Pre-Shakespeare Works: Court Tragi-comedy

Damon and Pithias
Part 3, Glossary & Appendices

transcription by B.F. copyright © 2002



[Here entereth Carisophus and Aristippus.]

CARISOPHUS: If ever you will show your friendship, now is the time. ...<1375>
Seeing the king is displeased with me of my part without any crime.

ARISTIPPUS: It should appear it comes of some evil behavior
That you so suddenly are cast out of favor.

CARISOPHUS: Nothing have I done but this: in talk I over-thwarted Eubulus
When he lamented Pithias' case to King Dionysius, ... [1380]
Which tomorrow shall die, but for that false knave Damon,
He hath left his friend in the briars, and now is gone.
We grew so hot in talk that Eubulus protested plainly,
Which held his ears open to parasitical flattery.
And now in the king's ear like a bell he rings,
Crying that flatterers have been the destroyers of kings.
Which talk in Dionysius' heart hath made so deep impression
That he trusteth me not, as heretofore, in no condition;
And some words brake from him, as though that he
Began to suspect my truth and honesty.
Which you of friendship I know will defend, howsoever the world goeth. ... [1390]
My friend, for my honesty will you not take an oath?

ARISTIPPUS: To swear for your honesty I should lose mine own.

CARISOPHUS: Should you so, indeed? I would that were known
Is your void friendship come thus to pass?

ARISTIPPUS: I follow the proverb: Amicus usque ad aras.

CARISOPHUS: Where can you say I ever lost mine honesty?

ARISTIPPUS: You never lost it, for you never had it, as far as I know.

CARISOPHUS: Say you so, friend Aristippus, whom I trust so well?

ARISTIPPUS: Because you trust me, to you the truth I tell. ... [1400]

CARISOPHUS: Will you not stretch one point to bring me in favor again?

ARISTIPPUS: I love no stretching; so may I breed mine own pain.

CARISOPHUS: A friend ought to shun no pain to stand his friend in stead.

ARISTIPPUS: Where true friendship is, it is so in very deed.

CARISOPHUS: Why, sir, hath not the chain of true friendship linked us two together?

ARISTIPPUS: The chiefest link lacked thereof; it must needs dissever.

CARISOPHUS: What link is that? Fain would I know.

ARISTIPPUS: Honesty.

CARISOPHUS: Doth honesty knit the perfect knot in true friendship?

ARISTIPPUS: Yea, truly; and that knot so knit will never slip. ... [1410]

CARISOPHUS: Belike, then, there is no friendship but between honest men.

ARISTIPPUS: Between the honest only; for Amicitia inter bonos, saith a learned man.

CARISOPHUS: Yet evil men use friendship to things unhonest, where fancy doth serve.

ARISTIPPUS: That is no friendship, but a lewd liking; it lasts but a while.

CARISOPHUS: What is the perfectest friendship among men that ever grew?

ARISTIPPUS: Where men love one another not for profit but for virtue.

CARISOPHUS: Are such friends both alike in joy and also in smart?

ARISTIPPUS: They must needs; for in two bodies thy have but one heart.

CARISOPHUS: Friend Aristippus, deceive me not with sophistry.
Is there no perfect friendship but where is virtue and honesty? ... [1420]

ARISTIPPUS: What a devil then meant Carisophus
To join in friendship with fine Aristippus?
In whom is as much virtue, truth, and honesty
As there are true feathers in the Three Cranes of the Vintree.
Yet these feathers have the shadow of lively feathers, the truth to scan,
But Carisophus hath not the shadow of an honest man.
To be plain, because I know thy villainy
In abusing Dionysius to many men's injury,
Under the cloak of friendship I play'd with his head,
And sought means how thou with thine own fancy might be led. ... [1430]
My friendship thou soughtest for thine own commodity,
As worldly men do, by profit-measuring amity;
Which I perceiving, to the like myself I framed,
Wherein I know of the wise I shall not be blamed.
If you ask me, Quare? I answer, Quia prudentis est multum dissimulare.
To speak more plainer, as the proverb doth go,
In faith, Carisophus, cum Cretense cretiso.
Yet a perfect friend I show myself to thee in one thing:
I do not dissemble now I say I will not speak for thee to the king.
Therefore sink in thy sorrow! I do not deceive thee; ... [1440]
A false knave I found thee, a false knave I leave thee! [Exit.]

CARISOPHUS: He is gone! Is this friendship, to leave his friend in the plain field?
Well, I see now I myself have beguiled
In matching with that false fox in amity,
Which hath me used to his own commodity,
Which seeing me in distress, unfeignedly goes his ways.
Lo, this is the perfect friendship among men now-a-days!
Which kind of friendship toward him I used secretly;
And he with me the like hath requited me craftily.
It is the gods' judgment, I see it plainly; ... [1450]
For all the world may know, Incide in foveam quam feci.
Well, I must content myself. None other help I know,
Until a merrier gale of wind may hap to blow. [Exit.]

[Enter Eubulus.]

EUBULUS: Who deals with kings in matters of great weight,
When froward will doth bear the chiefest sway,
Must yield of force. There need no subtle sleight,
Ne painted speech the matter to convey.
No prayer can move when kindled is the ire;
The more ye quench, the more increased is the fire.
This thing I prove in Pithias' woeful case, ... [1460]
Whose heavy hap with tears I do lament.
The day is come when he, in Damon's place,
Must lose his life; the time is fully spent.
Nought can my words now with the king prevail;
Against the wind and striving stream I sail --
For die thou must, alas, thou seely Greek.
Ah Pithias, now come is thy doleful hour!
A perfect friend: none such, a world to seek!
Though bitter death shall give thee sauce full sour,
Yet for thy faith enroll'd shall be thy name ... [1470]
Among the gods within the book of fame.
Who knoweth his case and will not melt in tears?
His guiltless blood shall trickle down anon.

[Then the Muses sing.]
Alas, what hap hast thou, poor Pithias, now to die!
Woe worth the man which for his death hath given us cause to cry!

EUBULUS: Methink I hear, with yellow rented hairs,
The Muses frame their notes my state to moan.
Among which sort, as one that mourneth with heart,
In doleful tunes myself will bear a part.

MUSES: Woe worth the man which for his death, &c. ... [1480]

EUBULUS: With yellow rented hairs, come on, you Muses nine!
Fill now my breast with heavy tunes; to me your plaint resign;
For Pithias I bewail, which presently must die.
Woe worth the man which for his death hath given us cause, &c.

MUSES: Woe worth the man which for his, &c.

EUBULUS: Was ever such a man, that would die for his friend?
I think even from the heavens above the gods did him down send
To show true friendship's power, which forc'd thee now to die.
Woe worth the man which for thy death, &c. ... [1490]

MUSES: Woe worth the man, &c.

EUBULUS: What tiger's whelp was he that Damon did accuse!
What faith hast thou, which for thy friend thy death doth not refuse!
O heavy hap hadst thou to play this tragedy!
Woe worth the man which for thy death, &c.

MUSES: Woe worth the man, &c.

EUBULUS: Thou young and worthy Greek, that showeth such perfect love,
The gods receive thy simple ghost into the heavens above!
Thy death we shall lament with many a weeping eye.
Woe worth the man, which for his death, &c.

MUSES: Woe worth the man, which for thy death has given us cause to cry. ... [1500]
[Finis song.]

EUBULUS: Eternal be your fame, ye Muses, for that in misery
Ye did vouchsafe to strain your notes to walk.
My heart is rent in two with this miserable case;
Yet am I charged by Dionysius' mouth to see this place
As all points ready for the execution of Pithias.
Need hath no law; will I or nill I, it must be done.
But lo, the bloody minister is even here at hand.

[Enter Gronno.]

Gronno, I came hither now to understand,
If all things are well appointed for the execution of Pithias.
The king himself will see it done here in this place. ... [1510]

GRONNO: Sir, all things are ready. Here is the place, here is the hand, here is the sword!
Here lacketh none but Pithias, whose head at a word,
If he were present, I could finely strike off!
You may report that all things are ready.

EUBULUS: I go with an heavy heart to report it. Ah, woeful Pithias!
Full near now is thy misery. [Exit.]

GRONNO: I marvel very much under what constellation
All hangmen are born; for they are hated of all, beloved of none.
Which hatred is showed by this point evidently:
The hangman always dwells in the vilest place of the city. ... [1520]
That such spite should be, I know no cause why,
Unless it be for their office's sake, which is cruel and bloody.
Yet some men must do it to execute laws.
Methink they hate me without any just cause.
But I must look to my toil. Pithias must lose his head at one blow,
Else the boys will stone me to death in the street as I go.
But hark, the prisoner cometh, and the king also.
I see there is no help, Pithias his life must forego.

[Here entereth Dionysius and Eubulus, with courtiers and others.]

DIONYSIUS: Bring forth Pithias, that pleasant companion,
Which took me at my word, and became pledge for Damon. ... [1530]
It pricketh fast upon noon. I do him no injury
If now he lose his head, for so he requested me,
If Damon return not -- which now in Greece is full merry.
Therefore shall Pithias pay his death, and that by and by,
He thought, belike, if Damon were out of the city
I would not put him to death for some foolish pity:
But seeing it was his request, I will not be mock'd. He shall die!
Bring him forth.

[Here entereth Snap, leading in Pithias, Stephano accompanying him.]

SNAP: Give place! Let the prisoner come by! Give place!

DIONYSIUS: How say you, sir? Where is Damon, your trusty friend? ... [1540]
You have play'd a wise part, I make God a vow!
You know what time a day it is; make you ready.

PITHIAS: Most ready I am, mighty king, and most ready also
For my true friend Damon this life to forego,
Even at your pleasure.

