Works of John Lyly
Endimion - The Man in the Moone,1591
Glossary & Appendices
APPENDIX I - Glossary
[FS means found in Shakespeare; NFS means not found in Shakespeare.]
Arabian bird (n): phoenix, a rare specimen. FS (2-A&C, Cymb) Watson Hek; Lyly Endymion, Woman/Moon.
Araris (n): that fish in the flood Araris -- which at thy waxing is as white as the driven snow and at thy waning as black as deepest darkness. Cf. Euphues 'the fish Scolopidus in the flood Araris', which 'at the waxing of the moon is as white as the driven snow.' Apparently derived from the Pseudo-plutarchea -- De Fluviis (see Bond). These charming dissertations on the habits of incredible flora and fauna are to be found throughout Lyly's work. Cf. Lyly Euphues, Endymion.
bandog (n): dog tied or chained up on account of its ferocity -- usually a mastiff or bloodhound. (1-2H6); Lyly Endymion; Pasquil Countercuff; Nashe Summers. OED contemp citations: 1560 Thersites in Hazl. Dodsl. I. 399 The bandog Cerberus from hell ... 1577 Harrison England.
bewray (v): reveal. FS (7); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Endymion, Midas, Bombie, Whip; many others
bill [broad brown] (n): halberd (a kind of combination of spear and battle-axe, consisting of a sharp-edged blade ending in a point, and a spear-head, mounted on a handle five-to seven-feet long.) FS (Ado); Golding Ovid; Lyly Sapho, Endymion.
bird-bolt (n): blunt-headed arrow used for shooting birds. FS (2-LLL, 12th, Ado); Udall Royster; (anon.) Locrine; Lyly Endymion.
bodkin (n): pin or pin-shaped ornament used to fasten women's hair. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Lyly Sapho, Endymion, Midas, Bombie, Pappe; Nashe Absurdity; (anon.) Arden; Marston, Chapman, Jonson Eastward Ho.
bolt (n): arrow. FS (3-MND, MWW, H5, AsYou, MM, Cymb); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Endymion, Pappe; Harvey 4 Letters; (disp.) Greene's Groat. See also 'bird-bolt'.
bots (n): horse-disease, caused by parasitical flies or maggots. (3-1H4, Shrew, Pericles); Lyly Endymion; Midas, Bombie; (anon.) Mucedorus, Fam Vic; (disp.) Oldcastle.
break/brake [one's mind] (v): discuss, disclose, reveal. FS (5-1H6, Errors, Ado, T&C, Mac); Golding Ovid; Oxford letter; Lyly Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Arden, Willobie; (disp.) Cromwell.
cammock (a): crooked stick or piece of wood. NFS. Cf. Lyly Euphues, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie.
chafe (n): temper, rage. FS (A&C); Lyly Endymion (OED missed 3d citation); Sidney Astrophel.
chain (n): receptacle of some sort?, probably carried at the end of a chain belt or necklace. Unless possibly a misprint of 'in' for 'on'. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion. Not in OED.
chimaera (n): fabled fire-breathing monster of Greek mythology, with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail (or according to others with the heads of a lion, a goat, and a serpent), killed by Bellerophon.NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Lyly Endymion.
clout (n): cloth. FS (4-R&J, Lear, Hamlet, A&C); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Sapho, Bombie, Endymion; Greene Orl Fur, James IV; Nashe Summers.
favor (n): appearance, features. FS (29 -2H4, LLL, John, MND, Ado, AsYou, 12th, T&C, MM, AWEW, WT, Cymb, JC, Ham, Oth, Mac, Corio, V&A, Sonnet 113); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Greene Cony; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Arden, Weakest; (disp.) Oldcastle; Nashe Summers; Chapman Revenge.
fadge/fodge (v): fit; suit. FS (2-LLL, 12th); Lyly Endymion (as fodge)Bombie; (anon.) Ironside. 1st OED citations: 1578 Whetstone Promos & Cass; 1599 Marston Sco. Villanie.
froward (a): perverse, forward. FS (13); Golding Ovid; Lyly Endymion; many others.
grissel (n): young girl (based on Chaucer's Griselda, the patient wife) FS (1-Shrew); Lyly Endymion; Nashe Valentines.
hay-de-guise: A dance. Cf. Lyly Endymion
hole [take a hole lower] (v): abase, humiliate. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion (1st OED citation).
lithe/lither (a): (1) yielding, soft, pliant. FS (1-1H6); Golding Ovid. OED contemp citation:
Cooper Thesaurus, s.v. Brachium, Cerea brachia, Nice and liether arms. (2) weak, meek, also calm, sluggish, lazy. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid. litherness (laziness) found in Lyly Endymion.
love-lap (n): thin gruel. Cf. Lyly Endymion.
lump (n): spiny-finned fish of a leaden-blue colour and uncouth appearance, characterized by a suctorial disk on its belly with which it adheres to objects with great force. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion (2d OED citation).
lunary (n) : moonwort, a fern; by many believed to have magical powers (see Sapho). NFS. Cf. Lyly Gallathea, Sapho, Endymion. OED missed all uses.
lurcher (n): petty thief. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion.
malapert (a): presumptuous, saucy. FS (3-3H6, Rich3, 12th); Lyly Endymion, Woman/Moon; (anon.) Ironside, Dodypoll. OED contemp citation: (1567) Drant Horace.
medlar (n): (1) small brown fruit, similar to the apple but soft when ripe. FS (AsYou); Lyly Sapho, Endymion. (2) 'prostitute' in slang sense. FS (R&J).
mumble (v): bite with toothless gums. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion (1st OED citation).
mutton (n): cant name for loose woman, prostitute. FS (2-TGV); Lyly Endymion; Greene Fr Bac; Marlowe Faustus.
noun adjective: Daniel points out that the noun substantive must be able to be seen, heard, felt and understood, according to the standard grammar by Lyly's grandfather William. Cf. Lyly Endymion.
orient (adj): shining [used with pearl]. FS (4-Rich3, MND, V&A, Sonnet 10); Watson Hek; Lyly Endymion; (anon.) Dodypoll.
overthwarts (n): (1) obstructionists. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion.
ovis (n): sheep. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion.
pantofle (n): slipper. NFS. Cf. Lyly Sapho, Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Arden, News/Heaven&Hell; Nashe Almond. Common.
patch (n): domestic fool; foolish person; clown, dolt, booby. FS (5-Errors, LLL, MND, Temp, Pericles); Lyly Endymion, Midas; Marprelate Epistle; Nashe Almond.
peevish (a): small, mean. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Lyly Endymion, Bombie, Love's Met; many others.
pelting (a): paltry. FS (7-Rich2, MND, T&C, MM, Lear, TNK); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Gallathea, Endymion, Midas, Bombie; (anon.) Woodstock, Willobie; Harvey 4 Letters; Chettle Kind Hart.
pippin (n): variety of apple. FS (2-2H4, MWW); Lyly Euphues, Endymion.
