacock/meicock (n): coward, weakling, effeminate one. Book III (692). FS (1-Shrew); (anon.) Penelope; Harvey Pierce's Super.

mead/mede (n): meadow. Books II (269), IV (421), Book V (206). FS (6). Common.

meddle/medle (v): mix. Book VII (578). NFS. Cf. (anon.) Cromwell.

meed (n): reward, prize. Epistle (172, 592), Books II (947), IX (492), XIII (496). FS (19); Sundry Flowers (E/N); Kyd Sp Tr; Narlowe T1; Lyly Woman ... Moon; (anon.) Arden, Nobody/Somebody.

mell (v): meddle. Book XIII (195). FS (1-AWEW); (anon.) Willobie.

mer/mere/meere (n): lake, pond, possibly marsh or fen. Books I (41), VIII (790)

merry-go-down (n): strong ale. Book V (556). Nashe Lenten Stuff. 3 citations in OED, including Nashe: 1500 Songs & Carols; 1577 Harrison England

meter/meeter (n): poem. Book IX (932). FS (1H4, Rich2, Sonnets)

meynt (v): mingled,mixed. Past tense of "meng". Books IV (170), XIII (659), XIV (69, 318). NFS. OED cites Surrey, Turberville, Spenser, others.

minion/minyon (n, a): dainty, pretty. Book XIV (592). NFS as adj. OED contemp. citations: 1542 Udall Erasm;1553 Roister D.; 1579 Puttenham Partheniades.

moil/mooyl/moyl (v): worry, fret, wallow. NFS. Book IX (502). Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (1st OED citation). OED contemp citations: 1575 Gascoigne Flowers; 1577 B. Googe Heresbach's Husb.

moly (n): mythological herb having a white flower and a black root, endowed with magic properties; said by Homer to have been given by Hermes to Odysseus as a charm against Circe's sorceries. The Homeric moly is by some writers identified with the mandrake, but Theophrastus and Dioscorides apply the name to some species of garlic (Allium). Epistle (278), Book XIV (338). Cf. Lyly Euphues, Gallatea; Greene Orl Fur, James IV. OED cites also : 1579 Gosson Sch. Abuse (Arb.) 42 ... as Homers Moly against Witchcraft.

mops (n): term of endearment for a young girl. Book III (203). NFS. Cf. Lyly Woman ... Moon, Midas.

morion (n): helmet. Book VI (96), XII (143). NFS. Cf. Sidney Antony; possibly Nashe Summers.

Morning (n): refers to the Goddess Aurora. Book XIII (689, 708).

murrain/murren (n): plague. Books VII (786), XV (703). FS (3-Temp, Troilus, Corio); Edwards Dam&Pith; Nashe Penniless; (anon.) Woodstock; Drayton et al Oldcastle. OED cites Hall's Chron, dramatic uses from Heywood, Ingelend, Richards, (anon.) Gammer Gurton, others.

nave (n): central part of the wheel. Book II (401). FS (2-Ham, Mac).

neat/nete (n): cattle/cow. Books V (205, 419), VIII (745), XI (179, 283). FS (3-3H6, WT, Corio); Golding Ovid; Sundrie Flowers. neatherd/neatheard (n): cowherd. Book I (623). FS (Cymb)

neb (n): (1) beak or bill of a bird. Cf. Golding Ovid. (2) mouth, sometimes face of a person. FS (WT, 1st OED citation).

neck-verse/neckeverse (n)): Latin verse shown to defendant in a capital case; claiming benefit of clergy because of ability to read would save him from hanging. Book VI (8). NFS. OED cites first use with the verb "put to" (similar to "put the question").

nice/nyce (a): picky, hard to please. Book IX (506). FS (many).

nock (n): notch. Book VI (296). NFS.

noddle (n): back. Book V (149). NFS.

noddy/noddie/noddle (n): simpleton. Book III (521). FS (2-TGV); Edwards Dam&Pith; Greene Cony; Lyly Whip, Bombie; (anon.) Dodypoll; Chettle Kind Hart.

nosethrills (n): nostrils. Used sparingly, at least through the 17th c. Book XII (477). NFS. Cf. Pasquil Apology.

not/notte (v): clip short. Book XI (205).

oofe: woof. Book IV (215).

open/uppen (v): mention. Book XII (179).

orient (a): shining like the dawn, bright red. Books III (610), X (223). FS (2-Edw3); Lyly Woman ... Moon; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Leic Gh. OED contemp citation: 1578 Lyte Dodoens ii. ix. 158 The floures of an excellent shining or orient redde.

originall (n): origin. Book XV (64). FS (2-2H4, MND); (disp.) Cromwell.

orpid/orped (a): fierce. Books VII (560), VIII (526), XI (420), XIII (911). NFS. (per OED Golding Ovid Bok VIII 1st of 2 known uses); 1594 Constable Venus & Adonis vii, For an orped swine Smit him in the groyne.

ouch/owche (n): buckle, brooch, clasp. Book X (282). FS (24).

out of hand (adv). suddenly, immediately. Books I (391), II (1048), III (117, 388, 696, 877), IV (595, 937), V (185, 229, 483, 694), VI (243), VII (65, 110), VIII (598), XI (95), XII (677), XIII (282), XIV (99, 470), Book XV (948). FS (4: 1H6, 3H6, Titus, Edw3); Holinshed; Golding Abraham; Holinshed; Lodge Wounds; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Yorkshire.

overdreep (v): droop over. Books XI (686), XIII (993).

overraft (v): overreached. Book I (570).

overseen (a): deceived; sometimes self-deceived, rash. Book II (78). FS (Lucrece).

packing (n): intrigue, conspiracy. Books II (681), IX (372). FS (5-Shrew, MWW, Cymb, Lear, Edw3); Gascoigne Supposes; Kyd Sol&Per; Lyly Bombie.

pall (n): mantle, robe. Book XI (683). FS (Mac, as a verb).

palmed (a): having a palm or flat expanded part with projecting points. Book III (162).

panion (n): companion. Book XIII (56).

parget (n): plaster. Book IV (100). NFS.

pass/past (v): care for, heed. Books VII (725), X (653), XI (787), XIII (991), XIV (713). FS (2H5, Mac); many others. Common.

paunch (n, v): stab, wound in the paunch, disembowel. Book XIII (1016). FS (1-Tempest); Kyd Sp Tr; Florio, Viscerare.

paynim (n): pagan, heathen. Epistle (321, 444), Preface (3). NFS.

peakishly (adv): NFS. OED suggests obscurely, remotely. No other use noted. Book VI (663). NFS.

peends (v): pends. Book XIII (972). NFS.

peevish (n): small, silly. Book V (554). FS (many). common.

peise/peyse/poise (v): weigh, balance. Books I (13), VIII (271), X (187). FS (2-Rich3, John); Brooke Rom&Jul; Marston Malcontent.

pelt (n): wound. Book VI (319). NFS.

pelting (a): paltry. Books V (553), VI (12, 663), VIII (805), XV (472). FS (7-Rich2, MND, T&C, MM, Lear, TNK); Lyly Campaspe, Gallatea, Endymion, Midas, Bombie; (anon.) Woodstock, Willobie; Harvey 4 Letters; Chettle Kind Hart.

panion (n): companion. Book XIII (56).

perbreak/perbrake (v): spew up, vomit. Book VI (839). NFS. Cf. Marlowe T1.

perst (v): perished. Book XIV (546). NFS. (Nims: Ovid's word "mersit" means "sunk, overwhelmed.")

pied-coat/pydecote (a): wearing a multicolored coat. Book IX (815). NFS.

pies (n): refers to transformation of Euippe's daughters into magpies (see Book V). Epistle (117), Book V (377, 828).

pie/pye (n): magpie, wily person (thief). Book XI (360),

pight/pyght (v): pitched, thrust. Books II (23, 837, 981), IX (424), X (512). FS (2-Cymb, T&C); Greene Maiden's Dream; (anon.) Willobie.

pile/pyle (n): pyre. Book XIV (92). NFS.

pine/pyne (v): starve. Book VIII (975). FS; Brooke Rom&Jul.

pinsons (n): pincers. Book VI (709). NFS.

pipkins (n): pots. Book VI (815). NFS.

pismire/pismere (n): ant. Applied contemptuously to persons. Book VII (819). FS (1-1H4); Bacon poem; Jonson Revels.