DIONYSIUS: A true friend! A false traitor that so breaketh his oath!
Thou shalt lose thy life, though thou be never so loath.

PITHIAS: I am not loath to do whatsoever I said,
Ne at this present pinch of death am I dismay'd.
The gods now I know have heard my fervent prayer, ... [1550]
That they have reserved me to this passing great honor
To die for my friend, whose faith even now I do not mistrust.
My friend Damon is no false traitor; he is true and just.
But sith he is no god, but a man, he must do as he may;
The wind may be contrary, sickness may let him, or some misadventure by the way --
Which the eternal gods turn all to my glory,
That fame may resound how Pithias for Damon did die.
He breaketh no oath which doth as much as he can.
His mind is here; he hath some let; he is but a man.
That he might not return, of all the gods I did require, ... [1560]
Which now to my joy do grant my desire.
But why do I stay any longer, seeing that one man's death
May suffice, O king, to pacify thy wrath?
[Turning to Gronno.]
O thou minister of justice, do thine office by and by.
Let not thy hand tremble, for I tremble not to die.
Stephano, the right pattern of true fidelity,
Commend me to thy master, my sweet Damon! And of him crave liberty
When I am dead, in my name; for thy trusty services
Hath well deserved a gift far better than this.
O my Damon, farewell now forever! A true friend to me most dear! ... [1570]
Whiles life doth last, my mouth shall still talk of thee;
And when I am dead, my simple ghost, true witness of amity,
Shall hover about the place, wheresoever thou be.

DIONYSIUS: Eubulus, this gear is strange! And yet, because
Damon hath fals'd his faith, Pithias shall have the law.
Gronno, despoil him, and eke dispatch him quickly.

GRONNO: It shall be done. Since you came into this place
I might have stroken off seven heads in this space.
[Gronno takes off Pithias' outer garments.]
By'r Lady, here are good garments! These are mine, by the rood!
It is an evil wind that bloweth no man good. ... [1580]
Now, Pithias, kneel down, ask me blessing like a pretty boy,
And with a trice thy head from thy shoulders I will convey.

[Pithias kneels, and Gronno lifts his sword to strike.]

[Here entereth Damon running, and stays the sword.]

DAMON: Stay! Stay! Stay! For the king's advantage, stay!
O mighty king, mine appointed time is not yet fully passed;
Within the compass of mine hour, lo, here I come at last.
A life I owe, I life I will you pay.
O my Pithias, my noble pledge, my constant friend!
Ah, woe is me! For Damon's sake how near were thou to thy end!
Give place to me; this room is mine; on this stage must I play.
Damon is the man, none ought but he to Dionysius his blood to pay. ... [1590]

GRONNO: Are you come, sir? You might have tarried, if you had been wise.
For your hasty coming you are like to know the price.

PITHIAS: O thou cruel minister, why didst not thou thine office?
Did I not bid thee make haste in any wise?
Hast thou spared to kill me once, that I may die twice?
Not to die for my friend is present death to me; and alas!
Shall I see my sweet Damon slain before my face?
What double death is this! But, O mighty Dionysius,
Do true justice now; weigh this aright, thou noble Eubulus;
Let me have no wrong. As now stands the case, ... [1600]
Damon ought not to die, but Pithias;
By misadventure -- not by his will -- his hour is past; therefore I,
Because he came not at his just time, ought justly to die.
So was my promise, so was thy promise, O king.
All this court can bear witness of this thing.

DAMON: Not so, O mighty king! To justice it is contrary
That for another man's fault the innocent should die:
Ne yet is my time plainly expired; it is not fully noon
Of this my day appointed, by all the clocks in the town.

PITHIAS: Believe no clock; the hour is past by the sun. ... [1610]

DAMON: Ah my Pithias, shall we now break the bonds of amity?
Will you now over-thwart me, which heretofore so well did agree?

PITHIAS: My Damon, the gods forbid but we should agree!
Therefore agree to this -- let me perform the promise I made for thee.
Let me die for thee; do me not that injury
Both to break my promise and to suffer me to see thee die,
Whom so dearly I love. This small request grant me;
I shall never ask thee more; my desire is but friendly.
Do me this honor, that fame may report triumphantly
That Pithias for his friend Damon was contented to die. ... [1620]

DAMON: That you were contented for me to die, fame cannot deny;
Yet fame shall never touch me with such a villainy
To report that Damon did suffer his friend Pithias for him guiltless to die.
Therefore content thyself; the gods requite thy constant faith.
None but Damon's blood can appease Dionysius' wrath.
And now, O mighty king, to you my talk I convey.
Because you gave me leave my worldly things to stay,
To requite that good turn, ere I die, for your behalf this I say:
Although your regal state dame Fortune decketh so
That like a king in worldly wealth abundantly ye flow, ... [1630]
Yet fickle is the ground whereon all tyrants tread!
A thousand sundry cares and fears do haunt their restless head!
No trusty band, no faithful friends do guard thy hateful state.
And why? Whom men obey for deadly fear, sure them they deadly hate.
That you may safely reign, by love get friends, whose constant faith
Will never fail. This counsel gives poor Damon at his death.
Friends are the surest guard for kings. Gold in time do[es] wear away,
And other precious things do fade; friendship will never decay.
Have friends in store, therefore; so shalt you safely sleep;
Have friends at home, of foreign foes so need you take no keep. ... [1640]
Abandon flatt'ring tongues, whose clacks truth never tells;
Abase the ill, advance the good, in whom dame virtue dwells;
Let them your playfellows be. But, O you earthly kings,
Your sure defense and strongest guard stands chiefly in faithful friends!
Then get you friends by liberal deeds. And here I make an end.
Accept this counsel, mighty king, of Damon, Pithias' friend.
O my Pithias! Now farewell forever! Let me kiss thee, ere I die.
My soul shall honor thee; thy constant faith above the heavens shall fly.
[He divests himself, and kneels on the place of execution.]
Come, Gronno, do thine office now. Why is thy color so dead?
My neck is so short that thou wilt never have honesty in striking off this head? ... [1650]

DIONYSIUS: Eubulus, my spirits are suddenly appalled; my limbs wax weak!
This strange friendship amazeth me so that I can scarce speak.

PITHIAS: O mighty king, let some pity your noble heart move.
You require but one man's death; take Pithias, let Damon live.

EUBULUS: O unspeakable friendship!

DAMON: Not so. He hath not offended. There is no cause why
My constant friend, my Pithias, for Damon's sake should die.
Alas, he is but young; he may do good to many.
Thou coward minister, why dost thou not let me die?

GRONNO: My hand with sudden fear quivereth. ... [1660]

PITHIAS: O noble king, show mercy upon Damon; let Pithias die.

DIONYSIUS: Stay, Gronno! My flesh trembleth. Eubulus, what shall I do?
Were there ever such friends on earth as were these two?
What heart is so cruel that would divide them asunder?
O noble friendship, I must yield! At thy force I wonder.
My heart this rare friendship hath pierc'd to the root,
And quenched all my fury. This sight hath brought this about,
Which thy grave counsel, Eubulus, and learned persuasion could never do.
[To Dam. and Pith.] O noble gentlemen, the immortal gods above
Hath made you play this tragedy, I think, for my behoof. ... [1670]
Before this day I never knew what perfect friendship meant;
My cruel mind to bloody deeds was full and wholly bent;
My fearful life I thought with terror to defend.
But now I see there is no guard unto a faithful friend,
Which will not spare his life at time of present need.
O happy kings, who in your courts have two such friends indeed!
I honor friendship now; which that you may plainly see,
Damon, have thou thy life; from death I pardon thee.
For which good turn, I crave, this honor do me lend:
O friendly heart, let me link with you! To you make me the third friend! ... [1680]
My court is yours; dwell here with me. By my commission large
Myself, my realm, my wealth, my health, I commit to your charge.
Make me a third friend. More shall I joy in that thing,
Than to be called, as I am, Dionysius the mighty king.

DAMON: O mighty king, first for my life most humble thanks I give;
And next, I praise the immortal gods that did your heart so meve
That you would have respect to friendship's heavenly lore,
Foreseeing well he need not fear which hath true friends in store.
For my part, most noble king, as a third friend welcome to our friendly society.
But you must forget you are a king, for friendship stands in true equality. ... [1690]

DIONYSIUS: Unequal though I be in great possessions,
Yet full equal shall you find me in my changed conditions.
Tyranny, flattery, oppression, lo, here I cast away;
Justice, truth, love, friendship, shall be my joy.
True friendship will I honor unto my life's end;
My greatest glory shall be to be counted a perfect friend.

PITHIAS: For this your deed, most noble king, the gods advance your name.
And since to friendship's lore you list your princely heart to frame,
With joyful heart, O king, most welcome now to me!
With you will I knit the perfect knot of amity; ... [1700]
Wherein I shall instruct you so, and Damon here your friend,
That you may know of amity the mighty force, and eke the joyful end,
And how that kings do stand upon a fickle ground
Within whose realm at time of need no faithful friends are found.

DIONYSIUS: Your instructions will I follow; to you myself I do commit.
Eubulus, make hast to fet new apparel, fit
For my new friends.

EUBULUS: I go with joyful heart. O happy day! [Exit.]

GRONNO: I am glad to hear this word. Though their lives they do not lese.
It is no reason the hangman should lose his fees. ... [1710]
These are mine, I am gone with a trice.

[Exit Gronno, with discarded garments of Damon and Pithias.]
[Here entereth Eubulus with new garments.]

DIONYSIUS: Put on these garments now. Go in with me, the jewels of
my court.

DAMON and PITHIAS: We go with joyful hearts.