poison dough: poisoned bait. Cf. Lyly Endymion.
pine, pine away (v): starve, waste away. FS (10+); Golding Ovid; Oxford poems; many others.
policy (n): trickery, cunning. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Campaspe, Sapho, Endymion, Bombie; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; (anon.) Woodstock, Locrine, Fam Vic, Ironside, Nobody, Leic Gh; Chettle Kind Hart. Wide contemp use. A major Shakespeare preoccupation, i.e.: 1H4: Never did base and rotten Policy / Colour her working with such deadly wounds.
pouting (n): small fish; small whiting, a whiting-pout. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion.
pug (n): (Thames) bargeman. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion (1st OED citation). Greene Disput. C ; 1603 Dekker Wonderful Year.
pursy (a): fat; huffing and puffing, short-winded. FS (2-Ham, Tim); Lyly Endymion; Nashe Penniless.
quiller (n): young, unfledged bird. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion (only OED citation).
reach [me, etc] (v): hold out to. FS (1-Titus); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Endymion; (anon.) Mucedorus, Woodstock; (disp.) Greene's Groat.
relish (n): pleasing flavor. FS (3-Ham, Corio, Cymb, T&C); Lyly Endymion; (disp.) Maiden's. 1st OED citation 1665.
sconce (n): small fort or earthwork; esp. one built to defend a ford, pass, castle-gate, etc., or erected as a counter-fort. FS (1-H5; also Errors as a verb); Lyly Endymion (dbl meaning with sconce, below); Greene Orl Fur; Munday (More); (anon.) Arden, Leic. Gh.
sconce (n): (1) head, skull; (2) ability, wit. FS (6-Errors, Ham, Corio); Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Endymion, Bombie (OED missed citation); Greene Cony; G. Harvey New Let. OED contemp citation: 1586 A. Day Eng. Secretary (1625) Master B. found Socrates in my Letter,and sent to seeke out your well reputed skonce to expound it.
Seres: an area in eastern Asia, possibly China. The wool of Seres is probably made from the filament cocoons left behind by silkworms feeding on mulberry leaves [Bevington].
shent (a): disgraced. FS (5-MWW, 12th, T&C, Ham, Corio); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus, Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Endymion; (anon.) Penelope.
shiver (n, v): splinter. FS (3-Rich2, Lear, Troilus); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek, Tears; Lyly Campaspe, Endymion; Nashe Astrophel.
simples (n): medicine or medicament concocted of only one constituent, esp. of one herb or plant; hence, a plant or herb employed for medical purposes. In common use from c 1580 to 1750, chiefly in pl. FS (4-R&J, AsYou, Ham, Lear); Lyly Sapho, Endymion (OED missed citation); Harvey Pierce's Super; Chettle Kind Hart. OED contemp citations: 1539 Elyot Cast. Helthe; 1563 T. Gale Antidot. 1588 Greene Perimedes Wks. (Grosart) VII. 15 Their stomacks bee made a verie Apotecaries shoppe, by receiuing a multitude of simples and drugges.
skills (v): matters, cares. FS (3-Shrew, 12th, 2H6); Golding Ovid; Lyly Campaspe, Endymion, Love's Met, Gallathea; Greene Fr Bac; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Fam Vic, Ironside, Leic Gh; (disp.) Greene's Groat.
smiter (n): scimitar.
sooth (n): truth, sometimes flattery. FS (Rich2, Pericles); Lyly Endymion, Woman/Moon; many others.
squirrel (n): cant expression for prostitute. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion.
stew (n): cant name for whorehouse. FS (2H4); Lyly Endymion. mutton (n): cant name for loose woman, prostitute. FS (2-TGV); Lyly Endymion; Greene Fr Bac; Marlowe Faustus.
stomach (n): temper, pride. FS (2-Shrew, H8); Golding Ovid; Lyly Endymion; Greene G a G; Alphonsus; (anon.) Marprelate, Ironside, Weakest; Spenser FQ; Harvey Pierce's Super; Sidney Antony. disposition. FS (Lear, Ado).
untewed (a): uncombed. Cf. Lyly Endymion
vail (v): (1) doff, take off (hat, crown, other head-dress), esp. out of respect or as a sign of submission. Also const. to or unto (a person, etc.). FS (many); Lodge Wounds; Lyly Endymion; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Greene G a G; Pasquil Apology.
wamble (v): rumbles, rolls around. NFS. Not found in OED. Cf. Lyly Endymion.
watchet (a): light blue. NFS. Cf. Lyly Endymion; (anon.) Arden. (OED 1st citation in 1609).
whist (v): hush (v). FS (1-Temp); Golding Ovid; Lyly Gallathea, Endymion; Greene Pandosto, Never Too Late; Nashe Penniless; Harvey Pierce's Super.
woodcock (n): fool. FS (4-Shrew, LLL, AWEW, Ham); Lyly Endymion; Whip; (anon.) Marprelate, Penelope; Nashe Penniless; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Dekker Hornbook.
amicitia inter pares: friendship among equals.
ecce autem: lo and behold.
nego argumentum: I reject your argument.
quod supra vos nihil ad vos: what is higher than you is nothing to you. Note that this line is quoted exactly in lines 190-193 of Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay.
eho, ah: Latin interjections.
cedant arma togae: let arms yield to the toga (Cicero).
bella gerant alii; tu, Pari, semper ama: let others fight; you Paris, will always love (Ovid).
dicere quae puduit, scribere jussit amor: love makes one write of things he cannot discuss (Ovid).
scalpellum, calami, atramentum, charta, libelli, sint semper studiis arma parata meis: may penknife, pens, ink, papers, books always be ready for action (from William Lyly grammar).
militat omnis amans, et habet sua castea cupido: all lovers are warriors; and Cupid has his own camp (Ovid).
non formosus erat, sed erat facundus Ulysses: Ulysses was not handsome, but eloquent (Ovid).
quicquid conabar dicere versus erat: I was trying to speak only poetry (Ovid).
I prae: sequar: lead: I will follow.
sic omnia mea mecum porto: thus I carry with me everything I own (Cicero).
caelo tegitur qui non habet urnam: he who has no burial urn rests under the stars (Lucan).
dulce venenum: sweet poison.
agnosco veteris vestigia flamma: I see the traces of an old flame (Vergil).
argumentum ab antiguitate: an argument for antiquity.
a contrario sequitur argumentum: a contrary argument applies.
est Venus in vinis, ignis in igne fuit: Venus is in wine as surely as fire in fire (Ovid).
O lepidum caput: Oh witty mind.
animus maioribus instat: my spirit ventures greater themes (Ovid).
The Myth of Endymion, as related by Robert Graves in The Greek Myths (64). Mt. Kisco, New York: Moyer Bell Ltd., 1988.
Endymion was the handsome son of Zeus and the Nymph Calyce, an Aelian by race though Carian by origin, and ousted by Clymenus from the kingdom of Elis. His wife, known by many different names, such as Iphinianassa, Hyperippe, Chromia, and Neis, bore him four sons; he also fathered fifty daughters on Selene, who had fallen desperately in love with him.