plash (n): pond, small pool of water. Book XIV (58, 62, 67). FS (1-Shrew); Spenser FQ.

platter mouth (n): possibly broad and flat, as per OED def. of "platter face". Book XV (574). NFS.

plight/plyght (n): condition (favorable or unfavorable). Favorable only: Books IV (263), XV. FS (3 -MWW, T&C, Sonnet 28); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus.

poldrens (n): shoulder-plates. Book III (122). NFS,

policy/pollycie (n): trickery, cunning. Book XIII (256). FS (many); Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Greene Pandosto, ? Selimus; (anon.) Woodstock, Locrine, Fam Vic, Ironside, Nobody, Leic Gh; Chettle Kind Hart. Wide contemp use. A major Shakespeare preoccupation, i.e.: 1H4: Neuer did base and rotten Policy / Colour her working with such deadly wounds.

pommy (n): pumice (obs. form) Books III (186), VIII (722), X (811). NFS.

pomp (n): ceremony, esp. parade. Books II (901), Book XIV (863). FS (John, MND, Titus).

pook (n): mischievous spirit or demon, once identified with the Biblical devil, later more often as a mischievous goblin or imp. Book IX (766). FS. OED contemp citation: 1590 Shakes. MND, 1595 Spenser Epithal. 341 Ne let the

Pouke, nor other euill sprights, ...

porkepisces (n): undoubtedly porkepes, a form of porpoise (porkefishes); dolphins. Books I (352), II (340). NFS.

prank (v): sport, show off. Book VIII (944). FS (3-12th, Corio, WT); Lyly Sapho; Greene James IV.

preace (v): press. Book I (798). NFS. (n): press of people. Books X (682), XII (56, 398). NFS. Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Locrine; Oxford letter.

prest (v): impress. Book XIV (525). NFS.

prew/preu (a): valiant (from preu). Book XIII (154). Final OED citation: 1523 Ld. Berners Froiss. I. i. 1 Wherby the prewe and hardy may haue ensample ....

prick (n): (1) mark. Book V (720). FS (many); Watson Hek; Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Famous Victories. (2) highest point. Book VIII (417).

pritch [taking ... pritch], (n): taking ... offense. Book VII (470). NFS. Only known uses before 17th c. by Golding,incl. 1571 Calvin on Ps.

puissance (n): power, military army/might. Books (VI), (IX). FS (7-2H6, 3H6, John, 2H4, H5, Lear, TNK); Golding Ovid; Greene G a G, Pandosto, ? Selimus; (anon.) Locrine, Leic Gh; Spenser FQ. puissant/puyssant (a): powerful. FS (11); Golding Ovid; Marlowe T1; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Woodstock, Mucedorus, Leic Gh; Nashe Unf Trav. Books VI (544), XI (344), XII (557), XV (495). FS (11); Golding Ovid; Marlowe T1; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Woodstock, Mucedorus, Leic Gh; Nashe Unf Trav.

pulled/poulde (a): shorn. Book I (693). NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

queach (n): dense bushy growth, thicket. Epistle, Books I (138), IV (418), XIV (966). (OED 3d citation). queachy (a): forming a dense grove or thicket. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid (1st use per OED). Somewhat rare.

quean (n): hussy, strumpet. Book III (320). FS (4-R&J, 2H4, MWW); many others. Common.

quest (n): pack (as in hunting hounds). Book XII (269). NFS. Cf. Lyly Bombie.

quetch (v): move. Book V (770). NFS.

quite/quight (v): acquit, absolve. Book VII (543).

quoth/quoath (v): faint. OED cites only Golding's Ovid Books V (86), Book VII (1112). NFS.

race (n): course. Book XIV (164). FS (3-John, MM, Sonnet 51); Golding Abraham; Edwards Dam&Pith; Sidney Ps; (anon.) Willobie; Spencer FQ. (2) taste, flavor. FS (A&C).

rack (n): manger. Book VII (697). NFS.

rake (v)s: ruts. Book II (175, 364). NFS.

randon, at (adv): flowing swiftly (per OED). Book I (339). NFS.

rase/raze (v): rage, growl, bark. Book XIV (466). NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

raspis, heps/heppes, haws/hawes, cornels/cornelles (n): raspberries, fruit of the wild rose, hawthorn, Cornelian cherry tree (which was cultivated in Britain). Book I (119).

rate (n): manner. Books XII (145), XIV (484).FS (MV); (anon.) Willobie; Spenser FQ.

rathe (a): early. Book IV (240). NFS. rather (adv): earlier. Book VIII (798). FS (Oth).

raught (v): seized, snatched, grabbed. Books II (589), III (71, 224, 543), V (70, 152), XIII (512). FS (4-2H6, 3H6, H5, A&C); OED cites only Golding: 1571 Golding Calvin on Ps. xix; 1583 Calvin on Deut. xix. raughtish (a): harsh. (only OED citation). Books IX (922), XIV (325). NFS.

ravine (n): violence, force. Book I (162). NFS.

reach (v): hold out to. Book VII (533). FS (1-Titus); Lyly Campaspe, Endymion; (anon.) Mucedorus, Woodstock; (disp.) Greene's Groat.

rear (n): peal, noise, roar. Books VII (830), VIII (567), XIII (1029). OED cites Hudson Du Bartas Judith.

rear/reere (v): shout, roar. Books IV (474), Book IX (215). NFS.

rear/reere (v): raise, create. Books XII (601), XV (973). FS (Titus); Hall Chron.; Spenser FQ.

rear (a): underdone. Not uncommon. Book VIII (846).

reave/reeve (v): plunder, rob. Book XII (275). FS (3-2H6, AWEW, V&A); Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Orl Fur; Marlowe Edw2; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Locrine.

rebate (v). blunt, repulse. Book XII (548). FS (2-MM, Edw3); Greene Orl Fur; Lodge Rosaline.

rede/reede (v): Advise, counsel. Book X (655). FS (Ham); Greene Alphonsus. Common.

reek (n): water-plant, seaweed. Books IV (362), XI (266), XIV (44). NFS.

reermice (n): bats. Book IV (513).

remain/remayne (v): await. Book XI (623, 915). NFS.

repreef (v): reproof. Book X (230). NFS.

resolved (a): dissolved. Book IX (198, 575). FS (Ham); Marlowe T1.

resty/restie (a): (1) rancid, stale. Book VIII (826). FS (1-Edw3). OED contemp citations: 1547 Boorde Introd. Knowl; 1575 Turberv. Faulconrie. (2) sluggish, lazy, disinclined to obey orders. Book XIV (493). FS (3-Cymb, T&C, Sonnet 100); Lyly Pap; Nashe Almond. OED cites: 1565 Cooper Thesaurus; 1571 Golding Calvin on Ps.

retch (v): reach out. Books II (252), VI (458). NFS. Cf. Sidney Antony

retchless (a): reckless. Book II (167). NFS.

revolt (v): return. Book X (68). FS (2H6).

riddle (n): coarse-meshed sieve, used for separating chaff from corn etc. Book XII (465). NFS.

rig/rigge (n): likely obs. form of ridge (OED: plows that rig/ridge the land). Book I (156). NFS.

risp (n): twig. Book XV (527). NFS.

rittle-rattles (n): rattles, sistrums, probably Egyptian rattles with three loose and running wires cross them. Book IX (819). NFS.

rivel [skin] (a): wrinkle. Book III (338). FS (T&C); Marston Malcontent.

rock (n): distaff. Books IV (269, 277), VI (26). NFS.

rode (n): roadstead, place of anchor. Book XII (10, 41, 201). NFS.

roil/roayl (v): roam, wander. Books II (870), III (18), Book XI (412). NFS.

roping (v): forming ropes or rope-like threads, esp. of a viscid or glutinous nature. Books I (136), Book XII (478). FS (2-H5).

rother (n): of the ox family. Books IV (781), VII (700), XV (92). FS (1-Timon).

roused/rowzed (v): rested, settled. Book XIII (918). OED only citation before 16th c.: 1563 Foxe A. & M.

rout (n): company, crowd. Books I (210, 577), II (554), IV (38, 576), V (52, 195, 385), XII (313), XIV (52, 275). FS (10); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Marlowe T2, Edw2; Lyly Whip; Greene Maiden's Dream; Drayton et al Oldcastle; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Locrine, Penelope, Leic Gh.

roume (n): room. Book I (28, 44).