STEPHANO: O Damon, my dear master, in all the joy remember me.

DIONYSIUS: My friend Damon, he asketh reason.

DAMON: Stephano, for thy good service be thou free.

[Exit Dionysius, and the rest. Stephano remains.]

STEPHANO: O most happy, pleasant, joyful, and triumphant day!
Poor Stephano now shall live in continual play.
Vive le roy, with Damon and Pithias, in perfect amity!
Vive tu, Stephano, in thy pleasant liberality!, ... [1720]
Wherein I joy as much as he that hath a conquest won.
I am a free man! None so merry as I now under the sun.
Farewell, my lords! Now the gods grant you all the sum of perfect amity,
And me long to enjoy my long-desired liberty. [Exit.]

[Here entereth Eubulus beating Carisophus.]

EUBULUS: Away, villain! Away, you flatt'ring parasite!
Away, the plague of this court! Thy filed tongue that forged lies
No more here shall do hurt. Away, false sycophant! Wilt thou not?

CARISOPHUS: I am gone, sir, seeing it is the king's pleasure.
Why whip ye me alone? A plague take Damon and Pithias! Since they came hither
I am driven to seek relief abroad, alas! I know not whither. ... [1730
Yet Eubulus, though I be gone, hereafter time shall try,
There shall be found, even in this court, as great flatterers as I.
Well, for a while I will forego the court, though to my great pain.
I doubt not but to spy a time when I may creep in again. [Exit.]

EUBULUS: The serpent that eats men alive -- flattery -- with all her brood,
Is whipped away in princes' courts, which yet did never good.
What force, what mighty power true friendship may possess,
To all the world Dionysius' court now plainly doth express;
Who, since to faithful friends he gave his willing ear,
Most safely sitteth in his seat, and sleeps devoid of fear. ... [1740]
Purged is the court of vice since friendship entered in.
Tyranny quails; he studieth now with love each heart to win;
Virtue is had in price, and hath his just reward;
And painted speech, that glozeth for gain, from gifts is quite debarred.
One loveth another now for virtue, not for gain.
Where virtue doth not knit the knot, there friendship cannot reign;
Without the which no house, no land, no kingdom can endure;
As necessary for man's life as water, air, and fire;
Which frameth the mind of man all honest things to do
Unhonest things friendship ne craveth, ne yet consents thereto. ... [1750]
In wealth a double joy, in woe a present stay,
A sweet companion in each state true friendship is alway;
A sure defense for kings; a perfect trusty band;
A force to assail, a shield to defend the enemies' cruel hand;
A rare and yet the greatest gift that God can give to man --
So rare, that scarce four couple of faithful friends have been since the world began.
A gift so strange, and of such price, I wish all kings to have.
But chiefly yet, as duty bindeth, I humbly crave
True friendship and true friends, full fraught with constant faith,
The giver of friends, the Lord, grant her, most noble Queen Elizabeth! ... [1760]

FINIS
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

The Last Song (possibly added and/or sung by the players)

The strongest guard the kings can have
Are constant friends their state to save.
True friends are constant both in word and deed;
True friends are present, and help at each need;
True friends talk truly, they gloze for no gain;
When treasure consumeth, true friends will remain;
True friends for their true prince refuseth not their death.
The Lord grant her such friends, most noble Queen Elizabeth!
Long may she govern in honor and wealth,
Void of all sickness, in most perfect health! ... [1770]
Which health to prolong, as true friends require,
God grant she may have her own heart's desire,
Which friends will defend with most steadfast faith.
The Lord grant her such friends, most noble queen Elizabeth!

[Note that line 1772 may be a reference to the marriage question.


APPENDIX I - Glossary
by B.F. copyright © 2002

(OED refers to the OED compact disc; the full-volume set may well contain expanded entries.)
(FS means found in Shakespeare; NFS means not found in Shakespeare)

aloyse: meaning/origin unknown.

appall (v): weaken. FS (1H6); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; (anon.) Locrine. "Unappalled" in Brooke Romeus.

bate an ace ...: an old proverb.

bear the bob: refrain, with a pun on the meaning "bitter test".

benters (n): debentures, notes due.

beshrew [part of an imprecation]: curse. FS (31); Edwards Dam&Pith; many others.

bewray (v): reveal. FS (7); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Orl Fur, Fr Bacon, James IV; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per; Marlowe Massacre, Jew/Malta; (disp.) Oldcastle; Lyly Bombie, Midas, Gallathea, Endymion, Campaspe, Whip; Pasquil Return; (anon.) Marprelate; Locrine, Ironside, Arden, Willobie, Penelope, Leic Gh.

bolt (n): arrow. FS (3-MND, MWW, H5, AsYou, MM, Cymb); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Endymion; Harvey 4 Letters; (disp.) Greene's Groat.

bombast (v): beat, thrash. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith; Munday More..

by and by (adv): at once. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (9 times).

bug/bugg (n): bugbear, hobgoblin, bogey. FS (4-3H6, Ham, WT, Cymb); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Pasquil Countercuff, Apology; Arden; Nashe Penniless; Harvey Pierce's Super.

centum pro cento: hundred per cent.

clerkly (a): clever, scholarly. FS (2-MWW, 3d OED citation). (adv): artfully, scholarly. FS (2-2H6, TGV, 4th citation); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith. (OED missed Golding and Edwards 1st 2 citations.)
[by] Cock: by God.

cockerel (n): young cock, applied to a young man. FS (1-Temp); Edwards Dam&Pith (1st OED citation); Marlowe Edw2.

colpheg (v): buffet, cuff. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith) OED 3d citation. OED contemp citation: 1577 T. Richards Misogonus Ile colfeke him my selfe forte, come onte what will.

commodity (n): personal advantage. FS (5-MV, 2H4, AWEW, Lear); Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith (1st OED citation); Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Lyly Campaspe; (anon.) Somebody/Nobody; Nashe Absurdity, Menaphon; Bacon Letters; Chapman d'Olive.

controlled (v): berated/disciplined. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

crake/crack (v): brag. (LLL); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith (n, crackers); Peele Edw I; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Ironside, Willobie (n); (disp.) Greene's Groat (out-cracked); Munday More.

crack-rope/halter (n): alludes to hangman's rope, rascal destined to hang. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (2d OED citation); Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Bombie.

Croyden/Croydon: sanguine (n, a): sallow color. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (1st of 3 OED citations).

cry creak (v): give up, cry uncle. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith; Watson Hek. OED contempcitations: 1573 Tusser Husb. (1878) 102 When tilth plows breake, poore cattle cries creake.
1577 Stanyhurst Descr. Irel. in Holinshed VI. 52.

descant (v): improvise on a theme. FS (3-Rich3, Lucrece, PP); Golding Calvin on Ps; Edwards Dam&Pith; Harvey Pierce's Super

descry (v): reveal, discover, perceive. FS (14); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lodge Wounds; Greene James IV; Nashe Saffron; Peele Wives; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Ironside, Willobie, Penelope; Harvey Pierce's Super.

disease (v): distress. FS (2H4, Corio); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith.

dole [be his dole] (n): lot in life (a proverbial exclamation). FS (1H4, Shrew, MWW, AWEW, WT); Edwards Dam&Pith (OED missed 2d citation).

dressed [him] (v): deceived/played a prank on him.NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

dung-fork (n): 3- or 4-pronged fork used to lift or spread dung. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

dup (v): open. FS (1-Ham); Edwards Dam&Pith.

dutting duttell: No OED entry.

faint: falter (v). FS (many); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lodge Wounds; Kyd Sol&Per; Lyly Midas; Marlowe Dido, Faustus; (anon.) Woodstock, Mucedorus, Arden, Penelope; Harvey 3d Letter.

fence (n): fencing, fighting skill. FS (many); Golding Abraham, Edwards Dam&Pith; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Arden.

Jack Fletcher ...: a fletcher is an arrow-maker; possibly from some ballad.

fondness (n): folly. foolish loyalty. FS (MM); Edwards Dam&Pith.

frame (v): prepare, create. FS (MM); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Gallathea. Common

franion (n): gallant/fellow (n). NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (1st OED citation); Peele Wives. OED contemp citations: 1587 Turbervile Epitaphs & Sonn; 1589 (anon.) Rare Triumphs; Spenser FQ.

froward (a): perverse, forward. FS (13); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith. Common.

gear (n): (1) device, matter. FS (11); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho, Bombie; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Kyd Sp Tr; (disp.) Oldcastle; (anon.) Fam Vic; Munday Huntington. (2) clothes. FS (2-2H6, LLL); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sp Tr.

gloze/glose (n, v): specious, over-expansive talk, flattery; glozers: flatterers. FS (6-LLL, Rich2, H5, TA, T&C, Pericles); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Watson Hek; Lyly Campaspe; Kyd Cornelia, Sol&Per; Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Ironside, Arden, Willobie; Nashe Menaphon, Summers, Absurdity; Harvey Pierce's Super; Greene's Groat; (disp.) Maiden's. Cf. (anon.) Nobody/Somebody (v).

grave-bencher (n): magistrate. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

harecop (a): hare-brain (OED cites as only known use). Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

hoise/hoyse (v): hoist. FS (1-2H6); Golding Ovid; Watson Hek; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Campaspe; Nashe Penniless.

hurly-burly (a): commotion. FS (2-John, Shrew, as hurly only); Golding Ovid, Calvin on Ps.; Edwards Dam&Pith; Greene Fr Bacon; Nashe Penniless; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Penelope. OED also cites: 1580 Baret Alv.