Endymion was lying asleep in a cave on Carian Mount Latmus one still night when Selene first saw him, lay down by his side, and gently kissed his closed eyes. Afterwards, some say, he returned to the same cave and fell into a dreamless sleep. This sleep, from which he has never yet awakened, came upon him either at his own request, because he hated the approach of old age; or because Zeus suspected him of an intrigue with Hera; or because Selene found that she preferred gently kissing him to being the object of his too fertile passion. In any case, he has never grown a day older, and preserves the bloom of youth on his cheeks. But others way that he lies buried at Olympia, where his four sons ran a race for the vacant throne, which Epeius won.
1. This myth records how an Aeolian chief invaded Elis, and accepted the consequences of marrying the Pelasgian Moon-goddess Hera's representative -- the names of Endymion's wives are all moon-titles Ñ head of a college of fifty water-priestesses. When his reign ended he was duly sacrificed and awarded a hero shrine at Olympia. Pisa, the city to which Olympia belonged, is said to have meant in the Lydian (or Cretan) language 'private resting place'; namely, of the Moon.
2. The name 'Endymion', from enduein (Latin: inducere), refers to the Moon's seduction of the king, as thou she were one of the Empusae; but the ancients explain it as referring to somnum ei inductum, 'the sleep put upon him.'
The myth of Endymion recurs throughout the ancient writers.
The short summary by Robert Graves, quoted above, cites the following: Appollodorus i.7.5-6; Pausanias v.8.I and I.2.
Length: 18,990 words
Allegory, Political Meaning
Queen Elizabeth as Cynthia; Oxford or Leicester as Endymion
In Act III, Scene 4, note in Eumenides' speech, the prophecy: 'When she, whose figure of all is the perfectest and never to be measured, always one yet never the same, still inconstant yet never wavering, shall come and kiss Endymion in his sleep, he shall then rise; else never.' This speech refers unmistakably to Queen Elizabeth's motto: semper eadem. Whatever the differing interpretations of this play (and there are many), there can be little doubt that this is an allusion to the Queen.
Writers have associated Endymion with both the Earl of Leicester (especially earlier commentators) and the Earl of Oxford. Each had incurred the displeasure of the Queen through nonmarital sexual affairs.
Leicester (1) through his sexual relationship/sham marriage with Lady Sheffield, resulting in the birth of an illegitimate son and (2) through his marriage to the pregnant Lettice Knollys, the Queen's hated cousin. In each case the Queen's fury was deep; her punishment rather lenient.
Later commentators seem to favor the attribution to the Earl of Oxford. Oxford, a married man, had a sexual relationship with Anne Vavasour, with whom he had a son. Both Oxford and the pregnant Anne were confined to the Tower of London, Oxford (whose cause was complicated by a dispute involving counter-charges of disloyalty) was then sent from court for several years. His son, named Edward Vere, was well provided for, educated abroad, and was closely supported by and allied to the Vere interests throughout his life. Anne Vavasour entered the household of the famous soldier Sir Sidney Lee, who had been her nominal guardian during her stay in the Tower. The severity of the Queen's punishment is puzzling; even more so is her conduct in seeming to favor attacks on Oxford and his followers by members of Anne Vavasour's family and their followers. In the first of these attacks Oxford was severely wounded in the leg.
If there is an analogy to figures in the court, the parallel to Lyly's employer Oxford certainly seems the strongest. It strains credulity that Lyly, Oxford's protege, would have written a panegyric to Leicester. Tellus, Endymion's nemesis did receive the protection of her keeper; Oxford's life was indeed put at risk through withdrawal of the Queen's favour, exacerbated by slanders of his enemies (relatives and once allies) the Howards. As Tellus was allowed to keep an image of Endymion that she had created, her child Edward would indeed have been the mirror of Oxford born to Anne Vavasour; on the other hand, Lettice Knolly's son by Leicester died.
Acknowledgement of this probable courtly allusion, of course, would cast no evidentiary light whatsoever on the question of Shakespearian authorship.
The Meaning of 'The Dumb Show'
Lines from Act V, Scene I, expand upon the dumb show presented at the end of Act II.
ENDYMION: Methought I saw a lady passing fair but very mischievous, who in the one hand carried a knife with which she offered to cut my throat and in the other a looking glass; wherein seeing how ill anger became ladies, she refrained from intended violence. She was accompanied with other damsels, one of which with a stern countenance and as it were with a settled malice engraven in her eyes, provoked her to execute mischief. Another with visage sad, and constant only in sorrow, with her arms crossed and watery eyes, seemed to lament my fortune but durst not offer to prevent the force. I started in my sleep, feeling my very veins to swell and my sinews to stretch with fear, and such a cold sweat bedewed all my body that death itself could not be so terrible as the vision.
CYNTHIA: A strange sight. Gyptes at our better leisure shall expound it.
ENDYMION: After long debating with herself, mercy overcame anger; and there appeared in her heavenly face such a divine majesty, mingled with a sweet mildness, that I was ravished with the sight above measure and wished that I might have enjoyed the sight without end. And so she departed with the other ladies, of which the one retained still an unmovable cruelty, the other a constant pity.
CYNTHIA: Poor Endymion, how wast thou affrighted! What else?
ENDYMION: After her, immediately appeared an aged man with a beard as white as snow, carrying in his hand a book with three leaves and speaking, as I remember these words: 'Endymion, receive this book with three leaves, in which are contained counsels, policies and pictures.' And with that he offered me the book, which I rejected; wherewith moved with a disdainful pity, he rent the first leaf in a thousand shivers. The second time he offered it, which I refused also, at which bending his brows and pitching his eyes fast to the ground as though they were fixed to the earth and not again to be removed, then suddenly casting them up to the heavens, he tore in a rage the second leaf and offered the book only with one leaf. I know not whether fear to offend or desire to know some strange thing moved me: I took the book, and so the old man vanished.
CYNTHIA: What did'st thou imagine was in the last leaf?
ENDYMION: There, portrayed to life, with a cold quaking in every joint, I beheld many wolves barking at thee, Cynthia, who having ground their teeth to bite, did with striving bleed themselves to death. There might I see ingratitude with an hundred eyes, gazing for benefits, and with a thousand teeth gnawing on the bowels wherein she was bred. Treachery stood all clothed in white, with a smiling countenance but both her hands bathed in blood. Envy with a pale and meager face, whose body was so lean that one might tell all her bones and whose garment was so tattered that it was easy to number every thread, stood shooting at stars whose darts fell down again on her own face. There might I behold drones or beetles, I know not how to term them, creeping under the wings of a princely eagle who, being carried into her nest, sought there to suck that vein that would have killed the eagle. I mused that things so base should attempt a fact so barbarous or durst imagine a thing so bloody. And many other things madam, the repetition whereof may at your better leisure seem more pleasing; for bees surfeit sometimes with honey and the gods are glutted with harmony and your highness may be dulled with delight.
