APPENDICES to Greene's Alphonsus
Appendix I - Glossary
[FS means: found in Shakespeare - NFS means: not found in Shakespeare]
asbeston (n): the qualities of asbestos were discussed similarly in Lyly Euphues, and Sapho; and Greene Alphonsus. Collins points out Solinus Polyhistor and Gesner De rerum fossilium ... as sources of Euphuistic natural history peculiarities and misconceptions.
Amurath: 16th c. Turkish sultan. FS (2H4); Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Alphonsus.
bane (n): destruction, poison. FS (8-2H6, T&C, MM, Cymb, Titus, Mac, Edw3, V&A); Golding Ovid; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Sapho; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Greene Alphonsus, Look Gl; Kyd Sol&Per; Harvey 4 Letters; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Woodstock, Penelope, Blast of Retreat, L Gh; (disp.) Greene's Groat; Chettle Kind Hart.
bob-fool [play bob-fool] (v): make a fool of. OED cites as first use.
brook (v): put up with, bear with, tolerate. Usually in negative or preclusive constructions. FS (many); Golding Ovid; Lodge Wounds; (anon.) Mucedorus, Woodstock, Ironside, Penelope; Lyly Love's Met; Greene G a G, Alphonsus, Orl Fur, Fr Bac, James IV; Marlowe Massacre, Edw2; Sidney Astrophel; Nashe Valentines; Harvey Pierce's Super; Marprelate Prot; Munday Huntington.
buckle (v): engage, grapple. FS (2-1H5); Greene Alphonsus (OED missed citation), Fr Bac; Lyly Pappe.
cheer (n): expression. FS (5-1H6, Shrew, 1H4, Edw3); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; (anon.) Locrine, Willobie, Penelope; Peele Wives. OED contemp citation: 1559 Mirr. for Mag.
contrary (v): speak against, oppose. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus. Fairly unsuual; OED cites Angel Day among others.
counterfeit (n): portrait, image. FS (3-MV, T&C, Sonnet); Greene Alphonsus, Fr Bac; Marlowe T1; Nashe Penniless, Absurdity; (anon.) Woodstock, Arden.
crake/crack (v): brag. (LLL); Golding Ovid; Edwards Dam&Pith (n, crackers); Peele Edw I; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Ironside, Willobie (n); (disp.) Greene's Groat (out-cracked); Munday More.
dain (v): disdain.
devoir (devoir, fr) (n): effort, duty. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus; Peele Wives.
echinus (n): sea-urchin, a genus of animals ..., inhabiting a spheroidal shell built up from polygonal plates, and covered with rows of sharp spines. (The sense "hedgehog" given in Bailey and some mod. Dicts. seems to be merely Gr. and Lat.) Collins quotes Topsell, History of Four-footed Beasts (1658, p. 218): 'When the female is to bring forth her young ones and feeleth the natural pain of her delivery she pricketh her own belly and put off her misery, to her further pain, ...' NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus.
ensign (n): body of men serving under one banner; a company, troop. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus.
forfend (n): forbid, prohibit. FS (8), Golding Ovid; Lodge Wounds; Udall Erasmus; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Woodstock; Ironside.
frolic (a): (1) OED defines as free, liberal, citing Lodge use as an interjection, equivalent to use in Shrew. This does not seem entirely satisfactory. "Daring" or "rash" might be appropriate. FS (2-Shrew, possibly MND); Lodge Wounds; Greene Alphonsus, Fr Bac, James IV; (anon.) Arden.
froward (a): perverse, forward. FS (13); Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus. Common.
glimsing (a): glimpsing, glimmering; shining faintly; appearing by glimpses, affording glimpses. Cf. Watson Hek (3d OED citation); Greene Alphonsus. OED contemp citations: 1551 Recorde Pathw. Knowl; 1577 Stanyhurst Descr. Irel.
hight (v): is/was called/named (v). FS (4-LLL, MND, Pericles); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Gascoigne Jocasta; (anon./Greene) G a G; Greene Alphonsus; Kyd Sp Tr; Peele Wives; (anon.) Leic Gh; Munday Huntington.
incontinent (adv): immediately. FS (4-Rich2, AsYou, Oth, Timon); Golding Ovid; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Greene Alphonsus; Marlowe T1; (anon.) Nobody/Somebody, Locrine, Leic Gh; Chapman Iliad.
Marshalsea: court held before the steward and knight-marshal of the royal household; later a prison in Southwark. Connected with religious prisoners and those who committed maritime offenses. FS (1-H8); Cf. Greene Alphonsus (an anachronism); (anon.) Marprelate.
mate (n): lackey, servant. FS (1H6, 2H4); Gascoigne Supposes; (anon./Greene) G a G; Greene Alphonsus, Orl Fur, James IV; (anon.) Ironside; Nashe Almond; Harvey Pierce's Super; (anon.) Willobie.
maugre/mauger: (fr) in spite of. FS (3-12th, Titus, Lear); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Midas; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Orl Fur, Alphonsus; (anon.) Mucedorus, Locrine, Ironside, Nobody/Somebody, Penelope, Leic Gh; Pasquil Counter; Harvey Sonnet, 3d Letter.
mickle (a): little. FS (6-2H6, 1H6, Errors, R&J, H5, PP); Golding Ovid; Watson Hek; Lodge Wounds; Greene G a G, Alphonsus, James IV; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; (anon.) Woodstock; Munday Huntington.
niece (n): Collins points out that the word "niece" would have been used during the Renaissance to cover more diverse relationships than those implied by its use in modern times.