Jack-sauce (n): saucy, impudent fellow. FS (H5); Edwards Dam&Pith.

jackanape (n): quasi-proper name of a man using tricks or displaying qualities, of an ape; one who is ape-like in tricks or behavior; ridiculous upstart, impertinent fellow; coxcomb. FS (4-H5, MWW, AWEW, Cymb); Edwards Dam&Pith; 1573 G. Harvey Letter-Bk.; Greene Upstart; Nashe Saffron Walden, Summers. 1st OED citations: 1534 Lett. & Pap. Hen. VIII; 1555 Harpsfield Divorce Hen.

ken (v): give. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (3d OED citation).
lese/leese (v): (1) lose, waste [time, life]. FS (1-Sonnet 5); Golding Ovid; Watson Hek; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Supposes; Kyd Sp Tr; (anon.) Geo a Greene.

let/letteth [his course] (v): hinder, slow down. FS (Errors, Lucrece); Golding Ovid; Oxford letters; Edwards Dam&Pith. Common.

lobcock (n): country bumpkin, lout, clown, bundering fool. NFS. Cf. Udall Roister; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Nashe Unfortunate; (anon.) Locrine.

lousious: luscious.

lubber (n): fool, lout. FS (4-TGV, 12th, Lear, T&C); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Campaspe; Marlowe Faustus; Pasquil Apology; Chettle Kind Hart; Nashe Absurdity.

mail (n): bag, pouch. FS (2-LLL, T&C); Edwards Dam&Pith.

main (n): force, strength. FS (4-1H4, MV, T&C, Sonnet 60); Edwards Dam&Pith.

manger [sweep a] (v): eat sumptuously, clean one's plate. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

meve (v): obsolete version of move.
minion (n & a): lackey, wanton. FS (many); Edwards Dam&Pith; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody. Common. Sometimes used to denote homosexual lover. Common.

moil (v): wallow. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (1st OED citation). OED contemp citations: 1575 Gascoigne Flowers, Fruite of Foes Poems; 1577 B. Googe Heresbach's Husb.

murlons (n): merlins (very small hawks). NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

murrain/murren (n): plague. FS (3-Temp, T&V, Corio); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Nashe Penniless, Summers (probably as a pun on morian (shield) and murrain (plague); (anon.) Woodstock; (disp.) Oldcastle. OED cites Hall's Chron. and a number of dramatic uses from Heywood, Ingelend, Richards, (anon.) Gammer Gurton, others.

musselden (n): Muscatel.

nip (v): arrest. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith; Greene Cony.

nips (n): sarcasms/witticisms. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

noddy/noddie/noddle (n): simpleton. FS (2-TGV); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Greene Cony; Lyly Bombie; (anon.) Dodypoll; Chettle Kind Hart.

for the nones/nonce (adv): expressly for the purpose. FS; Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Harvey Speculum; Bacon poetry; Marlowe Dido; (anon.) Marprelate.

pack/be packing (v): begone, depart. FS (5-Shrew, MV, MWW, Timon, PP); Edwards Dam&Pith; Watson Hek; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; (anon.) Willobie. 1st 2 OED citations: 1508 Kennedie Flyting w. Dunbar; 1601 Chester Love's Mart.

pantacle (n): pantofle, or slipper, symbolic of pages. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

pestens (a): pestilent.

pestle (n): haunch. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

pitiful (a): merciful. FS (11+); Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Midas, Love's Met; (anon.) Ironside; Harvey 4 Letters; (disp.) Cromwell, Oldcastle.

played with his beard (v): deluded him. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.
polled (v): (1) shorn. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith. (2) cheated, fleeced. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

pouched (a): pursed. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

prease/press/preace (n): press of people. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Locrine; Oxford letter.

prick (v): approach. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (2d OED citation). OED contemp. citations: 1565 T. Stapleton Fortr. Fait; 1580 Golding in Baret Alv; 1586 J. Hooker Hist. Irel. in Holinshed.

[chill put] pro: unknown meaning, not listed in OED.

quean (n): hussy, strumpet. FS (4-R&J, 2H4, MWW); Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; (anon./Greene) G a G; Lyly Midas; (anon.) Ironside, Arden, Willobie, Penelope, Yorkshire Tr; Harvey Sonnet Palace/Pleasure, 2d Letter; Peele Wives; (disp.) Maiden's.

quiddle (v): talk lightly about it. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

quinch (n): the least. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith (only OED citation).

race (n): course. FS (3-John, MM, Sonnet); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Edwards Dam&Pith; (anon.) Willobie; Spencer FQ.
[asketh] reason (v): asks for an accounting.

regals (n): small portable organs. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

ruddock (n): robin redbreast. FS (1-Cymb); Edwards Dam&Pith.

rug (n): coarse woolen cloth. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith; Nashe Penniless.

sconce: (1) head, skull; (2) ability, wit. FS (6-Errors, Ham, Corio); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Endymion,Bombie (OED missed citation); Greene Cony; G. Harvey New Let. OED contemp citation: 1586 A. Day Eng. Secretary (1625) Master B. found Socrates in my Letter,and sent to seeke out your well reputed skonce to expound it.

scurrility/squirrility (n): the quality of being scurrilous; buffoon-like jocularity; coarseness/indecency of language, esp. in invective and jesting. 2d work cited by OED. FS (LLL); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Pap; Nashe Strange News, Almond.

seely (a): innocent, unfortunate, defenseless. FS; Golding Ovid; many others.

shent (a): disgraced. FS (5-MWW, 12th, T&C, Ham, Corio); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Endmion; (anon.) Penelope.

sift (v): question, examine; also understand, comprehend. FS (3-Rich2, Ham Q2, AWEW); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Gallathea, Woman ... Moon; Greene Never too Late, Pandosto; (anon.) Ironside, Weakest.

smatter (v): chatter, prattle. FS (1-R&J); Edwards Dam&Pith.

I mean somewhat thereby: (per Adams) he suggests the gallows.

sooth (n): truth, sometimes flattery. FS (Rich2, Pericles); Edwards Dam&Pith; many others.

speed (v): fare, succeed. FS (19+, ); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Edwards Dam&Pith. Common.

square, out of square (a): awry. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith.

squirrility (n): see scurrility.

target (n): shield. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Gascoigne Jocasta, Kyd Sol&Per; Lyly Campaspe; Marlowe Edw2; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Locrine.
thilk: this.

Three Cranes ...: the sign of a well-known tavern.

tipstaff (n): constable, bailiff, who carried a metal-tipped staff. FS (1-H8); Edwards Dam&Pith; (disp.) Cromwell; Jonson Cynthia.

toil (n): net, snare. FS (5-LLL, JC, Ham, A&C, Pericles); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Fr Bac; Marlowe Dido, Massacre; (anon.) Woodstock, Arden.

torup: not in OED (tore up?).

toys (n): antics, games. FS (many); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Campaspe, Midas; Kyd Sp Tr; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Willobie.

trencher (n): serving plate or dish [usually with connotation of trencher-knight or freeloader]. FS (7-2H6, TGV, R&J, A&C, Tempest, Corio, Timon); Edwards Dam&Pith; many others.

trow (v): think, believe confidently. FS (16); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Edwards Dam&Pith; many others.

turn a crab ...: a crab-apple roasted in the fire and dropped into a mug of ale.

turn cat in the pan (v): make things appear the opposite of what they are.

twich-box (n): touch box, holding priming powder for muskets.

undermined (v): questioned guilefully. FS (1-2H6); Edwards Dam&Pith.

vacabone (n): vagabond.

victus, victa, victum: conquered (masc.), conquered (fem.), conquered (neut.).

wain/wayne (n): cart, chariot. (See also "Charles his wain".) NFS (except in phrase "Charles wain"). Cf. Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Spenser.

washing-ball (n): perfumed soap. NFS. Cf. Edwards Dam&Pith.

water-bougets (n): leather bags used to carry water.

wight (n): living being. FS (8-H5, LLL, MWW, Pericles, Oth); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Oxford poem;Edwards Dam&Pith (song); many others.

winch (v): flinch. FS (1-John); Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Bombie; Nashe Almond.

wist (v): knew. FS (1-1H6); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Marlowe Edw2; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Willobie, Penelope, News Heaven/Hell; (disp.) Oldcastle. OED cites Lyly Euphues.

yerk/yark (v): lash, whip, kick out. FS (1-H5) ; Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho.


Translations (Latin except where noted)

  10: frustra sapit ... He is wise to no purpose who is not wise for himself.
  22: regius canis: The king's dog.
101: Quid cum tanto asino talis philosophus?: What has such a philosopher in common with such an ass.
102: Morum similitudo consuit amicitias: Likeness of character cements friendships.
313: secure dormiunt in utranque aurem: they sleep securely on either ear (Terence Self Tormenter, 342).
332: Amicus alter ipse: A friend is a second self.
367: Omne solum forti patria: Every spoil is a fatherland to a brave man.
405: Naturam furca expellas, tamen usque recurret: Drive nature out with a pitchfork, still ever will she return (Horace, Epistles, I.10.24).
432: An nescis longas regibus esse manus: Know you not that kings have long hands (Ovid, Heroides, xvi, 166).
440-41: Dic mihi musa virum, captae post tempore Troyae, Qui mores hominum multorum vidit et urbes: Tell me, O Muse, of the man, who, after the capture of Troy, saw the manners and cities of many men (Odyssey, opening lines)
468-9: dapsiles caenas, geniales lectos, et aur fulgentem tyranni zonam: plentiful suppers, luxurious couches, and the king's purse full of gold at command.
473: auri talentum magnum: a great talent of gold.
533: dictum sapienti sat est: a word to the wise is sufficient.
622: multum juva[t] in re mala annimus bonus: a good spirit in misfortune helps much.
775: et fruges consumere nati: And born to consume the fruits of the earth (Horace Epist., 1.2.27).
971: Cretiso cum Cretense: I lie with the Cretan (the Cretans were famed as liars).
1027: Omnis Aristippum decuit color, et locus et res: Every color, place, and thing suited Aristippus.
1167: (Jack's very bad French) Jebit avow, mon companion (Je bois a vous, mon compagnon): I drink to you, my companion.
1168: (Grim's mangled reply) Jhar vow pleadge, pety Zawne (Jai vous pleige, petit Zawne): I pledge to you, little clown.
1396: amicus usque ad aras: a friend even to the altar.
1414: amicitia inter bonos: friendship between the good.
1435: quia prudentis est multum dissimulare: because it is the part of a wise man to dissemble much.
1436: cum Cretense cretiso: with the Cretan I lie (see line 971).
1451: incide in foveam quam feci: I have fallen into a pit which I myself digged.