Accepting the identification of Oxford with Endymion, and the allegorical nature of this play, especially the dumb show, which certainly is meant to present the hidden meaning of the play, Elizabeth can be identified as the lady who is at first cruel, then merciful. The three leaves represent the roles of state that Oxford might have played. The first two, which he rejected, were counsel as advisor and policy as administrator The third leaf, picture, is the role that he eventually assumed, having chosen to present through his art the condition of the throne and the kingdom as he saw it: its perils and opportunities. Lyly would be saying that in choosing this role, Oxford was using his greatest gift to protect the endangered Queen by speaking honestly to her through his art.
Sir Tophas and Falstaff:
The ridiculous Sir Tophas, a great comic figure, is considered by many to be a model for Armado in the early Loves Labour's Lost and for Sir Jophn Falstaff in the Henry IV plays and Merry Wives of Windsor (see song, below), although the Falstaff prototype Jockey of Famous Victories (latest date 1588; i.e., about the same date as Endymion) seems to owe much less to Sir Tophas.
An even closer match might be found in the characters of Sir Tophas and Don Quixote. Each lives in a world created by his own imagination, emotionally centered on some chivalric ideal. Don Quixote lives in a material world completely transformed by his gallant and mystical vision. In Endymion Lyly has brought together the metaphysical, transitory world of ancient Greek legend and the courtly, earthbound world of Elizabethan England, creating an operational central reality. Into this setting he placed Sir Tophas, grounded in dreams of knightly valor and seeking a love-object of peculiar sexual allure. The transformation of a placid farm animal into a fearsome beast or of a hideous old hag into an object of desire corresponds on a dramatic level with Don Quixote's equally irrational perceptions, and in both cases the audience, or reader, is well aware of the character's neurotic displacement. Both evoke humor; both are emotional children. Don Quixote, however, also arouses a certain reverence for the purity of his vision, whereas Sir Tophas seems to be driven solely by braggadocio. Both are sublime fictional inventions: only Don Quixote could joust with a windmill; only Sir Tophas could agree to marry a tree.
Endymion as Political and Philosophic Allegory
The editor David Bevington proffers a schemata of Endymion as political allegory, accepting the attribution of the Earl of Oxford as Endymion. In the early 1580's Oxford (who admitted that he had renounced personal Catholic leanings) accused his Howard relatives and associates of plotting the overthrow of Elizabeth in favor of the Catholic Mary of Scotland. Oxford himself was the object of counter-accusations; and at the time of the writing of Endymion Bevington suggests that he was still tainted by a suspicion of disloyalty. Bevington suggests that Lyly was denying that attraction to the old faith by no means mandated personal disloyalty to Queen Elizabeth. In this interpretation Tellus personifies Mary; while Dipsas represents a corrupt and sinister aspect of Roman Catholicism. The dumb show in which Endymion is offered the three leaves explains Oxfords rejection of politically occult material in the Three Books of Prophecies, which the Howards had accused Oxford of possessing.
Others have seen Endymion as a reconciliation of neo-Platonic ideas with the unsettling aspect of male subjugation to Queen Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen whose persona borrowed from the iconic vision of the Virgin Mary. In this interpretation Endymion struggles between his earthly and spiritual needs, achieving reconciliation by a retreat into passive submission that was the only role open to Elizabethan courtiers. This reading offers the over-riding Lyly theme of an ordered universe punctured by misplaced love, lust, desire; balance between competing needs is achieved when couples unite, or renounce, or reconcile, and metaphysical order restored by the suitable management of earthly needs.
Bevington, David, ed. Endymion. Manchester, Eng.: University Press, 1996.
Bond, R. W., Complete Works of John Lyly. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1902.
Daniel, Carter A. ed., The Plays of John Lyly. Lewisburg, N.J.: Bucknell University Press, 1988
Houppert, J. W. John Lyly. (Twaine's English Author Series). New York: 1975
Hunter, G. K. John Lyly: The Humanist as Courtier. London: Routledge, 1962.
Saccio, Peter. The Court Comedies of John Lyly. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.
APPENDIX II: Connections
Shakespeare and the anonymous author of Arden seem to be indulging in a small joke at Lyly's expense: contrast with the romanticism of the concept in Lyly's Endymion: The Man in the Moon.
Anon. Arden (IV.2.22-29): FERRYMAN: Then for this once let it be . midsummer moon,
but yet my wife has another moon.
FRANKLIN: Another moon?
FERRYMAN: Aye, and it has influences and eclipses.
ARDEN: Why then, by this reckoning you sometimes play the man / in the moon.
FERRYMAN: Aye, but you had not best to meddle with that moon
lest I scratch you by the face with my bramble-bush.
Shakes MND: (V.1.250-252) MOON: All that I have to say, is,
to tell you that the lanthorn is the moon; I, the man i' the moon;
this thornbush, my thorn-bush; and this dog, my dog.
Nashe Summers (861-62) HARVEST: ... But to say that I impoverish
the earth, that I rob the man in the moon,
Munday Huntington (VIII.173-74) FITZ: By this construction,
she should be the Moon, / And you would be the man within the Moon.
End ... Life
Brooke Romeus (2026: Will bring the end of all her cares by ending careful life.
Ovid Ovid Met. (XIV.156: Eternal and of worldly life I should none end have seen,
Gascoigne Jocasta (III.1.262) MENECEUS: Brings quiet end to this unquiet life.
(V.2.27) CREON: What hapless end thy life alas hath hent. / I loathe not life, nor dread my end.
Oxford poetry (My mind to me a kingdom is): I loathe not life, nor dread my end.
Watson Hek (XXXVI, comment): abandoning all further desire of life,
hath in request untimely death, as the only end of his infelicity.
Lyly Endymion (I.2.70-71) TELLUS: Ah Floscula, thou rendest my heart in sunder,
in putting me in remembrance of the end.
FLOSCULA: Why, if this be not the end, all the rest is to no end.
(II.1.93-94) TELLUS: She shall have an end.
ENDYMION: So shall the world.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.13.8-11) HIERONIMO: For evils unto ills conductors be,
And death's the worst of resolution. / For he that thinks with patience to contend
To quiet life, his life shall easily end.
Sol&Per (V.2.120) SOLIMAN: So let their treasons with their lives have end.
Shakes Lucrece (1208): My life's foul deed, my life's fair end shall free it.
Anon. Willobie (III.4): That is to lead a filthy life, / Whereon attends a fearful end:
Geneva Bible Wisdom 5.4 We fools thought his life madness, and his end without honor;
Ecclus. 11.27: In a man's end, his works are discovered; Job 34.36
Golding Ovid Met (Ep.60): Of reason's rule continually do live in virtue's law:
Brooke Romeus (1248): With reason's reign to rule the thoughts that rage within her breast.
Gascoigne ... Jocasta (II.1.303) JOCASTA: To tell what reason first his mind did rule,
(II.1.337) POLYNICES: Without respect that reason ought to rule,
Watson Hek (46): That Reason rule the roast and love relent;
(88): I Long maintained war gainst Reason's rule,
Lyly Campaspe (I.3.85-86) ALEX: instruct the young with rules, confirm the old with reasons.