rovers (n): marks. Book II (257). NFS. Per OED: 1572 Churchyard To Rdr. in J. Jones Bathes of Bath, At rouers they but ...

ruck (v): huddle, crouch. Books VI (552), XV (441). FS (3H6). OED contemp citations: 1555 W. Watreman Fardle Facions ; 1573 G. Harvey Letter-bk. ; 1583 Golding Calvin on Deut.

ruckt (v): stacked, leaned. Book VI (755). NFS.

rudesby (n): rude fellow. Book VI (723). FS (Shrew, 12th).

ruff (n): high degree of excitement. Books XII (318), XIII (108). NFS. Cf.

ruffled [hair] (a): disordered. Books IV (587, 688), Book XIII (818). NFS.

runagate/ronneagate (n): vagabond, deserter, renegade. Book XIV (777). FS (4-Rich3, R&J, Cymb); Golding Gascoigne Supposes; Greene Alphonsus. ? Selimus; Nashe Martin Marp, Unfor Travel, Almond; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon). Locrine. OED contemp citations: 1548 Hall Chron.; 1576 Fleming Panopl. Epist.

sadly (adv): soberly. Book VII (392). FS (Ado); Greene James IV. A common contemp meaning, shown by the OED: 1548 Hall Chron., Hen. VIII, I. 69 Thei daunsed with Ladies sadly, and communed not with the ladies after the fashion of Maskers, but behaved themselves sadly.

sallow (n): plant of the willow family. Books VIII (453, 833, 837), IX (118), Book X (102).

scantlings (n): samples (first OED citation). Epistle (279). FS (Troilus).

scape (n): transgression. Book IV (211). FS (2-WT, Lucrece).

scathe (n): harm. Book XI (167). FS (5-2H6, Rich3, R&J, Titus, John); Kyd Sol&Per; Greene G A G; (anon.) Locrine; Munday Huntington..

seely/sielie (a): silly, innocent, vulnerable. Books I (274, 411, 422, 612, 649), IV (541, 770), V (501, 747, 770), VII (783), XIII (1084), Book XV (109). FS (many); others.

sense/sence (v): offer incense to. Book XI (671). NFS.

set you quite beside: take from you. Book V (395). NFS.

sew (v): drain, ooze. Book IV (759). NFS.

shacky/shackie/shack-hair/shakheard (a): shaggy. Book I (275), Book XIII (1084). NFS. Metamorphoses only OED citation.

shawm/shalme (n): medieval instrument, similar to oboes. Books IV (486), XI (17), XIV (612).

sheen/shene (a, n): bright. Books II (476), III (201, 771), IV (471), XIV (783), XV (616). FS (2-MND, Ham).

sheen (a): beautiful. Book XI (878). NFS. Cf. Greene Menaphon; Spenser FQ. OED contemp citation: 1586 ? Montgomerie Banks of Helicon.

sheer/shere (a): clear, pure, translucent. Books II (148), III (607), IV (364, 507), VII (356, 420), (921, 997), X (85, 856), XIII (988), XIV (455, 685), Book XV (149, 270). FS (2-Shrew, Rich2).

shent (a): disgraced. Book II (710). FS (5-MWW, 12th, T&C, Ham, Corio); Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Endmion; (anon.) Penelope.

shield (v): forbid. Book VII (51). FS (2-R&J, AWEW). Does not include "God shield".

shield (n): the tough side skin of a boar. Book VIII (382, 553?).

sight (v): possible past tense of (1) sight, spy, or (2) sigh. Book III (239).

shirl (a): (1) shrill. Books II (12), III (270, 623), XII (926), XIV (485). NFS. (2) rough. Books VIII (995), XV (235). NFS.

shiver (n): splinter. Books VIII (603), XIV (640]. FS (Rich2, Troilus); Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek, Tears; Lyly Campaspe, Endymion; Nashe Astrophel. shivered (a): splintered. FS (1-Edw3).

shock (n): crowd: Book VII (145). 2d of 3 OED citations. NFS.

shoring (n): slope. Book VIII (258, 1st of 2 OED citations). NFS. shoringness (n): pitch, slant. Only OED citation. Book VIII (841).

shraming/shreaming (v): screaming. Books IV (486), VIII (140). NFS.

sicker (a): certain, secure. NFS. Book IV (193).

silly: see "seely"

singles (n): entrails. Book VII (353). Only citation in OED. NFS.

sithes (n): times. Book II (14). NFS.

skene/skaine (n): dagger, widely used by Irish and Scots. Book V (220). NFS.

skill (v): mattes, care. Books VII (93), VIII (812), XIII (327). FS (Shrew, 12th, 2H6); Lyly Campaspe, Endymion, Love's Met, Gallathea; Greene Fr Bac; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Fam Vic, Ironside, Leic Gh; (disp.) Greene's Groat.

skud/skudde (v): hurried. Book II (725). NFS.

sleight/slight [of hand] (n): craft, trickery. Books I (540), IV (945). FS (3H6, Mac); Leic Gh; others. Common.

slugging/sluggish (v, a): lazing one/lazy, slow. Book V (546, 682). FS (3, present tense). sluggy (a) lazy. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Ironside.

snetched (v): slaughtered (only known use per OED). Book V (149).

snudge (n): niggard. Book III (821). NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers.

sod (v): seethed. Books II (317, 318), Book V (559). FS (2-Lucrece, TNK); Lyly Bombie.

soot (a): sweet. Not uncommon. Book VIII (845).

soothfast (a): truthful. Book III (427), Book XV (654). NFS.

souse (n): heavy blow. Book V (148). NFS. Cf. Robert the Devil; Spenser FQ.

souse (v): swoope, pounce. Book VIII (192). FS (1-John); Watson Hek.

sowpeth (v): soaks, drifts. Book VII (90). NFS.

spalt (a): brittle, short-grained. Book X (100), 1st OED citation. NFS.

speed (v): fare, succeed. Books V (392), X (506), XIII (1085), XIV (37). FS (19+, ); Golding Abraham; many others.

spill (v): kill. Books IV (291), IX (653), XIV (882). FS (3-Ham, Lear, Lucrese); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Euphues; Spenser FQ; (anon.) Woodstock, Willobie, Penelope, Leic Gh.

spindle-shank (v): a long and slender leg (OED misses this first known use). Book III (231). NFS.

spire/spyre (v): rise in a spiral form. Book X (303). NFS.

spirget (n): peg. Book VIII (830). NFS.

spirk (v): sprout, shoot. Book IV (310). NFS.

spitter (n): young deer. Book X (124). NFS.

sprent (v): sprayed. Book XV (233). NFS. Cf. Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek.

springe/sprindge (n)): snare for catching small game, spec allusion to woodcocks. Book XV (527). FS (3-Ham, WT); Lyly Whip

spurn (v): kick. Book V (51). FS (many); Cf. Brooke Romeus; (anon.) Woodstock, Dodypoll, Arden; (disp.) Cromwell.

square, out of square (a): awry. Books II (536), IV (675), XIV (563). NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

stack (v): stuck. Book IX (153).

stark (a): rigid, stiff. Book XIV (868). NFS. starkly (adv): stiffly. FS (MM).

steale/stele (n): shaft. Books I (568), V (484), XII (404). NFS.

stealing (v): gliding steadily and imperceptibly. Book XIV (682). FS (6-Rich3, Errors, WT, Ham, V&A, Sonnet 33); Kyd Sol&Per. Common.

stear (v): stir. Books V (116, 431), X (564).

sted/stead (n): assistance. Book VI (428). NFS.

stiff-staring (a): [hair] standing up straight. Books III (113), X (486). FS (1-Tempest).

stilling (v): trickling, distilling. Bok I (1593).2d of 2 OED citations. The other: 1542 Wyatt Poems, Process of time 6 And yet an hert that sems so tender receveth no dropp of the stilling teres that ...

stint (v): cease, stop. Book VIII (1095). FS (R&J, Timon·); Gascoigne Steele Gl.

stomach/stomacke (n): appetite for, inclination. Epistle (481), Preface (150), Book IX (721). FS (MV, Temp); Antony. Used throughout Golding's Ovid. Cf. Greene Alphonsus.

stomach/stomake (n): temper, pride. Books VI (210), VIII (750). FS (2-Shrew, H8); Lyly Endymion; Greene G a G; Alphonsus; (anon.) Marprelate, Ironside, Weakest; Spenser FQ; Harvey Pierce's Super; Sidney Antony.