About the Author

Richard Edwards was appointed Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal in 1561, therefore devoting his time to writing plays to be acted before the Queen. Although known to have composed many plays before the Court, only Damon and Pithias survives under his name. It may have been performed during the Christmas season of 1564-65. Edwards died in 1566.
The earliest extant version of this play bears the date 1571, noting that this is a reprint. Another edition appeared in 1582.

Length: 18,098 words

Suggested Reading
Adams, Joseph Quincy. Chief Pre-Shakespearean Dramas. Cambridge: Riverside Press (Houghton Mifflin), 1924.

APPENDIX II: CONNECTIONS

Language

Fool ... School
Edwards Dam&Pith (39) ARIS: ... And thus I assure you: / though I came from school
To serve in this court, I came not yet to be the king's fool,
Shakes Much Ado (V.2): 'school,' 'fool,' a babbling rhyme; very ominous
Nashe Summers (1450-55): Young men, young boys, beware of Schoolmasters;
They will infect you, mar you, blear your eyes;
They seek to lay the curse of God on you, / Namely, confusion of languages,
Wherewith those that the tower of Babel built, / Accursed were in the world's infancy.
Anon Willobie (XXVI.5): Your gravest men with all their schools
That taught you thus were heath-fools.
Note: The Nashe allusion is clearly built on Genesis 11.4-9 of the Bible; the Willobie Biblical foundation is not clear; it would be built on the similarity to Nashe, and its probable amusing derivative in Much Ado.

Knight ... Carpet/Trencher
Edwards Dam&Pith (46) Aristippus: The king feeds you often from / his own trencher.
Golding Ovid Met (XII. ) 673: Was by that coward carpet knyght beereeved / of his lyfe, ...
(XIII.123): Of Rhesus, dastard Dolon, and the coward carpetknyght
Shakes 2H6 (IV.1) SUFFOLK: Obscure and lowly swain, ...
Fed from my trencher, kneel'd down at the board.
TGV(IV.4) LAUNCE: ... and I came no sooner into the dining-chamber but he
steps me to her trencher and steals her capon's leg:
LLL (V.2) BIRON: ... Some carry-tale, some please-man, some slight zany,
Some mumble-news, some trencher-knight, some Dick,
That smiles his cheek in years ... / Holding a trencher, jesting merrily?
Much Ado (V.2) BEN: ... Troilus the first employer of panders, and
a whole bookful of / these quondam carpet-mangers, ...
12th (III.4) SIR TOBY: He is knight, dubbed with unhatched rapier and on
carpet consideration; ...
Tempest (II.2) CALIBAN: ... Nor scrape trencher, nor wash dish ...
R&J (I.5) First Servant: Where's Potpan, ... He / shift a trencher? / he scrape a trencher!
Timon (I.1) Old Athenian: And my estate deserves an heir more raised
Than one which holds a trencher.
(III.6) TIMON: ... You fools of fortune, trencher-friends, time's flies, ...
A&C (III.13) ANTONY: I found you as a morsel cold upon
Dead Caesar's trencher; nay, you were a fragment / Of Gneius Pompey's;
Coriolanus (IV.5) CORIO: 'tis an honester service than to meddle with thy
mistress. Thou pratest, and pratest; serve with thy trencher, hence!
Nashe Summers (793): take / not up your standings in a nut-tree,
when you should be / waiting on my Lord's trencher.
Anon Mucedorus (Epi.): And weighting with a Trencher at his back,
Ironside (III.6.5): I say, ye trencher-scraping cutters, ye cloak-bag
carriers, ye sword and buckler carriers,

Repent ... At the last
Edwards Dam&Pith (112) GRONNO: Then, come on your ways; you
must to prison in haste. / I fear you will repent this folly at last.
Lyly Gallathea (I.1.) TYTERUS: But at the last, our countrymen
repenting (and not too late);
Disp. Greene's Groat (166-68): that urges you at the last hour to
remember your life, that eternal / life may follow your repentance.
Shakes H5 (IV.1.137): Shall join together at the latter day.
(conforms to Bishops)
Anon. Willobie (XXXVII.4): To buy Repentance at the last. (conforms to Geneva)
Penelope's Complaint (VIII.4): Had I at first had this forecast,
I need not thus repent at last.
Geneva Bible Job 19.25 my redeemer ... shall stand the last on earth

Repent ... Folly
Edwards Dam&Pith (112) GRONNO: Then, come on your ways; you
must to prison in haste. / I fear you will repent this folly at last.
Kyd ST (III.6.404) HIER: Confess thy folly and repent thy fault;
Greene James 4 (V.3.36) BACON: Repentant for the follies of my youth,
Shakes H5 (III.6): ... England shall repent his folly,...
Nashe Summers (1434) WINTER: Wish'd, with repentance for his folly past,
Anon. Willobie (XXVIII.2): But they repent their folly past,

Few words
Brooke Romeus (531): In few unfeigned words, your hidden mind unfold,
(2713): In few plain words, the whole that was betide he told,
Golding Ovid Met. (II.978) Yet spake she briefly these few words to her
without her gate:
(VII.1104): To utter these few words at last: ...
Gascoygne Supposes (II.2) ERO: ... either tell me, or at few words never think ...
Edwards Dam&Pith (124) I promised friendship; but you love few words -- ...
(435) DAMON: ... To describe in few words the state of this city.
(1246) GRIM: Yet in few words I tell you this one thing --
Watson Hek (XLII): and effectually set down (albeit in few words)
Lyly Endymion (I.4) TELLUS: Dipsas, listen in few words to my tale
Kyd ST ((III.15.1351): "Pocas palabras!": few words.
Greene Alphonsus (II.1.15) ALPH: Laelius, few words would better thee become,
Chettle Kind Harts: bringeth forth more mischiefs than few words can express
Shakes H5 (3.2.36-37): ... men of few words are the best men.
[Similar sayings were also proverbial.]
Anon. Willobie (XIV.4): Few words suffice where hearts consent,
Greene's Groatsworth (307) Brother, said Lucanio, lets use few words.
Geneva Bible Eccles. 5.1 let thy words be few

Burden ... Heavy
Edwards Dam&Pith (157) STEPH: This heavy burden puts poor
Stephano to much pain.
Marlowe T1 (III.2.239) THER: Burdening their bodies with your heavy chains,
Edw2 (V.4.63) MOR Suscepi that provinciam [very heavy burden], ...
Nashe Summers (874): are oppressed with heavy burdens of my bounty:
Shakes Hamlet (III.1.58): O heavy burden!
Anon. Woodstock (II.2.106) WOOD: a heavy burthen has thou taken from me.
Willobie (XLV.3): A heavy burden wearieth one,
L Gh. (863): The burden of my sins do weigh me down;
Geneva Bible Ps 38.4 For mine iniquities are ... & and as a weighty burden
they are too heavy for me.

Close ... Secrets
Edwards Dam&Pith (251) STEPH: In close-secret wise still whispering together.
Gascoygne et al Jocasta (III.1.220) CREON: To keep full close this secret hidden grief.
Anon. Woodstock (IV.1) KING: but see ye carry it close and secretly,
Ironside (I.2.18) EDRICUS ... whisper close secrets in the giddy air;
be a newsmonger; feed the king with sooths;
Willobie (LIII.2): But closely lies in secret heart:
Geneva Bible Tob 12.7 It is good to keep close the secrets of a King;
12.11 I said it was good to keep close the secret of a King,

All the world ... stage
Edwards Dam&Pith (348-51) DAMON: Pythagoras said that this world / was like a stage,
Whereon many play their parts; the lookers-on, the sage
Philosophers are, saith he, whose part is to learn
The manners of all nations, and the good from the bad to discern.
Shakes AsYou (II.7) JAQUES: All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players:
They have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts, / His acts being seven ages.

Fire ... Heaven
Shakes Lear (V.3) LEAR: He that parts us shall bring a brand
from heaven, / And fire us hence like foxes.
PPT (II.4) HELI: A fire from heaven came and shrivell'd up / Their bodies, ...
Edwards Dam&Pith (567-69) STEPH: Seest thou this unjustice, and wilt
thou stay any longer / From heaven to send down thy hot consuming fire
Ironside (III.5.135) EDR: Fetch fire from heaven and mix it with thy ink,
Geneva Bible Gen 19.24; Ex 9.23, 2 Kings 1.10, 12, 14; 2 Kings 2.11;
1 Chr 21.26; 2 Chr 7.1; Job 1.16, Pss 18.12, 13, Ecclus 48.3, 2Mac 2.10,
Luke 9.54, Luke 17.29, 2Pet 3.12, Rev. 13.13, Rev. 20.9
Note: Shaheen identifies the Lear quotation with Judges 15.4-5: Samson ... took three hundred foxes, and took firebrands, and turned them tail to tail, and put a firebrand in the middes between two tails. And when he had set the brands on fire, he sent them out into the standing corn. The Lear passage seems to be a mixture of Biblical images.