Endymion (I.2.59) TELLUS: ... and of a woman deluded in love to have neither rule nor reason.
Shakes Pass Pil (19): Let reason rule things worthy blame,
Anon. Fountain of my Tears: Good reason thou the ruler be.
Willobie (XLVI.5) No reason rules, where sorrows plant,
(LVII.5) Can reason rule, where folly bides?
(LXVIII.text): and not able by reason to rule the raging fume of this fantastical fury
Leic. Gh. (1847): That ruleth, not by reason, but by lust,
(2060): Nor ruled so much by reason as by passion,
Cry ... Mercy
Brooke Romeus (2661): With stretched hands to thee for mercy now I cry,
Golding Abraham (816) ISAAC: Alas my father, mercy I cry you.
Lyly Sapho (V.2.78) VENUS: or lady I cry you mercy, I think you would be called a goddess
Endymion (II.2.32) FAVILLA: I cry your matronship mercy.
MB (IV.2) SILENA: I cry you mercy; I took you for a joined stool.
SILENA: I cry you mercy; I have killed your cushion.
(V.3) SYNIS: I cry you mercy, sir. I think it was Memphio's son that was married.
Munday Huntington (IV.66) PRIOR: I cry your worship mercy, mistress Warman.
Shakespeare uses the phrase 'cry ... mercy' 22 times.
Anon. Locrine (II.2) STRUMBO: King Nactaball! I cry God mercy! what have we to do
(II.3.49) STRUMBO: Place! I cry God mercy: why, do you think that such
(II.3.80) STRUMBO: Gate! I cry God mercy!
Woodstock (I.1.99) NIMBLE: if ever / ye cry, Lord have mercy upon me, I shall hang for it, ...!
(III.2) WOOD: cry ye mercy, I did not understand your worship's calling.
(III.2) WOOD: cry ye mercy, have you a message to me?
Arden (IV.4.128) ALICE: And cried him mercy whom thou hast misdone;
Dodypoll (V.2.166): My Lord, I kindly cry you mercy now.
Penelope: XLVIII.2: Amphimedon for mercy cries,
L Gh. (2151): For mercy now I call, I plead, I cry,
Oldcastle (V.10.39) JUDGE: We cry your honor mercy, good my Lord,
Cromwell (I.1) OLD CROM: I cry you mercy! is your ears so fine?
Discourse ... Sweet
Lyly Endymion (II.2.8) SCINTILLA: ... amorous words and sweet discourse.
Marlowe T1 (V.1.423) ARABIA: To make discourse of some sweet accidents
T2 (IV.2.46) THERIDAMAS: Spending my life in sweet discourse of love.
Shakes Rich3 (V.3) DERBY: Vows of love and ample interchange of sweet discourse.
TGV (I.3) PANTH: ... hear sweet discourse
LLL (II.1) ROS: So sweet and voluble in his discourse.
R&J (III.5) ROMEO: All these woes shall serve for sweet discourse.
Nashe Penniless: they cannot sweeten a discourse
Anon. Dodypoll (I.2.41): For his behavior, for his sweet discourse.
All hail ... Sovereign
Lyly Campaspe (II.1.5) PSYLLUS: All hail, Diogenes, to your proper person.
Endymion (II.2.104) SAMIAS: Sir Tophas, all hail!
(V.2,52) SAMIAS: All hail, Sir Tophas, how feel you yourself?
Kyd Sol&Per (II.1.30) BASILISCO: All hail, brave cavalier.
Shakes 3H6 (V.7) GLOUC: ... And cried 'all hail!' when as he meant / all harm.
Rich2 (IV.1) KING RICH: Did they not sometime cry, 'all hail!' to me? ...
TNK (III.5.102) SCHOOLMASTER Thou doughty Duke, all hail! ~~~ All hail, sweet ladies.
Nashe Summers (305-06): SOLS: All hail to Summer, my dread / sovereign Lord.
Anon. Mucedorus (III.5.6-7) MESS: All hail, worthy shepherd.
MOUSE: All reign, lowly shepherd.
Ironside (V.1.25-29) EDRICUS: All hail unto my gracious sovereign!
STITCH: Master, you'll bewray yourself, do you say
'all hail' and yet bear your arm in a scarf? That's hale indeed.
EDRICUS: All hail unto my gracious sovereign!
Leic. Gh. (1935): Even they betrayed my life that cried, 'All hail!'
Note: Shaheen points out that no English Bible translation uses the phrase 'all hail' and that Shakespeare seems to derive the phrase from the medieval play The Agony and the Betrayal.
Note that if Mucedorus and Lyly use this phrase deliberately, it is with supreme irony; whereas the Leicester's Ghost phrase is very obviously meant to relate to the Biblical narration, but also with ironic overtones.
Astrological signs (possible): Crab (excepting crabs as food or as part of crab-apple)
Golding Ovid Met. (II.111): [II.111): And eke the Crab that casteth forth his crooked clees awry,
(IV.768): Three times the chilling Bears, three times the Crabs fell cleas he saw:
(XV.406): Go pull away the cleas from crabs that in the Sea do breed,
Lyly Campaspe (III.5.36-37) APELLES: ... thou may'st swim against the stream with the crab,
Endymion (III.3.98) EPITON: For fish, these: crab, carp, lump, and pouting.
SAMIAS: Excellent! For of my word, she is both crabbish, lumpish, and carping.
MB (III.4) LUCIO: It was crabs she stamped, and stole away one to make her a face.
Shakes: The word, or idea of a crab, is almost obsessively interesting to Shakespeare. The word evokes both the astrological sign of Cancer (June 21-July 22) and a mental image. Whether Shakespeare's interest centered on both ideas or on the mental image only is unknown. A study of the astrological signs of Elizabethan courtiers would be interesting in this context, as certain other signs also seem to convey a special meaning to Shakespeare. i.e., would acquaintances, members of the court, be a Cancer?
TGV (II.3) LAUNCE: ... I think crab, my dog, be the sourest-natured
LAUNCE: Why, he that's tied here, crab, my dog.
(IV.4) LAUNCE ... I, having been acquainted with the smell before knew it was crab, and goes me to the fellow that ... note Crab, a very ill-bred dog, of course, is bark/barc spelled backward.
Shrew (II.1) KATHERINE: It is my fashion, when I see a crab. ...
PETRUCHIO: Why, here's no crab; and therefore look not sour. ?
LLL (IV.2) HOLOFERNES: and anon falleth like a crab on the face of terra, ...
MND (II.1) PUCK: And sometime lurk I in a gossip's bowl, / In very likeness of a roasted crab, ...
Hamlet (II.2) HAMLET [to Polonius]: for / yourself, sir, should be old as I am, if like a crab / you could go backward.
Lear (I.5) FOOL: for though she's as like this as a crab's like an ... She will taste as like this as a crab does to a ...