stomacke/stomach (n): disposition. Book X (51). FS (Lear, Ado).

stomach/stomacke (v): take offense, resent. Books I (190), IV (229), Book VI (167). NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus; Marlowe Edw2.

stond (n): possibly obs. var. of stand. Book I (341).

stound/stownd (n): (1) amazement. Books IV (161), X (69), XI (408), XIV (125). NFS. (2) time. Books V (376), VI (745). NFS.

stour/stoor/stowre/stur (a): fierce, violent, harsh, rough. Epistle (521), Books III (374), V (40), VIII (564), X (173), XIII (903). NFS. stourenesse (n): coarseness, roughness, stiffness. Book VII (788). NFS.

stout (a): bold, resolute. Epistle (56, 194, 251), Preface (61, 193), V (386). FS (3-2H6, 1H4, John); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Greene Orl Fur, Fr Bacon; Sidney Arcadia; (anon.) Ironside, Arden, Willobie, Penelope, Leic Gh.

stoutness (n): courage, bravery. Books IV (804), IX (200, 386, 529). FS (Corio); Golding Abraham; (anon.) Woodstock, Mucedorus.

stover (n): fodder, winter hay. Book V (435). FS (1-Temp.)

straught (a): distraught. Book III (833, 869).

streeke (v): strike. Book XIII (260).

stripe/strype (n): stroke, blow. Books II (760), III (82, 102, 412, 413), X (421), XII (529, 538). FS (4-WT, Temp, A&C, Corio); Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sol&Pers; Spenser FQ.

strond (n): strand, grassy shoreline. Book XIV (505). FS (1H4) Kyd Sp Tr, (anon.) Lucrine.

stroygood (n): destructive or wasteful person. Book XI (455). NFS. OED contemp citations: 1573-80 Tusser Husb. (1878) 21 A giddie braine maister, and stroyal his knaue, brings ruling to ruine and thrift to hergraue. 1540 Palsgr. Acolastus i. iii. F iij b, I be called Acolastus .i. a stroygood, or a prodigal felow.

stulp (n): stoop -- post, pillar. Book XIV (848). NFS.

stunting (v): holding back. Book VIII (940). NFS.

sty/stie (v): rise up, soar. Books IV (819, 875), V (319, 636, 747, 795), VII (452), Book VIII (198, 991), Book XV (164, 955). NFS. Cf. Munday Hungtington.

surmise (v): accuse. Book XV (560). NFS.

swale (n): shade. Book V (427). NFS.

swart (a): (1) livid through suffering: livid through suffering. Books II (301, 966), XII (463). NFS. (2) dark-complexioned. Book XII (357). FS (Errors, Sonnet 28); (anon.) Woodstock; Spenser FQ.

sweaked (v): swung. Book VIII (945). NFS.

swelteth (v): is ready to die of emotion. Books III (585), VI (627). NFS. Cf. Watson Tears.

swift (n): small lizard, newt. Book V (576). NFS.

tables (n): tablets, inscribed decorations, pictures, medallions; Books I (106), V (134), VIII (931), IX (624, 631, 680, 682, 686, 707, 716, 932), Book X (121, 287, 592). FS (Ham). Common.

tackling/tacklings (n): task, undertaking. Only OED citation in this sense much later. Book VI (61). NFS.

target (n): shield. Books IV (976), Book XII (143, 156, 514, 686). FS (many), Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Jocasta, Kyd Sol&Per; Lyly Campaspe; Greene ? Selimus; Marlowe Edw2; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Locrine.

tarriance (n): delay. Book III (60). FS (2-TGV, PP); Golding Caesar. OED contemp citations: 1542 Udall Erasm; 1576 U. Fulwell Ars Adulandi.

taunt/tawnt (n): branch, twig. Book VII (819). NFS.

team-ware/teemeware (n): team of horses. Book V (811). NFS.

teen (n): wrath, malice, anguish. Books III (418), V (634), VII (500), XI (400), XII (591, 641), XIII (731), XV (253, 258). FS (5-Rich3, LLL, Temp, V&A, L Comp).

teil/teyle (n): lime or linden tree. Book VIII (795). NFS.

terve (v): bend. Book V (417). NFS.

tettish (a): peevish, irritable. Book XIII (940). NFS. Cf. Nashe Penniless.

thews (n): attributes. Book IV (862). NFS. Cf. Mirr. Mag; Spenser FQ; (anon.) Arden (as a verb).

thirl/turle (v): spun. Books III (80), VIII (241). NFS. Cf. Watson Hek.

thirse/thyrsus (n): staff decorated at the end with an ornament resembling pine cone and wreathed with vines. Books III (685), IV (8), XI (29). NFS.

tho: then. Used throughout.

thow (v): thaw. Book II (1066).

throat-boll/throat-bowl/throteboll (n): Adams apple. Books III (87), V (423), VI (523), VII (154), XII (324, 356). NFS.

tide (n): time. Book XI (586)

tillman/tilman (n): farmer, tiler of the soil. Books I (323), XV (123, 134, 622). NFS.

tines (n): wild vetch, tare. Book V (602). NFS.

tire/tyre (v): tear flesh, as a hawk. Books X (44), XI (63), XIV (228). FS (3H6, V&A); Watson Hek; Lodge Catharos; Lyly Midas; (anon.) Leicester's Gh.

tod/todde (n): bushy mass, cluster. Books II (750), XI (26). FS (4-WT, WT).

toil/toyle (n): net, snare. Books II (617), III (172, 177, 446), VII (901, 995, 996, 1048), VIII (447), Book XIV (543). FS (5-LLL, JC, Ham, A&C, Pericles); Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Fr Bac; Narkiwe Dido, Massacre; (anon.) Woodstock, Arden.

tolleth (v): entices. Book VIII (288, 1045). NFS.

tools (n): weapons. Book III (53).

tooting on (v): looking at. Book III (634). NFS. Cf. Brooke Romeus.

toys (n): antics. Books VI (793), X (280). FS (many); Golding Abr Sac; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Watson Tears; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Campaspe, Midas; Greene Selimus; Kyd Sp Tr; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Willobie.

tozing/toozing (n): combing (of wool etc.). Book XIV (305). NFS.

train/trayne/treyne (n): trap. Books I (229), IX (699, 810), XIII (204). FS (4-Errors, Rich3, Mac); Gascoigne Jocasta; Lyly Gallathea, Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; Chettle Kind Hart; Drayton et al Oldcastle; Spenser FQ; (anon.) Willobie, Penelope. (2) plan. FS (many); (anon.) Nobody/Somebody.

traverse (n): curtain, screen. Book XIV (300). NFS.

tree (n): wood (structure of wood, as in wooden horse). Books VIII (174), IX (868). Cf. Marlowe Dido.

trice (v): pull back. Book VII (563). NFS.

triple world (n): The latin triplex mundus (earth, air, water), used often by Elizabethan dramatists. Book XV (969). FS (1-A&C); Greene Alphonsus, Orl Fur; Marlowe T1, T2. A&C (I.1.) The triple pillar of the world transform'd / Into a strumpet's fool

troll (v): spin, whirl, roll, bowl. Books II (264), Book X (779). FS (2-WT, Temp); (anon.) Arden.

trot (n): old hag, sometimes bawd. Book V (554). FS (2-Shrew, MM); Gascoigne Supposes; Greene Orl Fur; (anon.) Mucedorus, Dodypoll; Marston, Chapman, Jonson Eastward Ho.

trow (n): think, believe confidently. Book XIV (158). FS (16); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Sundrie Flowers (E/N); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lodge Wounds, Greene G a G, Alphonsus, James IV; Marlowe Jew/Malta, Edw2; (anon.) Woodstock, Marprelate, Ironside, Willobie; Drayton et al Oldcastle; Pasquil Apology.

tubbish (a): round, resembling a tub (1st use per OED). Book IV (485). NFS.

tush (n): tusk. Book VIII (384). FS (V&A).

twibill (n): double-bladed battle-ax. Book IV (28).

uncouth (n): strange news. Book XII (196). NFS. uncouth (a): unfamiliar, strange. Books XIII (1103), XIV (66). FS (3-AsYou, Titus, Lucrece).

uneath/unneth (adv): uneasily, with difficulty. Books II (378), X (551). FS (1-2H6).

unpend (v): free (per OED, only known use). Book I (331). NFS.

unrazed (a): unwounded. Book XII (98). NFS.