Woeful wight ... Hap
Golding Ovid (IX.562): Now woe is me, most wretched wight.
Brooke Romeus (2005): Her weary bed betime the woeful wight forsakes,
(2638): And them on divers parts beside, the woeful wight did hold.
Oxford poem#13 (Song: The Forsaken Man)
Drown me with trickling tears,
You wailful wights of woe;
Come help these hands to rend my hairs,
My rueful hap to show.
Care and Disappointment
Thus like a woeful wight I wove the web of woe.
To entertain my thoughts, and there my hap to moan.
possible Oxford, ascribed to Queen Elizabeth) (Importune Me No More)
How many weeping eyes I made to pine in woe;
How many sighing hearts I have no skill to show.
Greene Alphonsus (IV.2.51) CARI: Some woeful wight lamenting
his mischance:

Edwards Dam&Pith (Song, 588-91)): Awake ye woeful wights,
That long have wept in woe:
Resign to me your plaints and tears,
My haplese hap to show.
Anon
. Penelope (VI.3): For careless wights why do you care,
And causeless eke so woeful are?

Tongue ... Woe
Shakes Rich3 (IV.4): That my woe-wearied tongue is mute and dumb.
Edwards Dam&Pith (592, Song): My woe no tongue can tell.
Kyd Sol&Per (II.1.84) PER: My tongue to tell my woes is all too weak;
Oxford poem (Love thy choice): Who taught thy tongue the woeful
words of plaint ?

Griping griefs
Although the OED cites the word "griping" as unique in this phrase, it
seems possible that this is a spelling variation of "gripping", rendering
an identical meaning.
Edwards Daintie Dev (53): Where griping grief the heart would wound ...
Note: Oxford was a major contributor to the Paradise of ...., possibly
publisher. (See Looney, Vol. 1, pp. 547-48 ff.)
Damon and Pithias (612): Grip me you greedy griefs, ...
Watson Hek (LXXXV): Held Griping Grief the piked Anchor fast; ...
Shakes R&J (IV.5.126): When griping griefs the heart doth wound, ...
Anon. Willobie (LVII.2): The griping grief, and grievous groan,
(LXIII.2): And griping griefs do still renew:
Bible/Metrical Version of Ps. 30.5-6 (1549) Where griping grief
the heart would wound.

Stop ... Breath
Golding Ovid Met. (II.358): ... (the smoke had stopped her breath).
(II.1036)) Strake to her heart, and closed her veins, and lastly stopped her breath:
(VI.854): The sorrow of this great mischance did stop Pandion's breath
(VII. 772.73) ... Some with halters stopped their wind, by death expulsing fear of death: ..
(VIII.639): His trespass I confess deserves the stopping of his breath,
Edwards Dam&Pith (615) SONG: With speed now stop my breath!
Shakes Rich3 (III.5) GLOU: ... Murder thy breath in the middle of a word,
And then begin again, and stop again,
King John (III,4) CONSTANCE ... And stop this gap of breath with fulsome dust
Pericles (I.1) PERICLES ... The breath is gone, and the sore eyes see clear:
To stop the air would hurt them. The blind mole casts
Lucrece (169) ... 'Revenge on him that made me stop my breath.
Anon. Woodstock (V.3.89-90) KING: ... let drums sound death, and strike
at once to stop this traitor's breath.
Willobie (LXV.5): Till death so stop your husband's breath;
(LXVII.2): Conspire with grief to stop my breath,
Penelope (XI.4): Or wisely she had stopp'd his breath.
Pasquil Apology: even by the Sermons that spun him a halter
to stop his breath, he was no Protestant.

Religious Theology: Purchase grace
Golding Ovid Met. (XIII.562): Yet (if that these last words of mine may
purchase any grace),
Edwards Dam&Pith (683) PITH: To assuage the king's anger, and to
purchase his grace.
Anon. Willobie (XIV.1): I do not doubt to purchase grace.
(XXIX.4): And watch his turn to purchase grace,
Leic. Gh. (1436): Or by some fine discourse to purchase grace,
Cromwell (IV.5.34) GARD: And by it shall you purchase grace
from heaven.

Duty ... Bound
Edwards Dam&Pith (747): EUB: But yet, O might [king],
my duty bindeth me.
(1758) EUB: But chiefly yet, as duty bindeth, I humbly crave
Shakes 1H6 (II.1) TALBOT: How much in duty I am bound to both.
Oth (I.3) DES: I do perceive here a divided duty:
To you I am bound for life and education;
(III.3) IAGO: Though I am bound to every act of duty, ...
(III.3) IAGO: To show the love and duty that I bear you
Lucrece (Prologue): Were my worth greater, my duty would show greater,
meantime, as it is bound to your lordship ,...
Kyd ST (II.1.59) PEDRING: My bounden duty bids me tell the truth,
S&P (V.2.66) 2 WITNESS: And, as our duty and allegiance bound us,
Greene Alphonsus (III.1.24) ALPH: So that, perforce, I must by duty be
Bound to you all for this your courtesy.
DD (I.1.6): O, that my rival bound me not in duty ...

Guilty/Innocent ... Blood
Edwards Dam&Pith (796-97) DAMON: ... whereas no truth my innocent
life can save,
But that so greedily you thirst my guiltless blood to have,
(1472) EUB: Who knoweth his case and will not melt in tears?
His guiltless blood shall trickle down anon.
Kyd ST (III.11.25-29) HIER: A habitation for their cursed souls,
There, in a brazen cauldron, fix'd by Jove,
In his fell wrath, upon a sulfur flame,
Yourselves shall find Lorenzo bathing him
In boiling lead and blood of innocents.
Shakes Rich3 (I.3.221): The worm of conscience still begnaw thy soul!
Rich2 (V.6) BOLING: The guilt of conscience take thou for thy labour, ...
That blood should sprinkle me to make me grow:
Macbeth (2.2): Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood ...
Titus (V.2.183): The basin that receives your guilty blood.
Anon. Fam Vic. (814) ARCH: Not minding to shed innocent blood, is rather content
Ironside (V.1.70) EDR: thirst not to drink the blood of innocents.
(V.2.159) EDR: and made a sea with blood of innocents;
(V.2.170) CAN: and glad for sparing of that guiltless blood
Woodstock (V.1) LAPOOLE: and my sad conscience bids the contrary
and tells me that his innocent blood thus spilt heaven will revenge.
Willobie (IX.5): A guilty conscience always bleeds
(XIII.2): I rather choose a quiet mind, A conscience clear from bloody sins,
Geneva Bible Deut. 21.9: The cry of innocent blood.; Deut. 32.35
Jer. 2.34: In thy wings is found the blood of the souls of the poor innocents.
Genesis 4.11: which hath opened thy mouth to receive thy brother's blood ... .
Rom. 12.19, 13.4

Pawn ... Lives
Edwards Dam&Pith (825) PITH: Take me, O might king! My life I pawn for his.
(834) DION: Thou seemest to trust his words that pawnest thy life so frankly.
Shakes Edw3 (II.1) WAR: To pawn thine honor rather than thy life.
Lear (I.1) KENT: My life I never held but as a pawn ...
(I.2) EDMUND:... I dare pawn down my life / for him ...
See also Merchant of Venice, the major plot
Lyly Love's Met. (III.2) PROTEA: Let me, as often as I be bought for
money or pawned for meat,
Anon. Ironside (V.1.44) EDR: Doth Edmund thus reward his followers
that pawn their lives for him and in his cause?

Joy ... Care
Brooke Romeus (1906) Of me your child (your jewel once, your only
joy and care),
Golding Ovid Met. (II.797): And as the burthen brought some care
the honor brought him joy.
Edwards Dam&Pith (891) DAMON: In whom my joy, my care, and
life doth only remain.
Watson Hetk. (XCIII): When others joy'd, to cares I did incline,
Anon. Locrine (IV.1.102): One dram of joy, must have a pound of care.
Oxford poem (#12, The trickling tears...): She is my joy, she is my care and woe;

Fountain of Wit
Edwards Dam&Pith (956) STEPH: But such as thou art, fountains of squirrility ...
Anon. Ironside (V.2.97) EDR: fountain of wit, the spring of policy ...
Geneva Bible Baruch 3.12 Thou has forsaken the fountain of wisdom

Out of Square ... Out of Frame
Golding Ovid's Met (Ep.8) Hath Ovid into one whole mass in this book
brought in frame.
(II.536): He fell to kissing: which was such as out of square might seem,
(V.620): A time will one day come when you to mirth may better frame,
(VI.600): His talk at will. As oft as he demanded out of square,
(XI.14): And heady riot out of frame all reason now did dash,
(XI.443): In dressing of her head, before she had it brought in frame,
Shakes: LLL (III.1) BIRON: like a German clock,
still a-repairing, ever out of frame, ...
Hamlet (I.2) CLAUDIUS: ... Our state to be disjoint and out of frame,
MuchAdo (IV.1) BENEDICK: ... Whose spirits toil in frame of villanies.
Anon. Weakest (VIII.99) SIR NICH: Can make a grave, and keep our
Clock in frame,
Willobie (XX.2): Your new-found tricks are out of frame,
(XLIIII.2): And strike the senses out of frame?
(XLIIII.3): My humors all are out of frame,
(LXVIII.2): My person could not please, my talk was out of frame,
There is a close relationship in:
Edwards Dam&Pith (1041): The king himself museth hereat; yet is
he far out of square, ...

Falling-out
Edwards Dam&Pith (1097) JACK: Will, after our falling-out wilt thou
laugh merrily?
Shakes: Merchant of Venice, and
Hamlet (II.1) POLONIUS: There falling-out at tennis; ...
T&C (III.1): Falling in, after falling out, may make them three.