Anon. Nobody (1505) CLOWN: Oh rare! Now shall I find out crab, some notable knavery.
[refers to Sycophant, who crawls, both forward and backward.]
Time ... Trifle
Lyly Endymion (III.4.96) EUM: Why do I trifle the time in words?
Shakes MV (IV.1) SHYLOCK: We trifle time: I pray thee, pursue sentence.
Pericles (II.3) SIMONIDES: Come, gentlemen, we sit too long on trifles,
And waste the time, which looks for other revels.
H8 (V.3) KING HENRY: ... Come, lords, we trifle time away; ...
Brooke Romeus (52): And each with outward friendly show doth hide his inward hate,
(360): Yet with an outward show of joy she cloaked inward smart;
(1324): His outward dreary cheer bewrayd his store of inward smart.
(2315-16): That by her outward look no living wight could guess
Her inward woe, and yet anew renewed is her distress.
(2893-94): My conscience inwardly should more torment me thrice,
Than all the outward deadly pain that all you could devise.
Golding Abraham (648) SARA: Both outwardly and inwardly alway,
Lyly Gallathea (V.2) HAEBE: your inward thoughts, the pomp of your outward shows.
Endy (IV.1) COR: the extremities of their inward passions are always suspected of outward perjuries.
(IV.3) TELLUS: not smother the inward fire but it must needs be perceived by the outward smoke;
Sapho (Pro.): Our intent was at this time to move inward delight, not outward lightness;
Marlowe T1 (I.2.163) TAMB: If outward habit judge the inward man.;
Shakes Rich3 (I.4) BRAK: An outward honour for an inward toil;
King John (I.1) BASTARD: Exterior form, outward accouterment,
But from the inward motion to deliver
Pericles (II.2) SIM: The outward habit by the inward man.
A&C (III.13) ENO: A parcel of their fortunes; and things outward
Do draw the inward quality after them,
V&A (71): Had I no eyes but ears, my ears would love / That inward beauty and invisible;
Or were I deaf, thy outward parts would move ...
Lucrece (13): Whose inward ill no outward harm express'd:
(221) With outward honesty, but yet defiled / With inward vice: as Priam him did cherish,
Sonnet (16): Neither in inward worth nor outward fair,
Sonnet (46): As thus; mine eye's due is thy outward part,
And my heart's right thy inward love of heart.
Anon. Ironside (I.3.45) EDM: thank not thy outward foe but inward friend;
Dodypoll (V.2): Of outward show doth sap the inward stock in substance and of worth ...
L Gh. (364-65): To entertain all men (to outward show)
With inward love, for few my heart did know,
Geneva Bible 1 Sam. 16.7 For God seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord beholdeth the heart.
2 Sam.Arg ... who came of David according to the flesh, and was persecuted on every side with outward and inward enemies ...
Pinch him, pinch him
Lyly Endymion (IV.3.31) FAIRIES [dancing around Corsites]:
ALL: Pinch him, pinch him, black and blue.
Saucy mortals must not view
What the Queen of Stars is doing,
Nor pry into our Fairy wooing.
1 FAIRY: Pinch him blue
2 FAIRY: And pinch him black.
3 FAIRY: Let him not lack
Sharp nails to pinch him blue and red,
Till sleep has rocked his addle-head.
4 FAIRY: For the trespass he hath done,
Spots o'er all his flesh shall run.
Kiss Endymion, kiss his eyes;
Then to our midnight hay-de-guise.
Shakes MWW (V.5.92): FAIRIES [Dancing around the sleeping Falstaff]:
Fie on sinful fantasy!
Fie on lust and luxury!
Lust is but a bloody fire,
Kindled with unchaste desire,
Fed in heart, whose flames aspire,
As thoughts do blow them, higher and higher.
Pinch him, fairies, mutually.
Pinch him for his villainy.
Pinch him, and burn him, and turn him about,
Till candles and starlight and moonshine be out.
Honey ... Surfeit
Lyly Sapho (Pro.): and in Hybla (being cloyed with honey) they account it dainty to feed on wax.
Endymion (V.1.143) ENDY: for bees surfeit sometimes with honey and the gods are glutted ...
Shakes 1H4 (3.2.71-73): They surfeited with honey and began
To loathe the taste of sweetness, whereof a little / More than a little is by much too much.
Anon Ironside (V.2.253-59) CANUTUS: How pleasant are these speeches to my ears,
Aeolian music to my dancing heart, / Ambrosian dainties to my starved maw,
sweet-passing Nectar to my thirsty throat, / rare cullises to my sick-glutted mind,
refreshing ointments to my wearied limbs, / and heavenly physic to my earth-sick soul,
which erst was surfeited with woe and war.
Geneva Bible Prov. 25.16 ... eat (honey) that is sufficient for thee, lest thou be over-full, and vomit it.
Legal term: Trial of faith
Lyly Endymion (V.3.205-06) CYNTHIA: are you content after so long trial of his faith,
Woman/Moon (II.1.146) PANDORA: Yet will I make some trial of your faith
(III.1.74) STESIAS: And blessed thou, that having tried my faith,
Anon. Willobie (XXXVIII.2): But rather take a farther day, / For further trial of my faith,
And rather make some wise delay / To see and take some farther breath;
He may too rashly be denied, / Whose faithful heart was never tried.
(XL.11): Lest tried faith for ten years' space,
(XLV.4): If I a friend, whose faith is tried,
Geneva Bible Rev. 2.10 ... the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried, and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto the death, and I will give thee the crown of life. . 1 Pet. 1.7 That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than gold that perisheth (though it be tried with fire) might be found unto your praise, & honor and glory at the appearing of Jesus Christ. Heb. 11.17 By faith Abraham offered up Isaac, when he was tried, ... James 1.3 Knowing that the trying of your faith bringeth forth patience.
Golding Ovid (Ep. 338-341): And yet there are (and those not of the rude and vulgar sort,
But such as have of godliness and learning good report)
That think the Poets took their first occasion of these things
From holy writ as from the well from whence all wisdom springs.
Watson Hek (Comments, #LXI): That the vulgar sort may the better
understand this Passion, I will briefly touch those, whom the Author / nameth herein, ...
Gascoigne ... Jocasta (I.1.487) CHORUS: The vulgar sort would seem for to prefer,
If glorious PhÏbe withhold his glistring rays, / From such a peer as crown and scepter sways,
Lyly Endymion (I.3.72-73) TOPHAS: Here is the musket for the untamed
or (as the vulgar sort term it) the wild mallard.
Shakes 1H6 (III.2) JOAN: These are the city gates, the gates of Rouen,
Through which our policy must make a breach: / Take heed, be wary how you place your words;
Talk like the vulgar sort of market men / That come to gather money for their corn.
Nashe Pierce Penniless: Thus I answer First and foremost, they have cleansed our language from barbarism and made the vulgar sort here in London (which is the fountain whose rivers flow round about England) to aspire to a richer purity of speech, than is communicated with the Commonality of any Nation under heaven.