ure (n): use. Books I (531), II (823). NFS. Cf. Gascoigne Jocasta; Marlowe Jew of Malta; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Weakest, Penelope.

uttered/uttred (v): ejected. Book XIV (247). FS (Ado, JC); Spenser Shep. Cal; Chettle Kind Hart.

vaunst/vaunced [herself] (v, trans.): lifts herself/rises. Books I (934, 946, 952), V (515). Book XV (752). NFS.

vaunt (v, n): boast, triumph. Epistle (118, 241), III (227), V (233), VIII (372, 642), IX (19, 68), XII (430), XIII (175, 277, 327, 873). FS ((3-2H6, H5, Sonnet 15); Greene ? Selimus.

wag, held/hilld ... wag (v): held at bay. Book XII (489). NFS. OED contemp citation: 1540 J. Heywood Wit & Folly (Percy Soc.) 12, ... That I wyll hold ye wagg a nother way.

wain/wayne (n): cart, chariot. (See also "Charles his wain".) Books II (192, 212, 215, 221, 227, 265, 660), IV (779), X (513), XII (309). NFS (except in phrase "Charles wain"); Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith; Greene ? Selimus; Spenser Shep. Cal, FQ.

wales (n): waves. Book II (16). NFS.

wallop (n): rapid and noisy boiling (per OED possibly derived from gallop). Book VII (343). NFS.

wanton (1): frolicksome, skittish. Book XIV (297). FS (2H4, PP). Not uncommon.

wanze [away] (v): waste away. Books III (618), VI (58). NFS. Cf. Nashe Chr Tears.

ward (v): stand guard. Book I (691, 777, 780). FS (3-Rich3, T&C, Titus); Kyd Sp Tr; Greene Fr Bac; Lyly Midas; (anon.) Arden, Willobie.

warly (a): warlike. Book V (58).

warried/warryed; warrie/warry (a): full of knots. Books XIII (942), VIII (930). Only OED citation.

waryish (a): sickly-looking. Books II (968), VII (446). Only OED citation. NFS.

washing [swashing] (a): swashbuckling. Book V (252). FS (2-AsYou, R&J).

waste (a): barren, empty. Books II (81), X (31). FS (Sonnet 77).

watershot/watershotte (n): overflow of water. Book XV (292). NFS.

watling (n): framework (e.g., woven rods interlaced with branches, twigs). Book XII (403).

weasand/wezant (n): windpipe, throat, gullet. Books VI (323), XIII (523). FS (1-Temp); Nashe Chr Tears.

webster (n): weaver (181). Cf. Book VI. NFS.

wedlock (n): wife. Book IX (140). NFS.

weeds (n): clothing. Books III (775), IV (128, 140), VI (365), VII (187), VIII (590, 967), Book XI (739). FS (many); many others.

weele (a): well. (Book III (784).

welked/whelked (a): ridged, rough, twisted. Books II (840), V (417), IX (100), X (237). FS (1-Lear).

welkin (n): clouds, the firmament. Epistle (381), Books I (193), II (248), VII (254), XI (338, 356), XV (498). FS (14); Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe T1, Faustus; Kyd Sol&Per; Peele Wives; Marston Malcontent; Jonson: in his Humor; Marston, Chapman, Jonson Eastward Ho; Chapman Iliad.

wether (n): ram, sheep. Book XV (525). FS (5-MV, MWW, AsYou, WT, PP).

whelk/whelke (n): (n): marine mollusc. Book I (394). NFS.

whewling (a): howling. Book VII (497). NFS.

whisk (v): wave, move. Cf. Golding Ovid. NFS. Cf. Lyly Bombie. whisking (a) : whirling, moving rapidly. Books VII (113), XIV (468), XV (381). NFS; Cf. Udall Roister; Marlowe/Nashe Dido.

whissing (a): whistling, wheezing, buzzing. Book IV (165). FS (T&C).

whist (a): hushed, silent. Books IV (203), V (712), VII (253). FS (1-Temp); Surrey Aeneas; Lyly Gallathea, Endymion, Midas, Bombie; Greene James IV, Pandosto, Never Too Late; Nashe Penniless; Harvey Pierce's Super.

whorl (v): var. of whirl. Book XIV (305).

wicket (n): small door or gate. Book VIII (815). NFS.

wight/wyght (n): living being. Ep. (43, 53, 129, 188, 594), Pref. (194), Books I (260, 823), II (982), III (445, 569, 776), IV (350, 392, 420, 718, 777, 969), V (48, 462, 674), VI (216), VII (56, 126, 350, 542, 753, 910, 945, 992, 1041), VIII (87, 131, 1075), IX (217, 562, 829, 887), X (128, 326, 333, 359, 450, 747, 764) XI (51, 303, 420, 631, 796, 812), XII (86, 178, 552, 687), XIII (165, 413, 551, 560, 621, 941, 1038), XIV (17, 128, 154, 286, 427, 822, 850), Book XV (103, 185, 833). FS (8-H5, LLL, MWW, Pericles, Oth); Golding Abraham; many others.

wight/wyght/wighter/wightness [of foot] (a, n): swift, nimble, athletic, strong. Books I (532), III (236, 263), VI (849), VII (996), VIII (865), XI (389). NFS. Cf. Munday Huntington.

wind [her]: move herself. Book IV (115).

windlass/wyndlass, fetch a (v): make a circuit [to intercept game]. Books II (891), VII (1015). NFS. Ovid OED contemp citations 1563 Golding Caesar; 1580 Lyly Euphues

wist (v): knew/known. Books II (244, 297), VI (328, 764), X (378), XIII (1026). FS (1-1H6); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyy Euphues; Marlowe Edw2; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Willobie, Penelope, News Heaven/Hell; Drayton et al Oldcastle.

wistly (adv): intently. Books II (620), VI (80, 609), X (403), XII (585). FS (5-Rich2, Lucrece, &A, PP); Watson Hek; (anon.) Arden.

wit (v): inquire, discover. Book X (408). NFS. Cf. Kyd Sp Tr.

withe (n): band, tie, or shackle of tough flexible twig or branch, or of several twisted together; as of willow or osier, used for binding or tying, sometimes for plaiting. Book I (781). NFS. Cf. Lodge Wounds.

witch/wich (n): applied to trees having pliant branches, as per mountain ash. Book X (98).

won/winne (v): dwell, remain. Books II (475), XI (69, 882), XIII (57, 773). NFS. Cf. Watson Hek; Sidney Arcadia; Greene James IV.

wood/wode (a): wild, furious, insane. Books I (272), III (98, 796), XIII (656, 678). FS (4-1H6, TGV, MND, V&A); Greene Orl Fur; (anon.) Leicester's Gh.

woodness (n): fury. Book I (388), III (677, 848), IV (620), V (7), XI (32). NFS.

woodward (n): keeper of the wood. Book XI (99). NFS.

wooze/woose (v): ooze. Book X (574).

worm (n): serpent. Book VII (451). FS (5-1H6, MND, Mac, A&C, Timon); (anon.) Mucedorus. OED early citation: 1526 Tindale Acts.

wried/wride (a): covered, concealed, disguised (from v. wry). Book V (414). NFS.

writhen/writhed (a): coiled (branches), twisted. Books I (396, 782), II (12, 181, 251), XI (78), XIII (1072), XV (408). NFS. Cf. Nashe Summers; (anon.) Arden

wry/wried/wride (v): place, turn. Books V (269, 294), VII (439). NFS.

wrying (v): writhing. Book VI (379).

yeaned (v): born. Book VII (412). NFS. yeaning (n): birth. Book XIII (973).

year-mind/yeeremynd (n): annual commemoration of a deceased person. Book XIII (740).

yeedeth/yode (v): went away. Books III (484), VI (420), X (548). NFS. Cf. Spenser FQ.

yerk/yirk/yark (v): lash, whip, kick out. Book XIV (949). FS (1-H5); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho.

yesking (v): sobbing, hiccuping. Book V (164). NFS.

younker/yoonker (n): fashionable youth, possibly of high rank (often Dutch or German). Book VIII (917). FS (3-3H6, 1H4, MV); Gascoigne Supposes; Lodge Wounds; Greene Fr Bac; Munday Huntington

yod: see yeedeth.

zea, some, sit: sea, some, sit. Book XI (410).