Brain-sick
Edwards Dam&Pith (1101) WILL: It is some brain-sick villain,
I durst lay a penny.
Watson Hek (XCVIII): Love is a Brain-sick boy, and fierce by kind;
Kyd ST (IV.4.119): And rated me for brain-sick lunacy,
Greene Maidens Dream (Complaint/Religion, 274): The brainsick and
illiterate surmisers, ...
Shakes: 2H6 (III.1): Did instigate the bedlam brain-sick duchess
(V.1): Thou mad misleader of thy brain-sick son!
Titus (V.2): Whate'er I forge to feed his brain-sick fits,
Beaten away by brain-sick rude desire.
T&C (II.2): Because Cassandra's mad: her brain-sick raptures
Marlowe Edw2 (I.1.125) MOR: Come uncle, let us leave the brain-sick King
Anon. Willobie (XVIII.3): A brain-sick youth was stricken blind,
Penelope's Complaint (XI.6): Than did the brain-sick doting queen:
(XXI.5): Should match with such a brain-sick boy
(XLIII.2): Which wiser men doth brain-sick make,
L Gh. (1156): What brainsick lightness, and what furious mood

Legal term: Case stands
Brooke Romeus (1696): The tidings of your health and how your
doubtful case shall stand;
Edwards Dam&Pith (1256) GRIM: Good fellows, believe me, as the case
now stands ...,
(1600) PITHIAS: Let me have no wrong. As now stands the case
Golding Abraham (Pro.22): Were as you be not, now as stands the case.
(341) SHEPHERDS SONG: Because, as stood the case,
Watson Hek (XXXVI): My letters tell in what a case I stand,
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.45) LOR: Thus stands the case: It is not long, thou knowest,
Anon. Weakest (XVIII.215) VILLIERS: My Lord of Bulloigne, thus then
stands my case,
Shakes 3H6 (IV.5): Were as you be not, now as stands the case.
R&J (III.5) NURSE: Then, since the case so stands as now it doth,
WT (II.3) PAULINA: For, as the case now stands, it is a curse ...
Cymb (I.5) QUEEN: ... The case stands with her; do't as from thyself.
(III.4) IMOGEN: ... yet the traitor / Stands in worse case of woe.

Two bodies, one heart
Edwards Dam&Pith (1417) CARIS: Are such friends both alike in joy
and also in smart.
(1418) ARIS: They must needs, for in two bodies they have but one heart.
(V.5.7) LOVE: Their souls are knit, though bodies be disjoined:
Anon. Willobie (resolution, 2): To join in heart the bodies that are twain,
Shakes MND (IIII.2) So, with two seeming bodies, but one heart;
See also
Kyd Sol&Per (IV.1.30) SOL: For what are friends but one mind in two bodies?

Legal term: Enroll
Edwards Dam&Pith (1470) EUB: Yet for thy faith enroll'd shall be thy name
Kyd Sol&Per (I.3.3) PHILIPPO: Assembled here in thirsty honor's cause,
To be enrolled in the brass-leaved book
Marlowe Edw2 (I.4.269-70) MOR: And in the Chronicle enroll his name
For purging of the realm of such a plague.
Shakes 3H6 (II.1) WARWICK: He swore consent to your succession,
His oath enrolled in the parliament;
MM (I.2): CLAUDIO: ... but this new governor
Awakes me all the enrolled penalties
JC (III.2) BRUTUS: The question of
his death is enrolled in the Capitol; his glory not
Anon. Woodstock (IV.3): SHRIEVE/KENT: ... I plead our ancient liberties
recorded and enrolled in the King's crown office,
Willobie (XXXVI.3): These strange effects I find enrolled,
Within this place since my return,
Penelope (III.3): A gift with fame worthy to be enroll'd.
Leic. Gh. (2086-87): But chiefly when the Muses did enrol
Their names in honor's everlasting scroll,

Will I or nill I
Edwards Dam&Pith (1506): Need hath no law; will I or nill I, it must be done.
Spenser Faerie Queen (I.3.43): And will or nill, Beares her away.
Shakes Shrew (II.1.273): Will you, nill you, I will marry you.
1599 Sylvester Sonn. Mirac. Peace xii, A sacred rage..Will-nill-I,
raps mee boldly to rehearse Great Henrie's Tropheis.

Crave ... Liberty
Edwards Dam&Pith (1567): Commend me to thy master, ... And of him
crave liberty
Kyd S&P (III.1.97) ERAS: Then this, my gracious Lord, is all I crave:
That, being banish'd from my native soil
I may have liberty to live a Christian.
Greene Orl Fur (II.1.348) MAR: In prison here and craved but liberty,
Shakes 1H6 (III.4) BASSET: But I'll unto his majesty, and crave
I may have liberty to venge this wrong;
Anon. Dodypoll (I.1.154): ... And must crave liberty to provide for them.

Evil/Good
Brooke Romeus (To the Reader): So the good doings of the good, & the evil
acts of the wicked
Gascoygne Jocasta (I.1.395-96) ANT: Yet, for because itself partaker am
Of good and evil with this my country soil,
(II.1.456) JOCASTA: If the head be evil the body cannot be good.
(III.1..195) TIRESIAS: Though evil for thee, yet for thy country good.
Edwards Dam&Pith (1583): It is an evil wind that bloweth no man good.
Lyly Sapho & Phao (II.2.) SAPHO: It is pity in so good a face there
should be an evil eye.
Kyd ST (I.2.339) ALEXANDRO: Nay, evil news fly faster still than good.
Shakes Rich3 (I.3.334): do good for evil. Also I.2.69 and I.3.315-16.
TNK (I.2.38-40) ARCITE: It is for our residing where every evil
Hath a good color, where every seeming good's / A certain evil,
Anon. Willobie (To ... Reader): That speak good of evil, and evil of good
Willobie seems a perfect inversion of the Bible and Shakespeare citations.
Geneva Bible 1Thess. 5.15 See that none recompense evil for evil unto
any man; but ever follow that which is good.
1 Sam. 24,18 Thou art more righteous than I; for thou has rendered me
good, and I have rendered thee evil
Rom. 12.21 Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with goodness.

Pierced ... Root
Edwards Dam&Pith (1666): My heart this rate friendship hath
pierc'd to the root,
Chaucer Cant. Tales (1-2): Whan that Aprille, with hise shoures soote,
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
Tongues ... Filed/Smooth
Brook Romeus (1017): Whether thy sugared talk, and tongue so
smoothly filed,
Gascoygne Jocasta (II.1.256) CHORUS: Yet thou O queen, so file thy
sugared tongue,
Supposes (II.5) CLEANDER: Now to the matter, how said you?
-- PHILOGANO: ... but what is that to the matter?
Edwards Dam&Pith (1726): Away, the plague of this court!
Geneva Bible Psalms. 140.3 They have sharpened their tongues like a
serpent: adder's poison is under their lips.

Thy filed tongue that forged lies
Lyly Campaspe (IV.2) CAMP: Whet their tongues on their hearts.
Sapho (II.4) SYBILLA: whose filed tongue made those enamored that
sought to have him enchanted.
Greene J4 (I.1.236) ATEU: But princes rather trust a smoothing tongue
Shakes LLL (V.1) HOLO: ... discourse peremptory, his tongue filed, ...
Lear (I.4.288): How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is.
Pass Pilgrim 19 (2): Smooth not thy tongue with filed talk, ...
Nashe Will Summers (1366): Smooth-tongue Orators, the fourth in place
Anon. Willobie (I.10): A filed tongue which none mislikes.
Ironside (II.3.149-50) CAN: Sirs, temper well your tongues and be advised
if not, I'll cut them shorter by an inch.
(V.2.162) CAN: Edmund, Report shall never whet her tongue upon
Canutus to eternize thee.
-- SEE ALSO Forged lies

Forged truth (lies, dissimulations)
Geneva Bible Pss 119.69, Job 13.4, Ecclus 51.2
Brooke Romeus (321): With forged careless cheer, of one he seeks to know,
Golding Ovid Met. (V.13): Upholding that Medusa's death was but a forged lie:
(IX.167): Through false and newly-forged lies that she herself doth sow),
Watson Hek (XLVII): No shower of tears can move, she thinks I forge:
So forge, that I may speed without delay;
Greene Alph (IV.Pro.21) VENUS: Did give such credence to that forged tale
Kyd ST (I.2.92) VILUPPO: Thus have I with an envious, forged tale ...
S&P (II.1.117) PERSEDA: ... Ah, how thine eyes can forge alluring looks,
Shakes TA (V.2) TAM: ... Whate'er I forge to feed his brain-sick fits,
1H6 (III.1) EXETER: Burns under feigned ashes of forged love
(IV.1): VERNON: ... For though he seem with forged quaint conceit
Rich3 (IV.1) FITZ: ... And I will turn thy falsehood to thy heart,
Where it was forged, ...
Hamlet (I.5) ... the whole ear of Denmar
Is by a forged process of my death / Rankly abused: ...
V&A (132): Love is all truth, Lust full of forged lies.
Sonnet 137: Why of eyes' falsehood hast thou forged hooks, ...
AWEW (IV.1): 2d Lord: ... and then to return and swear the lies he forges.
Othello (IV.2): OTHELLO: I should make very forges of my cheeks, ...
Anon. Ironside (IV.1.101) EDM: not to believe each smooth-face forged tale.
(V.2.83) CANUTUS: Then to confute thy forged argument,
Arden (III.5.56) MOSBY: To forge distressful looks to wound a breast
Oldcastle (Pro.14): Since forged invention former time defaced.

