by B.F. copyright © 2002

Appendix I

Length: 12, 452 words


and (ye be): if.

angel (n): gold coin worth about ten shillings. FS (8-John, Errors, MWW, Ado, Caesar, Mac) Common.

bad (a): unfortunate. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam. Vic.

barrel butter (n): old salt butter. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Famous Victories

Basillus Manus: Besa las manos. Kiss hands; goodbye! (Spanish). Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic; Kyd Sol&Per.

belamed (v): lammed, beat. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

bollion/bullion (n): bullion, any metal in a lump. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

boot (v): help. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Lyly Bombie; Chettle Kind Hart;(anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Leic Gh.

bots (n): horse-disease, caused by parasitical flies or maggots. (3-1H4, Shrew, Pericles); Lyly Endymion, Midas, Bombie; (anon.) Mucedorus, Fam Vic; (disp.) Oldcastle.

brave (a): splendid, abundant. FS (MND, 1H4, Temp); Golding Ovid; (anon.) Fam Vic, Woodstock; Marlowe T1.

brewis/brewes (n): meat broth. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Mucedorus, Fam Vic, Ironside; Munday More.

buckler (n): support. FS (Shrew). buckler (n): shield. (4-1H4, Ado); Lyly Midas; Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Fam Vic, Woodstock, Ironside . Common.

carbuckle (n): pointed spike carried in the center of the shield. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

carpet-knight (n): one who earns honors at court rather than in battle. FS (1-12th); Golding Ovid; (anon.) Fam Vic; Munday Huntington.

cheap [better cheap] (adv): at a better rate. NFS. Cf. Fam Vic; Nashe Summers.

clowne (Dericke): countryman. Cf. Fam Vic.

compartieue: compatez vous (Fr.); have compassion. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

costermonger (n): fruit vender. FS (1-2H4, as an adj); (anon.) Fam Vic; Greene Cony, Fr Bac; Nashe Almond.

Counter: office, court, or hall of justice of a mayor; the prison attached to such a city court; the name of certain prisons for debtors, etc. in London, Southwark, and some other cities and boroughs. FS (1-MWW); Harvey 3d Letter (connects Thos Churchyard to the Counter) (anon.) Fam Vic, Marprelate, Arden, Nobody/Somebody; More; Marston, Chapman, Jonson Eastward Ho.

curtel/curtle (n): cutlas, short sword. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic, Locrine; Marlowe T1.

cutter (n): one eager to fight, bully, bravo, also cutthroat, highway robber. NFS. Cf. Lyly Pap; (anon.) Fam Vic-as a last name, Arden, Willobie, Penelope.

dart (n): spear, javelin. FS (Edw3, TNK); Golding Ovid; Marlowe T2; Kyd Sol&Per; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Mucedorus, Locrine, Leic Gh; Sidney Antony; Munday More, Huntington.

drab (n): slut, prostitute. FS (8); (anon.) Fam Vic, Ironside, Yorkshire Tr; Pasquil Return; (disp.) Cromwell; Oldcastle; Marston Malcontent.

embassage/ambassage (n): message, messenger, mission. FS (7-Rich3, LLL, Rich2, Ado, Edw3, Sonnet 26); Lyly Campaspe; Marlowe T1; Greene Orl Fur; Chapman d'Olive; (anon.) Fam Vic, Dr. Dodypoll, Leic Gh.

fence (n): fencing, fighting skill. FS (many); Golding Abraham, Edwards Dam&Pith; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Arden.

filching (n, a): stealing. FS (3-H5, MWW, Sonnet 75); Golding Ovid; (anon.) Fam Vic, Arden; Greene Black Book, Cony, James IV.