Glossary: Proper Names

Achaia: Greece (originally designated the regions occupied by descendants of Aeacus.) Books III, V, VII, VIII, XV
Achilles, son of Peleus. Mighty warrior against Trojans. See House of Aeacus, below. Books VIII, XI, Book XII, Book XIII.
Acrise/Acrisius: see Danae, below.
Actaeon, hounds of: see special note, below; see also The House of Cadmus. Book III.
Aecus: King of Aegina (kingdom of the Myrmidons), son of Jupiter; father of Peleus and Telamon. Became one of the three Judges of the dead in Tartarus. Books VII, IX, XI, XIII.
Aello/Aellopus (storm foot): a harpy. Book XIII.
Aeolus: God and personification of the winds. Books I, IV, XI.
Aeolus: Son of Hellen. Thessalian king, father of Sisyphus (see below) and Athamus. Books IV, IX, XIV.
Aeson: half-brother of King Pelias of Thessaly, father of Jason. Book VII.
Althaea: wife of Oenus of Calydonia. Mother of Meleager and Dyanyre. Book VIII.
Amphion: King of Thebes, son of Jupiter and Antiope. The walls of Thebes were built by his music. Epistle (511), VI (280), XV (471).
Anchises: King of the Dardanians. Father of Aeneas by Venus. Book IX.
Andromeda: daughter of King Cepheus, who was rescued from a sea monster. Married Perseus. Book IV.
Antigone: daughter of King Laomedon of Troy (not the daughter of Oedipus). Book VI.
Antiphates: cannibal King of (1) Laestrygones, Italy, and (2) Sicily. Book XIV.
Ajax, son of Telamon; see House of Aecus, below. Mighty warrior against Trojans. Maddened when he was not awarded the armor of Achilles, he slew a flock of sheep; evenually killed himself. Epistle, Books XII, XIII. FS (LLL,H6, Lear); Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Nashe Penniless, Unf Trav, Absurdity; (anon.) Penelope.
Ariadne: daughter of Minos, rescuer of Theseus from the Labyrinth. Deserted by Theseus, one story relates that on the Island of Naxos she married Bacchus. Book VIII.
Athamas: son of Aelus, husband of Ino (see Royal House of Cadmus, below.). Book III
Atreus: father of Agamemnon (see Descendants of Tantalus, below).
Boreas: north wind personified. Father of Calais and Zetes. Books I, VI.
Cadmus: see House of Cadmus, below. Book III
Celeus: King of Eleusis, who with his wife entertained Ceres. Their oldest son Abas being rude, Ceres changed him into a lizard. Ceres accidently killed their second son but repaid their hospitality by giving their son Triptolemus the gift of agriculture. Book V.
Daedalus: built the Cretan Labyrinth, father of Icarus. Book VIII.
Daenaus: King of Lybia, father of the Danaids, fifty maidens who wed the fifty sons of his brother Aegyptus. On their wedding night, all but one of the Danaids killed their husbands; upon their death they were condemned to the endless task of carrying water in jars perforated like sieves. The surviving couple Lynceus and Hypermnestra ruled in Lybia after Lynceus killed Daenaus. Book IV (573), X (46).
Danae, daughter of Acrisius, mother (by Jove) of Perseus. Told that he would be killed by a grandson, Acrisius imprisoned Danae in a dungeon. Jupiter came to her in a golden shower and she bore Perseus. Acrisius then locked mother and child in a wooden ark, which he cast upon the sea. A fisherman named Dictys found the ark and took it to King Polydectes of Seriphos, who raised Perseus. Wishing to marry Danae, Polydectes pretended to be engaged to another andtricked Perseus into a promising the Gorgon Medusa's head as a bridal gift.. Book IV (751).
Delia: Diana (born on Delos). Book V (785).
Deucalion (new-wine sailor) king of Pthia, son of Prometheus theTitan and his wife Pyrrah, daughter of Epimetheus, survivors of the great flood of Jove, represent a Hellenic version of the story of Noah. They were the parents of Hellen, eponymous ancestor of the Hellenes. Book I (379).
Dictynna: a name of the Moon Goddess in Western Crete. Book II (549).
Dis: Pluto. Book V (630).
Echion (viper): one of the "sown men" (from the serpent's teeth) of Thebes. Book III (42-145), Book XIII (823).
Egeria (of the black poplar), a nymph was the wife of Numa. Rites of the priestess Egeria were a major factor of Sir James Frazier's The Golden Bough. Book XV (548).
Erisicthon: King of Thessaly. father of Mestra. A major character in John Lyly's Love's Metamorphoses. Book VIII (924).
Faunus son: Latinus, see below. Book XIV (509).
Galatea (milk-white): not the statue created by Pygmalion, but a sea nymph. Book XIII (874)
Glaucus, son of Anthedon, tasted of a certain grass, leaped into the sea and became a marine oracular god, famous for amorous advantures, one of which was with Scylla. Books VII (308), XIV (13).
Grayes: Greeks. books XIII (495), XIV (503).
Helenus: the seer, youngest son of Hecuba and brother of the seer Cassandra. After Trojan violation of Apollo's sanctuary, he aided the Greeks and became king of the Molossians. Book XIII (124, 857), Book XV (483).
Hersilia: wife of Romulus. Book XIV.
Hippolytus (of the stampeding horses), the son of Theseus and the Amazon Hippolyta, was falsely accused of rape by his stepmother Phaedra (sister of Ariadne). The Latins relate that he was disguised as an old man and brought by Cynthia/Artemis to her sacred grove at Aricia, where he married Egeria under the name Virbius (vir bis, twice man). Book XV (555).
Ilia's son: Romulus.
Ixion: son of the Lapith king, who attempted to make love to Juno. In punishment he was bound to a fiery wheel which rolled ceaselessly throughout the sky. Father of Perithuous and of the Centaurs. Found throughout Ren. literature. Books IV, VIII, X.
Kids/Kiddes (falling): Haedi, double stars.
Latinus: (1) son of Faunus, King of Laurentium; (2) son of Silvius, King of Alba. Book XIV.
Laton/Latona: daughter of Coeus and Phoebe, mother of Apollo and Diana. Instigated the killing of Niobe's children. Book VI.
Lavine/Lavinia: daughter of Latinus, wife of Aeneas.
Lycaon, who civilized Arcadia, angered Jupiter by sacrificing a boy to him; he was transformed into a wolf. His sons angered Jupiter by serving him a soup mixed with the guts of their brother Nyctimus. Nyctimus was restored to life; the others transformed into wolves. In disgust, Jupiter then unleashed a great flood, of which Deucalion and Pyrrha were the survivors. Books I, II.
Maia: mother of Mercury (Hermes). Book II (853).
Marsyas: a fawn and flutist who challenged Apollo to a musical constent. The contest was decided in favor of Apollo, and Marsyas was flayed alive for his presumption. In a later contest Apollo defeated Pan the piper, only Midas voting for Pan. Midas was endowed with ass's ears for his lack of judgment. This myth is touched upon in Golding's Ovid and the story of Midas was a major element of Lyly's play Midas. Book VI (510).