Painted words
Golding Abraham (Ep.7): It is no lie, it is no painted tale,
Edwards Dam&Pith (1740) And painted speech, that glozeth for gain,
from gifts is quite debarred.
Marlowe (I.2.9) CALLAPINE: To paint in words, what I'll perform in deeds,
Anon. Willobie (XI.3): Your painted words, your brave pretense,
Dodypoll (I.1.11) LUCILIA: You paint your flattering words, [Lord] Lassinbergh,
Shakes Ham (III.1.53) CLAUD: Than is my deed to my most painted word:

Hot coals, hot vengeance ... upon [my] head
Golding Ovid Met (I.266-67): ... I overthrew
The house with just revenging fire upon the owner's head,
Edwards Dam&Pith (1768): From heaven to send down thy hot consuming fire
To destroy the workers of wrong, which provoke thy just ire?
Anon. Ironside (III.1.38) YORK: So heapest thou coal of fire upon my head
Kyd S&P (II.1.114) ERASTUS: Which if I do, all vengeance light on me.
Marlowe T2 (IV.1.) JERUSALEM: ... heaven, filled with the meteors
Of blood and fire ..., / Will pour down blood and fire on thy head:
(V.1) TAMB: Where men report, thou sitt'st by God himself,
Or vengeance on the head of Tamburlaine,
Edw2 (IV.5.16) KENT: Rain showers of vengeance on my cursed head,
Shakes: 2H 6 (5.2.36): Hot coals of vengeance!
Rich2 (I.2.8): Will rain hot vengeance on offenders' heads.
Anon. Locrine (I.1.164-165) BRUT: Or let the ruddy lightning of great Jove
Descend upon this my devoted head.
(IV.1.174-75) COR: But if thou violate those promises,
Blood and revenge shall light upon thy head.
(V.1.) THRASIMACHUS: If there be gods in heaven, ...
They will revenge this thy notorious wrong,
And power their plagues upon thy cursed head.
Arden (I.1.336) MOSBY: Hell-fire and wrathful vengeance light on me
If I dishonor her or injure thee.
Ironside (849): YORK: So heapest thou coal of fire upon my head
Willobie (XXXVII.4): What bosom bears hot burning coals.
Disp. Cromwell (II.3) MIST BAN: To that same God I bend and bow my heart,
To let his heavy wrath fall on thy head,
(III.1) CROMWELL: All good that God doth send light on your head;
Queen Elizabeth Identified
Geneva Bible "vengeance fall" invokes s. 7.16 His mischief shall
return upon his own head, and his cruelty shall fall upon his own page.
Ps. 140.10 Let coals fall upon them: let him cast them into the fire, &
into the deep pits, that they rise not.

Always the Same: Queen Elizabeth's motto: semper eadem (always the same)
Edwards Dam&Pith (1758-60) EUB: But chiefly yet, as duty bindeth,
I humbly crave True friendship and true friends, full fraught with constant faith,
The giver of friends, the Lord, grant her, most noble Queen Elizabeth!
(1768-74) SONG: The Lord grant her such friends, most noble Queen Elizabeth!
Long may she govern in honor and wealth,
Void of all sickness, in most perfect health!
Which health to prolong, as true friends require,
God grant she may have her own heart's desire,
Which friends will defend with most steadfast faith.
The Lord grant her such friends, most noble queen Elizabeth!
Anon. Willobie Alway[s] the same/Avisa: (XXXII, XLI, XLIII, LXII, LXXII)
L Gh. (87): I by a Queen did live, and was advanced.
(92-99): And, for that, lost his life; I, my renown,
Till sacred Cynthia to the kingdom came,
That gave new life to my late-dying fame.
That peerless Queen of happy memory,
Who late like Deborah this kingdom swayed,
Now triumphs in the jasper-coloured sky,
In star-embroidered vesture richly rayed,
She, she restored my honor then decayed,
(149-52}: By the Queen's help, my power, and threatening looks,
I ruled the pawns, the bishops, knights and rooks.
Thus did I play at chess, and won the game,
Having the Queen my puissance to support;
See also 291-93, 298-301, 571, 608-612, 646, 651-52, 655-61, 670,
711-12, 715, 776-77, 1096, 1250-54, 1271-73, 1284, 1285-87, 1313-15,
1649, 168-69, 1691-96, 1714-16, 1749-50, 1783-85, 1996-98, 2124, 2135-38.
Shakes Sonnet (76): ... Why write I still all one, ever the same,
"All one" also invokes the Southampton motto: "One for all, all for one."
Nashe Will Summers (132-38): SUMMER: And died I had indeed unto the earth,
But that Eliza, England's beauteous Queen, On whom all seasons
prosperously attend,
Forbad the execution of my fate, Until her joyful progress was expir'd.
For her doth Summer live, and linger here, And wisheth long to
live to her content;

Repent ... Folly:
Edwards Dam&Pith (112) GRONNO: Then, come on your ways; you must
to prison in haste. / I fear you will repent this folly at last.
Kyd Sp Tr (III.6.404) HIER: Confess thy folly and repent thy fault;
Greene Fr Bac (V.3.36) BACON: Repentant for the follies of my youth,
Anon. Willobie (XXVIII.2): But they repent their folly past,
Nashe Summers (1434) WINTER: Wish'd, with repentance for his folly past,
Shakes H5 (III.6): ... England shall repent his folly, ...

Functional References

References to Aristippus, a character in Damon & Pithias
Kyd S&P (I.5.58) HALEB: Thou, Aristippus-like, did'st flatter him,
Anon. Leiceister's Gh (466-067): Now Aristippus is in more request,
That knew the way to please a monarch's mind

APPENDIX III: Vocabulary, Word Formation

Favored Words, Phrases:

by and by (9 times); creep into [the kings's] bosom; feed [my] eyes [on]; frame; honest man; make means (2); sorrow ... sink; joyful heart' for my/your part; secretly

Distinctive Words, Phrases:
My credit is cracked, knit me up so short

Compound Words: 41 words (verbs, nouns, adj, adv, prep, conj)
bake-house (n), boy-colliers (n), brain-sick (a), butter-teeth (n), buttery-hatch (n), close-secret (n), court-gate (n), crack-rope (n), dung-fork (n), edge-tools (n), faggot-stick (n), falling-out (n), fence-blows (n), grave-bencher (n), hurly-burly (n), jack-napes (n), jack-sauce (n), legend-lie (n), log-headed (a), long-desired (a), lookers-on (n), mad-headed (a), mariner-knaves (n), moth-eaten (a), mother-wit (n), over-thwart (v), plain-song (n), profit-measuring (a), quick-carvers (n), self-same (a), shop-window (n), thread-bare (a), twich-box (n), vengeance-knave (n), wain-cart (n), washing-ball (n), water-bougets (n), well-beloved (a), well-pronounced (a), well-proved (a), well-willer (n)

Words beginning with "con": 20 words (11 verbs, 6 nouns, 5 adj).
conceit (n), concerning (v), condemn (v), condition (n), conquest (n), conscience (n), consent (v), conserve (v), consider (v), conspire (v), constant (a), constellation (n), consume (v), consuming (a), content (v, a), continual (a), contrary (a, n), contrived (v), control (v), convey (v)

Words beginning with "dis": 13 words (11 verbs, 3 nouns).
discern (v), disclose (v), discourse (n), disease (v, n), disgrace (v), dismay (v), dispatch (v), displeased (v), dispose (v), dispute (v), dissemble (v), dissever (v), distress (n)

Words beginning with "mis": 5 words (2 verbs, 2 nouns, 1 adj).
misadventure (n), miserable (a), misery (n), mislike (v), mistrust (v)

Words beginning with "over": 2 words (2 verbs).
overrun (v), over-thwart (v)

Words beginning with "pre": 7 words (5 verbs, 1 noun, 1 adj, 1 adv).
prefer (v), presence (n), present (v, a), presently (adv), preserve (v), prevail (v), prevent (v)

Words beginning with "re": 28 words (18 verbs, 11 nouns, 2 adj, 1 adv).
recall (v), receive (v), recite (v), reckoning (v, n), refuse (v), regal[ly] (a, adv), relief (n), relieve (v), remain (v), remedy (n), remember (v), repast (n), repent (v), report (v, n), request (n), require (v), requite (v), reserve (v), resign (v), resort (v), resound (v), respect (n), restore (v), return (v, n), revenger (n), revenging (n), reverent (a), reward (n)

Words beginning with "un","in": 38 words (19, 16, 3)
(12 verbs, 7 nouns, 11 adj, 2 adv, 3 prep, 4 conj).
incensed (v), inclined (v), increased (v), indeed (conj), inform (v), injury (n), innocent (a), inquiry (n), insomuch (conj), instead (conj), instruct (v), instructions (n), intelligence (n), intend (v), intent (n), into (prep), intoxicate (v), invent (v), inward (a)
unbind (v), unborn (a), uncertain (a), undone (v), unequal (a), unfeigned[ly] (a, adv), unguentum (n), unhonest (a), unjustice (n), unjustly (adv), unknown (a), unless (conj), unsearched (a), unspeakable (a), until (prep), unworthy (a)
under (prep), undermine (v), understand (v)

Words ending with "able": (2 adj)
miserable (a), unspeakable (a)

Words ending with "less": 3 words (3 adj).
guiltless, hapless, restless

Words ending with "ness": 12 words (12 nouns).
bountifulness, business, fondness, gentleness, goodness, heaviness, likeness, quietness, sickness, simpleness, strangeness, witness

Words ending with "ize": none.
reflexives: advise thyself, assure thyself, content yourself/thyself, convey myself, I fear me, forget myself, myself I apply


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