Fleet: prison near a ditch running between Ludgate Hill and Fleet Street; associated with the Court of Star Chamber, contained many prisoners committed by Monarch's decree. Apparently Gabriel Harvey spent time in the Fleet. Cf. Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Fam Vic. Marprelate; Harvey Sonnet (Apology), 3d Letter; Nashe Saffron.

gear (n): device, matter. FS (11); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho, Bombie; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Kyd Sp Tr; (disp.) Oldcastle; (anon.) Fam Vic; Munday Huntington.

glaves (n): swords. FS (1-Edw3); (anon.) Fam Vic; Arden, Locrine.

gogs wounds: oath. FS (Shrew); Holinshed Murder of Arden; (anon.) Fam Vic; Greene Fr Bac.
halled (v): hauled, or haled.
hoast/host [at host] (a): at home, in accord. FS (1-Errors); (anon.) Fam Vic.

ilat-holes (n): eyelet-holes. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

lanching (a): old form of lancing, piercing. FS (1-Lear); (anon.) Fam Vic.

let to talk (v): hesitate. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

man of his hands (n): man of valor; may also be a reference to skill as a highwayman. FS 1-(MWW); (anon.) Fam Vic.
Newgate: London's chief criminal prison. FS (1-1H4); Nashe Penniless; (anon.) Fam Vic, Marprelate, Arden; Harvey Pierce's Super; (disp.) Oldcastle; Munday More, Huntington.

noise/noyse [of musicians] (n): company or band of musicians. FS (2H4); (anon.) Fam Vic; Lyly Bombie; Nashe Summers. OED contemp citations: 1558 in Nichols Progr. Q. Eliz. I. 39 Nere unto Fanchurch was erected a scaffolde richely furnished, whereon stode a noyes of instrumentes.

policy (n): trickery, cunning. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; (anon.) Woodstock, Locrine, Fam Vic, Ironside, Nobody, Leic Gh; Chettle Kind Hart. Wide contemp use. A major Shakespeare preoccupation, i.e.: 1H4: Neuer did base and rotten Policy / Colour her working with such deadly wounds.

precise (a): guided by Puritan precepts; code word for Puritan. FS (9-1H6, TGV, MWW, AWEW, Ham, MM); Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Sapho, Midas, Whip; Marlowe Jew of Malta; Greene James IV; (anon.) Fam Vic. Blast of Retreat, Willobie, Leic Gh.

rase (n): raze, root. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

receivers (n): treasury officials. Cf. Fam Vic.

reddish (n): radish. Cf. Fam Vic.

relate (v): rebate. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

ringde/ringed (a): like a pig, through the nose. Cf. Fam Vic.

roving (v): wandering aimlessly.NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

scab (n): scurvy knave. FS (5-2H4, H5, 12th, T&C, Corio); (anon.) Fam Vic; Greene Fr Bac.

shift (v): manage. FS (4-2H4, MWW, Cymb, Temp); (anon.) Fam Vic.

short el (n): curtel; short sword. measure with a short el (v): deal unfairly. Cf. Fam Vic.

site (n): sight, display. Cf. Fam Vic.

skills (v): matters, cares. FS (3-Shrew, 12th, 2H6); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Endymion, Love's Met, Gallathea; Greene Fr Bac; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Fam Vic, Ironside, Leic Gh; (disp.) Greene's Groat.

slaunching (a): slashing obloquely. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic. Not in OED, but "slaunchways" means obliquely.

stale (a): old and strong. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic; Pasquil Countere.

villeaco: villanaccio (Ital.): rustic, clown.

what you are: because.

wilde (a): vilde, vile.

worenday (a): workaday, ordinary. NFS. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic.

Glossary: Place Names (nonclassical)

Agincourt: town near N. coast of France. FS (H5); (anon.) Fam Vic.

Billingsgate ward, Pudding lane end: between Eastcheap and the river. Cf. (anon.) Fam Vic, Arden; Pasquil Countercuff.

Detfort: Deptford, S. of the Thames, near Greenwich. Site of murder of Christopher Marlowe.

Eastcheap: N. of the Thames, in the City near London Bridge. Later legend calls the tavern the Boar's Head. In H2,4 (II.2.149) Bardolph calls it 'the old place ... in Eastcheap'.

Feversham: Faversham, seven miles from Canterbury near the main London road. (Site of the famous real-life murder of Arden).

Gads Hill: A hill two miles from Rochester on the London-Dover road. Also scene of robbey of courier carrying Ridolphi correspondence, Oxford robbery of Burghley couriers.

Harfleur: port at the mouth of the Seine, NW France. FS (H5); (anon.) Fam Vic.