Anon. Willobie (VIII.6) Let not the idle vulgar voice / Of feigned credit witch thee so.
Oldcastle (I.1.112) JUDGE: When the vulgar sort
Sit on their Ale-bench, with their cups and ...
Leic Gh (829-833): But flattering parasites are grown so bold
That they of princes' matters make a sport / To please the humors of the vulgar sort,
And that poor peevish giddy headed crew, / Are prone to credit any tale untrue.
Note: Shakespeare himself was one of the 'vulgar sort,' or market men, that come to gather money for their corn; and a very successful one at that, reaping large profits from holding back stores of grain and then selling at a huge profit during the grain shortages of the early 1600's, while writing Coriolanus, inveighing against that very practice. Shakespeare (through denial or ignorance of his own class) gives this speech to the highly inappropriate person of Saint Joan, the last person by birth, upbringing or temperament to harbor such thoughts. In the other works shown above, the speech is assigned to an appropriate character.
Spotless ... Name
Brooke Romeus (109): Thy tears, thy wretched life, ne thine unspotted truth,
(1663): So shall no slander's blot thy spotless life destain,
Golding Ovid (XIV.750-51): ... Hail, lady mine, the flowerof pure maidenhood in all the world this hour.
Gascoigne et al Jocasta (I.1.451-52) BAILO: The voice that goeth of your unspotted fame,
Lyly Endymion (I.4) TELLUS: ... seeing my love to Endymion (unspotted) be accepted, his truth to Cynthia (though it be unspeakable) may be suspected.
Shakes Rich2 (I.1) MOWBRAY: The purest treasure mortal times afford / Is spotless reputation: ...(II.1) First Lord: Please you to accept it, that the queen is spotless(III.3.155) Good name ... / Is the immediate jewel.' the eyes of heaven and to you; I mean, / In this which you accuse her.(III.2) WOLSEY: So much fairer / And spotless shall mine innocence arise, ...(III.6.196) EMILIA: By your own spotless honor?
Munday Huntington (XI.67-68) ROBIN: Why? She is called Maid Marian, honest friend,
she lives a spotless maiden life,
Anon. Ironside (II.3.775) EDRICUS: But as for this flea-spot of dishonor,
(IV.1.1282) EDMUND: that you were doubtful of my spotless truth(gentle/courteous ...):
The glory and praise that commends a spotless life
... she stands unspotted and unconqueredEmet (commendation of ... ):
The glory of your Princely sex, the spotless name:
(I.4): Afflicted Susan's spotless thought;
(I.24): And yet she holds a spotless fame.
(XXXV.5): With spotless fame that I have held, (LIV.2): A spotless name is more to me,(XIII.3): Shall hateful slander spot my name?
Geneva Bible Ecclus 41.12 Have regard to thy name; for that shall continue with thee above a thousand treasures of gold. Prov. 22.1 A good name is to be chosen above great riches ... 1 Peter 1.19 But as the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb, / undefiled and without spot
Shadow ... Substance
Plato 'Fable of the Cave' (The men at the back of the cave, see only shadows and think they are real)
Oxford (to Burghley) and Queen Elizabeth (to James I and VI) use the 'Neo-Platonic ' reference in their letters. James I (and VI) Neo-Platonism was a major influence on 16th c. thought.
Oxford letter July 1581 to Lord Burghley (#18): But the world is so cunning, as of a shadow they can make a substance, and of a likelihood a truth.
Lyly Campaspe (IV.4) APELLES: will cause me to embrace thy shadow continually in mine arms, of the which by strong imagination I will make a substance.
Gallathea (III.4) DIANA: embrace clouds for Juno, the shadows of virtue instead of the substance.
Sapho (I.184.108.40.206) MOLUS: raw wordlings in matters of substance, passing wranglers about shadows.
Endymion (V.3.275-76) DIPSAS: I renounce both substance and shadow of that most horrible and hateful trade,
Woman/Moon (Pro.12-23) This, but the shadow of our author's dream,
Argues the substance to be near at hand;
Greene Geo a Greene (III.2.119-20) GEORGE: Is this my love? Or is it but a shadow.
JENKIN: Aye, this is the shadow, but here is the substance.
Fr Bac (II.3.129) PRINCE. Made me think the shadows substances.note: within the looking glass: shown in the looking glass (a tool of necromancy) is a reflection of reality but also a warning or prophecy, that Bacon can then try to alter. Richard II deals extensively with this mirror/reality image, especially in a magnificent soliloquy by Richard. The sonnets also dwell on this as aspect of perception, as do many other works by Shakespeare.
Shakes 2H6 (I.1) SUFFOLK: To your most gracious hands, that are the substance
Of that great shadow I did represent;
MV (III.2) BASSANIO: Yet look, how far / The substance of my praise doth wrong this shadow
In underprizing it, so far this shadow / Doth limp behind the substance. ...
Rich2 (II.2.14-15) BUSHY: Each substance of a grief hath twenty shadows,
Which shows like grief itself, but is not so;
(IV.1.298-304) RICHARD: Say that again.
The shadow of my sorrow! ha! let's see: / 'Tis very true, my grief lies all within;
And these external manners of laments / Are merely shadows to the unseen grief
That swells with silence in the tortured soul; / There lies the substance:
MWW (II.2) FORD: 'Love like a shadow flies when substance love pursues;
Sonnet 37: Whilst that this shadow doth such substance give
That I in thy abundance am sufficed / And by a part of all thy glory live.
Nashe Absurdity: Young men are not so much delighted with solid substances as with painted shadows,
Anon. Nobody (560) LADY: She's shadow;
We the true substance are: follow her those / That to our greatness dare themselves oppose.
L Gh (132-33): Under the shadow of my countenance;
The substance of the earth did make them rich;
(1529): No shadow, but the substance we embrace.
Bible: possible origin: The thoughts expressed above, with use of the word 'shadow' are rife in the Bible but certainly could not be attributed to any particular quotation. A very close analogy to MV and MWW, for instance, can be found in Ecclus 34.2 Who so regardeth dreams, is like him that will take hold of a shadow, and follow after the wind.
Weigh ... Balance, Death, Scales
Brooke Romeus: (524-25): For pity and for dread well nigh to yield up breath.
In even balance paced are my life and eke my death,
Lyly Endymion (V.3.184-85) ENDY: Cynthia, into whose hands the balance that weigheth time and fortune are committed.
Midas (I.1) MELLA: The balance she holdeth are not to weigh the right of the cause, but the weight of the bribe.
Love's Met. (III.2): make amends I cannot, for the gods holding the balance / in their hands,
what recompense can equally weigh with their punishments?
Marlowe T1 (V.1.41-42) GOVERNOR: Your honors, liberties and lives were weighed
In equal care and balance with our own,
Shakes Rich3 (V.3): And weigh thee down to ruin, shame, and death!