Melampus (black foot) of Pylus, was the first mortal to be granted prophetic powers, the first to practice as a physician, and the first to temper wine with water. He healed of madness Lysippe, Iphianassa and Iphinoe, the three daughters of Proetus of Argolis. (This madness resembles the murderous fury of the Bacchantes of Thebes, related in Book III.) Melampus married Lysippe and his brother Bias married Iphianassa, receiving equal shares in Argolis as a reward (Iphinoe having died). Book XV (357).
Memnon (resolute): King of Egypt, son of Aurora and Tithonus (half brother of Priam). A Trojan ally, Memnon was slain by Achilles, and (at his mother's request to Jove) a number of hen-birds (Memnodides) were formed from the embers and smoke of his pyre. Book XIII (693)
Merops: in this telling, King of Ethiopia, husband of Clymen. Book I (997), Book II (235).
Minos: son of Jupiter and Europa. One of the three Judges of the dead in Tartarus. Book IX.
Minos: descendant of Minos, above. King of Crete. Husband of Pasiphae. Father of Ariadne (rescuer of Theseus) and Phaedra (wife of Theseus). Boooks VII, VIII.
Minotaur: Half man, half bull, son of Pasiphae (wife of Minos) and a bull. Book VIII.
Nele/Neleus: son of Book XII (613)
Nereus: father of Thetis and son of Neptune. Books II, XII.
Nesse: Centaur killed by Hercules. Book IX.
Niobe: See Tantalus and the Pelopids: Kings of Mycenae and Sparta, below. Book VI.
Nyctyminee: a girl of Lesbos, punished for incest. Book II (742).
Orpheus: musician whose singing could charm beasts, trees and rocks. Sailed with the Argonauts to Colchis. Journeyed to hell to rescue Eurydice. Torn apart by Maenads; his head, which had been thrown into the river Hebrus, floated still singing to the sea and was carried to Lesbos. FS (3-MV, H8, Lucrece); Kyd Sp Tr. Books X, XI.
Palaemon: Merlicertes, son of Athamas and Ino (daughter of Cadmus), who was transformed into the God Palaemon. Book IV (670), Book XIII (1077).
Paean/Poeas: father of Philoctetes, who had been given the poisoned arrows of Hercules. He was either bitten by an envenomed snake or wounded by one of the arrows. He suffered horribly for years, not dying of his wounds but unable to find a cure. Book XIII (56-60).
Parhassis: A name of Callisto, an Arcadian nymph, mother of Arcas by Jove. Hunted by Artemis for her sin, she was changed into a bear and placed among the stars. Book II (571).
Pasiphae: daughter of Helios, sister of Circe, wife of Minos, mother of the Minotaur and of Ariadne and Phaedra. Book VIII.
Pean: Apollo. Book I.
Peley/Peleus: son of Aecus, father of Achilles. See Descendants of Aecus, below. Books VIII, XI, XII, XIII.
Pelias: son of Neptune and Tyro and half-brother of Aeson (father of Jason the Argonaut). Book VII.
Pelops: See Tantalus and the Pelopids: Kings of Mycenae and Sparta, below. Book VI.
Perseus: son of Danae and Jupiter. Slayer of the Gorgon Medus. Married Andromeda. Ancester of Heracles. Book V.
Phaedra: daughter of Minos, wife of Theseus. Repulsed in her advances to her stepson Hippolytus, she plotted and carried out his destruction.
Phyney/Phineus: per Nims two people:
(1) brother of Cepheus. Book V. Leader of the rebellion against Perseus.
(2) Thracian king and prophet, blinded for blinding his sons and tormented by harpies, delivered by Calais and Zetes.
Philo's words: Philo Judeus (30 b.c.-45 a.d.) wrote commentaries on Genesis. Epistle (370).
Phoebe: Diana, the Moon. Used throughout.
Phoebus/Phebus: Apollo, the Sun. Used throughout.
Phocus/Phokos: son of Aecus; see below. Book XI. Book VII.
Pirithous: Son of Ixion, King of the Lapiths and companion of Theseus, whose wedding instigated the battle of the Lapiths and the Centaurs.
Polyphemus (famous): one of the one-eyed Cyclops, a son of Peptune and a sea nymph. Book XIII (901), Book XIV (191).
Protew/Proteus (first man): a shape-changing sea-god. Books II, Book VIII, Book XI, Book XIII. Proteus apparently gave his name to a major character in Shakespeare's Two Gentlemen of Verona.
Quirin: Romulus as a god. Book XIV, XV.
Rhadamanthus: Son of Jupiter and Europe. One of the three Judges of the dead in Tartarus. Book IX.
Rhammuse: Nemesis. Book XIV.
Simethus: Acis was the child of Faunus and the nymph of the river Simaethus. Book XIII (1032).
Sisyphus: King of Corinth, seduced his niece Tyro and falsely accused his brother of incest and of murdering Tyro's children. Known as a thief and liar who betrayed Jupiter's secrets. Sentenced to roll a huge stone to the summit of a hill, each time forced to start again as the stone rolled back down hill. Son of King Aeolus of Thessaly. Books IV, X, XIII.
Tantalus: see descendants of Tantalus, below. Book IV, VI, X
Tarpey: Roman girl who betrayed the Capitoline citadel to the Sabines. Book XIV.
Telamon: father of Ajax and Teucer, son of Aecus; see below. Book VII.
Teucer/Tewcer (artisan): son of Telamon of Salamis and Hesione (sister of Priam), his captive. Teucer was the half-brother of Ajax, also a son of Telamon. See House of Aecus, below. Book XIII (839).
Thyestes (pestle), son of Pelops and brother of Atreus, King of Mycenae. See descendants of Tantalus, below. Book XV (done).
Titius/Tityus: son of Jupiter, a giant who attempted to violate Latona, mother of Apollo. In Tartarus, Tityus was stretched out on the ground eternally, while two vultures ate his liver. Books IV, X. Found in many Ren. literary works.
Triptolemus: son of King Celeus of Eleusis. Given gift of agriculture by Ceres. Book V.
Tritonia: Minerva. (Book VI).
Turnus: King of Rutilia. Killed by Aeneas. Book XIV (512).
Tyndareus, King of Sparta, descendent of Perseus by his daughter Gorgophone. Married Leda, mother of Castor (soldier, horse-tamer) and Clytemnestra (by Tyndareus). Pollux (boxer) and Helen (by Jupiter). Pollux persuaded his father to immortalize his twin Castor also; they were set among the stars as the Twins. Book VIII (399-402).
Tyrrhene: From Tyre, Phoenician. The reference is to Cadmus and the "sown men," sprung from the plowed-under dragon's teeth. Book XV (622 ff.).
Vertumnus: god of the changing year. Major character in Nashe Will Summers Last Will and Testament, in which he was the season Spring, the only one of four seasons (all major characters) identified by a personal name. Book XIV (731).
Zephyr: west wind. Book I.