Holinshed, Chronicles (1587)

Suggested Reading
Adams, Joseph Quincy, ed. Chief Pre-Shakespearean Dramas. Cambridge: Riverside Press (Houghton Mifflin), 1924.
Bullough, Geoffrey, ed.Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare. Vol. IV (299-343). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul; New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1962.
Pitcher, Seymour M. The Case for Shakespeare's Authorship of " The Famous Victories". New York: State University of New York, 1961.

Appendix II: Connections

Precise: a code-word for "Puritan"
Lyly Campaspe (Pro.): although there be in your precise judgments an universal mislike,
yet we may enjoy by your wonted courtesies a general silence.
Gallathea (III.1) TELUSA: And can there in years so young, in education
so precise, in vows so holy, and in a heart so chaste,
Sapho (Pro.): yielding rather ourselves to the courtesy which we have
ever found, than to the preciseness which we ought to fear.
Midas (I.1.) MARTIUS: Those that call conquerors ambitious are like
those that term thrift covetousness, cleanliness pride, honesty preciseness.
Woman/Moon (III.2.1) VENUS: Phoebus, away. Thou mak'st her too precise.
Shakes 1H6 (V.4)WARWICK: The greatest miracle that e'er ye wrought:
Is all your strict preciseness come to this?
TGV (IV.4.5-6) LANCE: I have taught him (his dog), even as one would say precisely,
MWW (I.1) EVANS: (to Slender) Therefore, precisely, can you carry your good will to the maid?
(II.2) FALSTAFF: it is as much as I can do to keep the terms of my honor precise: ...
2H4 (II.3.40) LADY PERCY: To hold your honor more precise and nice
(IV.1.203) ARCH/YORK: He cannot so precisely weed this land
HAMLET (IV.4) ... Now, whether it be / Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple
Of thinking too precisely on the event, / A thought which, quarter'd, hath but one part wisdom
And ever three parts coward, Of thinking too precisely on the event, ...
AWEW (II.2.12) CLOWN: such a fellow, to say precisely, were not for the court.
MM (I.272-74) LUCIO: ... and he (Claudio) was ever precise in promise-keepimg.
(I.3.50) DUKE: Only, this one: Lord Angelo is precise;
(II.1.51-52) ELBOW: I know not well what they are: but precise villains they are, that I am sure
In the speeches of Lance and Falstaff there is a good deal of humor directed at the Puritans; the excesses of Angelo (Measure for Measure) are viewed in a more critical light.
Greene James 4 (II.2.159) ATEUKIN: She's holy-wise and too precise for me.
Anon. Fam Vic. (272) OXFORD: Perchance the Mayor and the Sheriff
have been too precise in this matter.
Willobie (IV.1): You show yourself so fool-precise, / That I can hardly think you wise.
(IV.5): But her thy folly may appear, / Art thou preciser than a Queen;
(V.4): If death be due to every sin, / How can I then be too precise?
(XXV.5): You talk of sin, and who doth live / Whose daily steps slide not awry?
But too precise doth deadly grieve / The heart that yields not yet to die:
L Gh. (174-75): And many though me a Precisian, / But God doth know, I never was precise;

Past all recovery
Oxford poem: Fram'd in the front of forlorn hope, past all recovery
Anon. Locrine (II.v5.68) ALBANACT: My self with wounds past all recovery
Fam Vic (650) HENRY 5: Past all recovery, and dead to my thinking
Shakes 2H6 (I.1) WARWICK: For grief that they are past recovery:
Edwards D&P (796-97) DAMON: ... whereas no truth my innocent life can save,
But that so greedily you thirst my guiltless blood to have,
(1472) EUBULUS: Who knoweth his case and will not melt in tears?
His guiltless blood shall trickle down anon.
Kyd Sp Tr (II.2.784-85) HIER: A habitation for their cursed souls,
There, in a brazen cauldron, fix'd by Jove, / In his fell wrath, upon a sulfur flame,
Yourselves shall find Lorenzo bathing him / In boiling lead and blood of innocents.
Shakes 1H6 (V.iv.44): Stain'd with the guiltless blood of innocents.
Rich3 (I.2.63) O earth! Which this blood drink'st, revenge his death!
Anon. Woodstock (V.1) LAPOOLE: ... and my sad conscience bids the contrary
and tells me that his innocent blood thus spilt heaven will revenge.
Fam Vic. (814) ARCH: Not minding to shed innocent blood, is rather content
Ironside (V.1.70) EDR: thirst not to drink the blood of innocents.
(V.2.159) EDR: and made a sea with blood of innocents; innocent blood:
Willobie (IX.5): A guilty conscience always bleeds
(XIII.2): I rather choose a quiet mind, / A conscience clear from bloody sins,
Oldcastle (I.1) SHERIFF: my Lord Powesse is gone Past all recovery.
Innocent/Guilty blood ... Drink blood
Geneva Bible Deut. 21.9: The cry of innocent blood.; Deut. 32.35
Jer. 2.34: In thy wings is found the blood of the souls of the poor innocents.
Genesis 4.11: which hath opened thy mouth to receive thy brother's blood ... .
Rom. 12.19, 13.4