Corio (I.6): If any think brave death outweighs bad life
2H6 (II.2.200-201): in justice equal scales, ... whose rightful cause
Similar phrases in TA; John; MND (3.2.131-33), Ado; 2H4; Ham; AWEW; MM
Greene Fr Bac. (III.1.95-98) MARG: ... that Margaret's love
Hangs in th'uncertain balance of proud time; / That death shall make a discord of our thoughts?
Nashe Summers (40): Their censures we weigh not, whose / senses are not yet unswaddled.
(388-93): I like thy moderation wondrous well;
And this thy balance, weighing the white glass
And black with equal poise and steadfast hand,
A pattern is to Princes and great men, / How to weigh all estates indifferently.
Oxford Letter (July 1600, to Rbt. Cecil): ... ought in equal balance, to weigh lighter than myself .
Anon. Willobie (VIII.8): I weigh not death, I fear not hell,
Geneva Bible Job 31.6 Let God weigh me in the just balance
APPENDIX III: Vocabulary, Word Formation
Compound Words: (*surely unusual): 27 words (15 nouns, 11 adj, 1 inter).
addle-head (n), base-conceited (a), beard-brush (n), bird-bolt (n), bow-wow (inter), brawn-fallen (a), chicken-peeper (n), ever-lasting (a), eye-worm (n), half-friends (n), hay-de-guise (n), heart-i-chokes (n), love-lap* (n), lady-longings* (n), love-mongers* (n), maid-in-waiting (n), never-decaying (a), never-dying (a), not-to-be-expressed (a), old-said (a), one-and-twenty (a), over-wise (a), plum-porridge (n), rabbit-sucker (n), rough-hewn (a), twelve-month (n), wished-for (a)
Words beginning with 'con': 36 words (16 verbs, 16 nouns, 5 adj, 1 adv).
conceal (v), conceit (n), conceited (a), conceive (v), conclude (v), conclusion (n), conditions (n), confess (v), conflict (n), confound (v), conquer (v), conquest (n), conscience (n), consent (n), consider (v), consist (v), conspire (v), constable (n), constancy (n), constant (a), construction (n), consume (v), contain (v), contemned (v), contemplation (n), contempt (n), contend (v), content (v, n, a), contention (n), contentment (n), continual (a), continually (adv), continue (v), contraction (n), contrary (a), convey (v)
Words beginning with 'dis': 23 words (11 verbs, 9 nouns, 5 adj)
disagreeing (v), discern (v), discontent (v), discontented (a), discontentment (n), discourse (n, v), discover (v), discretion (n), disdain (v, n), disdainful (a), disease (n), disgest (v), disgrace (n), disordered (a), dispatch (v), displeasure (n), dispute (v), dissemble (v), dissembling (n), dissolute (a), dissolve (v), distempered (a), distress (n)
Words beginning with 'mis': 9 words (2 verbs, 5 nouns, 2 adj).mischief (n), mischievous (a), miserable (a), misery (n), mishap (n), misrule (n), mistake (v), mistress (n), mistrust (v)
Words beginning with 'over': 7 words (5 verbs, 1 noun, 1 adj).
overcome (v), overflow (v), overslept (v), overtake (v), overthrow (v), overthwarts (n), over-wise (a)
Words beginning with 'pre': 11 words.(7 verbs, 2 noun, 1 adj, 1 adv).
prefer (v), preferment (n), prepare (v), presence (n), present (v), presently (adv), preserve (v), presume (v), presumptuous (a), prevail (v), prevent (v)
Words beginning with 're': 47 words (34 verbs, 15 nouns, 1 adj).
recall (v), receive (v), recite (v), recover (v), recoverable (a), recure (n), redeem (v), reduce (v), refine (v), reform (v), refrain (v), refuse (v), regard (v), rehearse (v), reject (v), rejoice (v), relate (v), release (v), relish (n), remain (v), remedy (n), remember (v), remembrance (n), remove (v), renewing (n), renounce (v), repent (v), repetition (n), repine (v), replenish (v), report (n), request (n), require (v), resist (v), resolution (n), resolve (v), respect (v, n), restore (v), restoring (n), restrain (v), retain (v), return (v), reveal (v), revealing (n), revenge (n, v), reverence (n, v), reward (n)
Words beginning with 'un','in': 79 words 33/43/3.
(15 verbs, 11 nouns, 44 adj, 2 adv, 4 prep, 3 conj).
incantation (n), incite (v), incomparable (a), inconstant (a), increase (v), increasing (n), incredible (a), incur (v), uncurable (a), indeed (conj), indifferent (a), infected (a), infer (v), infinite (a), influence (n), ingratitude (n), inheritance (n), injure (v), injurious (a), injury (n), inordinate (a), inquire (v), inseparable (a), insomuch (conj), instant (n), instead (adv), instep (n), intended (a), interest (n), interjection (n), into (prep), intolerable (a), inward (a),
unacquainted (a), unbridled (a), uncertain (a), unconquered (a), unconstant (a), uncover (v), undo (v), unequal (a), unfaithful (a), unfit/unfitting (a), unfold (v), unfortunate (a), unhappiness (n), unhappy (a), unkind (a), unkindly (adv), unlawful (a), unless (conj), unloose (v), unmellowed (a), unmovable (a), unnatural (a), unpleasant (a), unpossible (a), unquenchable (a), unrecoverable (a), unremovable (v), unrevenged (a), unrig (v), unseemly (a), unsmoothed (a), unspeakable (a), unspotted (a), unstaunched (a), untamed (a), until (prep), unto (prep), untolerable (a), untouched (a), untruss (v), unwelcome (a), unwholesome (a), unwilling (a)
under (prep), undertook (v), understood (v)
Words ending with 'able': 23 words (1 noun, 22 adj).
admirable (a), agreeable (a), amiable (a), answerable (a), changeable (a), commendable (a), damnable (a), detestable (a), favorable (a), honorable (a), incurable (a), inseparable (a), intolerable (a), miserable (a), movable (a), notable (a), syllable (n), unmovable (a), unquenchable (a), unrecoverable (a), unremovable (a), unspeakable (a), untolerable (a)
Words ending with 'less': 7 words (6 adj, 1 conj).
blameless (a), careless (a), harmless (a), matchless (s), senseless (a), toothless (a), unless (conj)
Words ending with 'ness' (*surely unusual): 47 words (47 nouns).
amiableness (n), bigness (a), bitterness (n), brightness (n), coyness (n), darkness (n), fairness (n), falseness (n), fullness (n), goodness (n), greatness (n), grossness (n), hardness (n), heaviness (n), highness (n), lightness (n), litherness* (n), looseness (n), madness (n), meanness (n), mildness (n), numbness (n), paleness (n), quickness (n), readiness (n), redness (n), sickness (n), simpleness (n), slackness (n), smoothness (n), softness (n), sourness (n), stiffness (n), strangeness (n), sweetness (n), tediousness (n), thickness (n), thinness (n), weakness (n), weariness (n), wickedness (n), strangeness (n), sweetness (n), tediousness* (n), unhappiness (n), wickedness (n), witness (n)
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