Golding Ovid Book III (160-304): The Royal House of Cadmus of Thebes
Cadmus (from the east) of Phoenicia (son of Agenor and brother of Europa), married Harmonia (concord) (daugher of Venus and Mars). After death both deified and turned into serpents.
Parents of:
* Semele (moon), mother of Bacchus by Jove.
* Agave (high born), mother of Pentheus (grief), King of Thebes, opponent of Bacchus, whom she tore apart in an orgiastic frenzy. Book III (645).
* Ino (she who makes sinewy) married Athamas, King of Boetia (who had already two sons Phrixus and Leucon by his first wife). Juno drove Athamas mad, upon which he killed his oldest son by Ino, Learchus, believing him to be a stag. Ino then seized her infant son Merlicertes and jumped into the sea. Later Ino and Melicertes were deified.
* Autonoe (with a mind of her own), mother of Actaeon by Aristeus (son of Apollo and Cyrene).
** Actaeon, son of Autonoe, was turned into a stag by Diana, and torn apart by his own dogs.

Golding Ovid Book III: The Hounds of Actaeon
In a pamphlet Harts, Hounds and Hedingham Elisabeth Sears, with the assistance of research into land deeds and transfers furnished by Charles Bird, provides evidence of a relationship between the names of Actaeon's pack and the environs of the Earl of Oxford's Castle Hedingham.
Translations from Anthony Brian Taylor of the Swansea Institute and from Robert Graves, The Greek Myths.
Golding (modern sp)
1. Blackfoot (Ovid's Pack Melampus [black foot])
2. Stalker (Ovid's Pack Ichnobates [keen, clever])
3. Spy (Ovid's Pack Dorceus)
4. Eatall (Ovid's Pack Pamphagus [eat up, consume])
5. Scalecliff (Ovid's Pack Oribasus [climber?])
6. Killbuck (Nebrophonus [fawn killer])
7. Savage (Ovid's Pack -- none)
8. Spring (Ovid's Pack Laelaps [hurricane]
Oxford property assn: A wood listed in the tithe map in Sybie Hedingham. Parcel #698.
9. Hunter (Ovid's Pack Theron) Oxford property assn: Hunter's Wood, in sight of the Castle.
10. Lightfoot (Ovid's pack Pterelas [launcher of feathers])
Oxford property assn: A wood name at Southey Green, in sight of the Castle.
11. Woodman (Ovid's Pack Hylaeus [of the woods])
12. Shepherd (Ovid's Pack Poemenis)
13. Laund (Pasture) (Ovid's Pack Nape)
14. Greedygut (Ovid's Pack Harpyia [snatcher?])
15. 1st puppy
16. 2d puppy
17. Ladon (Ovid's Pack Ladon [grabber; Graves embracer])
18. Blab (Ovid's Pack Canache [barking])
19. Fleetwood (Ovid's Pack Dromas)
Oxford property assn: Adjacent parish of Sibie Hedingham, most of which DeVere property.
20. Patch (Ovid's Pack Sticte)
21. White (Ovid's Pack Leucon). See note.
22. Bowman (Ovid's Pack Tigride) Oxford property assn: Bowman field (Beaumont). #174
23. Roister (Ovid's Pack Alce) Oxford property assn: Roister's Wood, in the parish of Sibie Hedingham.
24. Beauty (Ovid's Pack -- none). But may also refer to Leucon/fair. See note for 21, 24.
25. Tawny (Ovid's Pack Asbolus)
26. Ruffler (Ovid's Pack Lacon)
27. Tempest (Ovid's pack Aello [storm foot])
28. Cole (Ovid's Pack -- none) Oxford property assn: Cole field, #746.
29. Swift (Ovid's Pack Thous [swift])
30. Wolf (Ovid's Pack Lycisce)
31. His brother (Ovid's Pack Cyprius)
32. Snatch (Ovid's Pack Harpalus [grasping])
33. Rug (Ovid's Pack Lachne)
34. Jollyboy (Ovid's Pack Lebros [gluttonous, forceful])
35. Chorle (Ovid's Pack Agridos [fierce tooth])
36. Ringwood (Ovid's Pack Hylactor [barker])
Oxford property assn: Ringewood, a 26-acre parcel in sight of Hedingham Keep. #80
37. Slo (Ovid's Pack Melanchaetes)
38. Killdeer (Ovid's Pack Theridamas)
39. Hillbred (Ovid's Pack Oresitrophes)
6. Killbuck (Rouse) is named "Bilbucke" by Nims.
7. Savage seems to be a Golding addition, perhaps another aspect of "Hunter" (fierce Theron).
8. Laelops is also the name of the dog given by Procris to Cephalus.
21. Although "wight" is traditionally translated as "white" and assigned to Ovid's "Leucon", This is an unusual spelling of "white" in Golding's Ovid. In other lines in Book III "white" is spelled "white", while "wight" is given the meaning "speedy" or "living being" (both used throughout Golding's Ovid). since No. 24 can also be assigned to "Leucon", it is possible that alternatively "wight" in the case of No. 21, could be a new dog "Speedy" (as in limber, athletic).
24. Beauty, an addition, may be another aspect of Leucon.
28. Cole, another addition.
36. Ringwood (Rouse) is mis-named "Kingwood" by Nims. In the Oxfordian (Vol. II, Oct. 1999, p. 124) Robert Brazil points out that Latin scholar Andy Hanas revealed that "Hylactor" (bark, growl) may, with the word "hyle" (wood), combine two meanings to suggest the phrase "barker in the wood".

Tantalus and the Pelopids: Kings of Mycenae and Sparta
Tantalus: possibly the son of Jupiter. Betrayed Jupiter's secrets; also killed his son Pelops and served him at a feast of the Gods. Sentenced to eternal torment in the company of Ixion, Sisyphus, Titias, and the Danaids. He hangs, eternally consumed by hunger, from the bough of a fruit tree which leans over a lake. When he leans down the water slips away. When he reaches for the fruit of the tree, a wind blows it out of the way. Tantalus children:
* Pelops, restored to life, won in a chariot race Hippodamia, daughter King Oenomaus of Pisa and Elis. His sons Atreus, father of Menelaus and Agamemnon, and Thyestes, father of Aegisthus, contended for power , and Thyestes was the loverof Atreus' wife. In revenge, Atreus killed Thyestes' sons Pleisthenes and Tantalus and served them to his brother in a banquet. Thyestes fled, cursing the descendants of Atreus. Thyestes' son Aegisthus later became the lover of Queen Clytemnestra, engineering the murder of Clytemnestra's husband Agamemnon (Atreus' son), thus fulfilling the curse. FS (TNK); Golding Ovid. Book XV (515).
* Niobe, married to King Amphion of Thebes, was overheard by Latona boasting that the many children she had born proved her superiority to that deity. Latona urged Apollo and Diana to kill Niobe's children as a punishment. In some accounts Niobe's daughter survived and later married Peleus. Book VI.

Descendants of Aecus, Trojan Warriors
Aecus (bewailing, or earth born), son of Jupiter and Europa (nims) or Aegina (Graves). An angry Juno destroyed the Island of Aegina, where Aecus ruled. Aecus begged Jupiter to replenish the Island with as many subjects as there were ants carrying grains of corn up a nearby oak. That night in a dream he saw a shower of ants falling to the ground from the sacred oak and arising as men. When he awoke, he saw a host of men approaching, whose faces he recognized from his dream. The new subjects (the Myrmidons) followed Pelus into exile from Aegina and fought with Peleus' son Achilles at Troy. Aecus married (1) Psamathe, and (2) Endeis of Megara. Their children were:
* By Psamathe, a son Phokos, murdered by his brother Peleus.
* By Endeis, a son Telamon, father of Ajax and Teucer.
* By Endeis, a son Peleus, father of Achilles by the nymph Thetis (daughter 0f Nereus).

Glossary: Places

Albula: River Tiber. The following names (376-377) refer to small waterways and/or tributaries of the Tiber. BookXIV.

Acheron: a lake of fire in the underworld. Featured in Kyd Sp Tr, other Elisabethan drama, including Titus Andronicus, (anon.) Dr. Dodypoll and Willobie His Avisa, with overtones recalling passages in Matthew and Revelations favored by Shakespeare and marked in the Earl of Oxford's copy of the Geneva Bible.

Anderland: Andros. Book XIII (773).

Apollo's town: Delos. Book XIII (755).

Biston men, manured by: held/cultivated by the Bistonians (Thrace, S. of Mt. Rhodope). Book XIII (516).

Candie/Candy: city in northern Crete. Nims points out that line VIII (47) is a mistranslation: "And as she sat beholding still the King of Candy's tent," The word "candida" means bright, dazzling; the adjective "Dictaei" refers to Mount Dicte. Interestingly the town of Candy figures prominently in the Story of St. Paul's shipwreck, where he and his fellow passengers were frightened by the stories of a population of monsters (a survival of the Minotaur legend perhaps). Crete with its legendary monster, conforms in many aspects with Shakespeare's depiction of the island in The Tempest. There is considerable correspondence between the Minotaur the calf-man (confined in the labyrinth), whose mother was Pasiphae (she who shines for all), a moon-goddess, sired by a bull, and Caliban the bull-man (confined within a rock under the earth), whose mother was Sycorax (a moon-goddess), and whose sire was certainly the calley (a bull-beast of English legend, featured on heraldry of the Earls of Oxford). The correspondence would be in mythological imagery only; a storm in the Mediterranean would usually have blown the ship away from Crete, not toward it ; and one of the volcanic islands in its path, such as Stromboli, would fit the physical description better and conform to geographic reality. Books VIII, IX.

Cayster: river in Lydia, famous for its swans. Books II, V.

Euboean/Ewboyan fisherman: Glaucus. See Glossary: Names, above.

Goatsea/Gotesea: Aegean Sea. Book IX.

Helicon, Mount: mountain in Boetia sacred to the muses. Often referred to in Elisabethan literature. Books II, V. FS (2H4); many others

Messapie: Messapia, old name of Apulia and Calabria. Book XIV.

Myle: Hyleas. Book XIII.

Pheaks, country of: Phaecians (Isle of Scheria). Book XIII.

Phlegethon: a fabled river of fire, one of the five rivers of Hades. NFS. Found notably in
Kyd Spanish Tragedy. OED cites Gower (1390) and Spenser Fairy Queen (1590), later uses. Epistle, Books II, 5, XV.

Puteoll (Pucetia, a region in Apulia) and Messapie (Apulia and Calabria). Book XIV (583).

Same: Samos. Book XIII (845).

Simplegads/Symplegads: two drifting islands in the Euxine Sea that kept crashing into each other. Book XV (373).

Syrtis/sirts: Name of two large quicksands off the Northern Coast of Africa. Per OED: 1526 Tindale Acts xxvii. 17 Fearynge lest we shulde have fallen into Syrtes [so Coverdale and Geneva; Great Bible the Syrtes, Rheims the Syrte; 1611 the quicke-sands; Vulg. Syrtim, Gr. ...]. Note that this is the same area and chapter believed to be a source of The Tempest. 1552 Elyot, Cyrenaica..hath on the west the great Sirtis. Book VIII (159).

Trinacris: Sicily. Book V.

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