Knight ... Carpet, Trencher
Golding Ovid Met. (XII.673): Was by that coward carpet knight bereaved of his lyfe, ...
(XIII.123): Of Rhesus, dastard Dolon, and the coward carpetknyght
Edwards Dam&Pith (46) Aristippus: The king feeds you often from his own trencher.
Anon Fam. Vic. (844-45)ARCH: Meaning that you are more fitter for a tennis court
Than a field, and more fitter for a carpet then the camp.
Mucedorus (Epi.): And weighting with a Trencher at his back,
Ironside (III.6.5): come on, / I say, ye trencher-scraping cutters, ye cloak-bag / carriers, ye sword and buckler carriers,
Penelope (XXX.3): These trencher flies me tempt each day,
(XXXV.5): Than taking down such trencher-knights.
Shakes 2H6 (IV.1) SUFFOLK: Obscure and lowly swain, ...
Fed from my trencher, kneel'd down at the board.
TGV(IV.4) LAUNCE: ... and I came no sooner into the dining-chamber but he
steps me to her trencher and steals her capon's leg:
LLL (V.2) BIRON: ... Some carry-tale, some please-man, some slight zany,
Some mumble-news, some trencher-knight, some Dick, / That smiles his cheek in years ...
... Holding a trencher, jesting merrily?
Much Ado (V.2) BENEDICK: ... Troilus the first employer of panders, and / a whole bookful of
these quondam carpet-mongers, ...
12th (III.4) SIR TOBY: He is knight, dubbed with unhatched rapier and on / carpet consideration; ...
Tempest (II.2) CALIBAN: ... Nor scrape trencher, nor wash dish ...
R&J (I.5) First Servant: Where's Potpan, ... He / shift a trencher? he scrape a trencher!
Timon (I.1) Old Athenian: And my estate deserves an heir more raised
Than one which holds a trencher.
(III.6) TIMON: ... You fools of fortune, trencher-friends, time's flies, ...
A&C (III.13) ANTONY: I found you as a morsel cold upon
Dead Caesar's trencher; nay, you were a fragment / Of Cneius Pompey's; ...
Coriolanus (IV.5) CORIO: Ay; 'tis an honester service than to meddle with thy
mistress. Thou pratest, and pratest; serve with thy trencher, hence!
Nashe Summers (793): take / not up your standings in a nut-tree, when you should be
waiting on my Lord's trencher.
Munday Huntington (XIII.246) LEICESTER: This carpet knight sits carping at our scars,
And jests at those most glorious well-fought wars.

To be hanged in a strange country:
Anon. Fam Vic (1451-55) DERICKE: Nay sounds, and they take thee, / They will hang thee.
O John, never do so. If it be thy fortune to be hanged,
Be hanged in thy own language whatsoever thou doest.
Greene James IV (V.2.24) JAQUES: Est ce donc a tel point votre etat?
Faith then, adieu Scotland, adieu Signior Ateukin; me will
homa to France and no be hanged in a strange country.

Repent ... Folly:
Edwards Dam&Pith (112) GRONNO: Then, come on your ways; you must
to prison in haste. / I fear you will repent this folly at last.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.6.404) HIER: Confess thy folly and repent thy fault;
Greene Fr Bac (V.3.36) BACON: Repentant for the follies of my youth,
Anon. Willobie (XXVIII.2): But they repent their folly past,
Nashe Summers (1434) WINTER: Wish'd, with repentance for his folly past,
Shakes H5 (III.6): ... England shall repent his folly, ...

To be hanged in a strange country:
Anon. Fam Vic (1451-55) DERICKE: Nay sounds, and they take thee, / They will hang thee.
O John, never do so. If it be thy fortune to be hanged,
Be hanged in thy own language whatsoever thou doest.
Greene James IV (V.2.24) JAQUES: Est ce donc a tel point votre etat?
Faith then, adieu Scotland, adieu Signior Ateukin; me will
homa to France and no be hanged in a strange country.

Appendix III: Vocabulary, Word Formation

Distinctive Words, Phrases: gog's wounds; weeping tears

Compound Words:16 words (10 nouns, 6 adj).
ale-house (n), base-minded (a), button-breech (n), chair-makers (n), dagger-arm (n); gray-beard (a), hand-gun (n), high-minded (a), horse-stealers (n), ilat-hole (n), liege-man (n), liege-people (n), nut-brown (a), pick-purses (n), well-beloved (a); wild-headed (a)

Words beginning with "con": 14 words (4 verbs, 6 nouns, 3 adj, 1 adv, 1 prep).
concerning (prep), conduct (n), confess (v), conjecture (n, v), conquer (v), conquered (a), conquering (n), conquered (a), conqueror (n), conscience (n), considering (v), constable (n), content (a), continually (adv)

Words beginning with "dis": 10 words (3 verbs, 2 nouns, 5 adj).
discharge (v), discomfit (v), diseased (a), disgrace (n), disguised (a), disordered (a), dispossess (v), disquieting (n), dissembling (a), distressed (a)

Words beginning with "mis": (2 words (all nouns).
mischief (n), misfortune (n)

Words beginning with "over": 1 words -- overcome (v).

Words beginning with "pre": 8 words (2 verbs, 5 nouns, 2 adj, 1 adv).
precise (a), predecessors (n), prerogatives (n), presence (n), present (n, a, v), presently (adv), preserve (v), pretended (n)

Words beginning with "re": 20 words (11 verbs, 8 nouns, 1 adj).
receivers (n), recoil (v), recovery (n), regent (n), rejoice (v), related (v), remain (v), remedy (n), remember (v), remove (v), reparrel (n), repine (v), represent (v), reprobate (a), request (v), require (v), resolution (n), resolve (v), return (n), revengement (n)

Words beginning with "un","in": 23 words (10/11/2). (4 verbs, 3 nouns, 10 adj, 5 prep, 1 conj).
indeed (conj), indict (v), indictment (n), injured (v), injury (n), innocence (n), innocent (a), instead (prep), into (prep), invade (v)
unequal (a), unfeigned (a), unfit (a), unhappy (a), unknown (a), unmindful (a), unreasonable (a), until (prep), unto (prep), unwise (a), unworthy (a)
under (prep), understand (v)

Words ending with "able" : 4 words (all adj).
charitable (a), honorable (a), reasonable (a), unreasonable (a)

Words ending with "ize": none.

Words ending with "less": none.

Words ending with "ness": 6 words (all nouns).
bigness (n), business (n), highness (n), readiness (n), wildness (n), witness (n)

Words ending with "ship": none.

behave yourself, feel yourself, gore themselves, know thyself, make yourselves sure, think myself

Appendix IV: Anecdote from Tarltons Jests

Tarlton, Richard. Anecdote from Tarltons Jests.

At the Bull [Inn} at Bishops-gate was a play of Henry the fift, wherein the judge was to take a box on the eare; and because he was absent that should take the blow, Tarlton himselfe, ever forward to please, tooke upon him to play the same judge, besides his own part of the clown: and Knel, then playing Henry the fift, hit Tarlton a sound blow indeed, which made the people laugh the more because it was he. But anon the judge goes in, and immediately Tarlton in his clownes cloathes comes out, and askes the actors, 'What newes?' 'O,' saith one, 'hadst thou been here, thou shouldest have seene Prince Henry hit the judge a terrible box on the ear.' 'What, man!' said Tarlton, 'strike a judge!' 'It is true, yfaith,' said the other. 'No other like,' said Tarlton; 'and it could not be but terrible to the judge, when the report so terrifies me that me thinkes the blow remaines stil on my cheeke that it burnes againe!' The people laught at this mightily.




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