out of hand: suddenly, immediately. FS (4-1H6, 3H6, Titus, Edw3); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Holinshed; Lodge Wounds; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Yorkshire Tr.
over-curious (a): over-cautious, modest. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus. In Shakespeare there are uses of "curious" in this sense. OED citest two previous uses. 1561 J. Daus tr. Bullinger on Apoc. (1573); 1579 G. Harvey Letter-bk.
overthwart (v): oppose, obstruct. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus. 1st OED citation 1529 Skelton Ware Hauke, 2d 1611.
pack/be packing (v): (1) begone, depart. FS (5-Shrew, MV, MWW, Timon, PP); Edwards Dam&Pith; Watson Hek; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; (anon.) Willobie. 1st 2 OED citations: 1508 Kennedie Flyting w. Dunbar; 1601 Chester Love's Mart. (2) return. FS (1-H8); Greene Alphonsus.
pass/past (v): care for, heed. FS (2-2H6, Mac); Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus; many others.
pine, pine away: starve, waste away. FS (10+); Golding Ovid; Oxford poems; Greene Alphonsus; (anon./Greene) G a G; many others.
posting (a): speedy, fast-paced. FS (2-AWEW, Cymb); Greene Alphonsus.
rede/reed (v, n): advise, order. FS (Ham, noun); Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus. Common.
runagate (n): vagabond, deserter, renegade. FS (4-Rich3, R&J, Cymb); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Gascoigne Supposes; Greene Alphonsus; Nashe Martin Marp, Unfor Travel, Almond; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon). Locrine. OED contemp citations: 1548 Hall Chron.; 1576 Fleming Panopl. Epist.
scot-free (a): free from payment of "scot", tavern score, fine, etc.; exempt from injury, punishment, etc.; scatheless. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus. OED contemp citations: 1548 Hall Chron., Edw. IV; 1567 J. Maplet Green Forest; 1579-80 North Plutarch, Tiberius & Caius.
silly/seely (a): silly, innocent, vulnerable. FS, Golding Ovid; many others.
sect (n): sex. FS (2H4); Greene Alphonsus.
skipjack (n): pert shallow-brained fellow; whipper-snapper; fop. NFS. Cf. Greene Alphonsus, James IV. OED contemp citation: 1554 T. Martin Marr. Priests Ll ij b, A way was opened to euery skipiack that lusted to make hymselfe a priest.
stomach (v): take offense. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus; Marlowe Edw2.
stomach: temper, pride. FS (2-Shrew, H8); Golding Ovid; Lyly Endymion; Greene G a G; Alphonsus; (anon.) Marprelate, Ironside, Weakest; Spenser FQ; Harvey Pierce's Super; Sidney Antony.
triple world (n): The latin triplex mundus (earth, air, water), used often by Elizabethan dramatists. FS (1-A&C); Golding Ovid; Greene Alphonsus, Orl Fur; Marlowe T1, T2.
A&C (I.1.) The triple pillar of the world transform'd / Into a strumpet's fool.
trow (v): think, believe confidently. FS (16); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lodge Wounds, Greene G a G, Alphonsus, James IV; Marlowe Jew/Malta, Edw2; (anon.) Woodstock, Marprelate, Ironside, Willobie; (disp.) Oldcastle, Maiden's; Pasquil Apology.
unkenned (a): unseen. the entry for "ken" FS (4-2H6, T&C, Edw3, TNK); Golding Ovid.
ure (n): use. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid; Gascoigne Jocasta; Marlowe Jew of Malta; Greene Alphonsus; (anon.) Weakest, Penelope.
wight (n): living being. FS (8-H5, LLL, MWW, Pericles, Oth); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Oxford poem; Greene Alphonsus; many others.
Glossary: Proper Names
Acrisius: to void the prophecy that his grandchild by Danae would kill him, Acrisius had Danae locked in a dungeon, where Zeus came to her in a shower of gold and sired Perseus. Perseus later accidently killed Acrisius.
Alcmena: Zeus appeared to Alcmena in the guise of her husband Amphitryon, begetting Heracles.
Atropos (she who cannot be avoided): cutting the thread of life, Atropos was the most feared of the three fates.
Danae: mother of Perseus. Her death was not notable. Collins guesss that Greene (as was his habit) may have confused Danae and the luckless Semele, mother of Dionysis.
Ixion: son of the Lapith king, who attempted to make love to Hera. He was bound to a fiery wheel which rolled ceaselessly throughout the sky. Ixion was the father of Perithuous and of the Centaurs. Collins notes that Greene apparently confused Ixion and Titius, as did Lyly in Euphues and his England. Kyd and Lyly were allowed mistakes that were snobbishly pilloried when found in lesser degree in the works of the less-educated Thomas Kyd.
Saturn/Troos (III.2.21-23): Collins points out that this story is probably another of Greene's inventions: it is not found in mythology.
Thetis: sea nymph who bore the child Achilles by Peleus. In uniting Thetis with Phoebus, Greene has once again hopelessly jumbled his mythology. Greene also united Thetis and Phoebus in Orlando Furioso.
Glossary: Place Names
Amazone: Amazonia, land of the Amazons. (Per Collins) described by Bartholomew Glanville, De Proprietatibus Rerum, lib. xv (John Trevisa trans.): 'Amazonia, Women's lond, is a countree parte in Asia, parte in Europa, and is nye unto Albania, and hath that name Amazonia of women that were the wives of men that were called Gothos.'
Phlegethon, Styx ...: rivers and lakes of Tartarus, often cited also by Kyd.
The title character is apparently meant to suggest Alphonso of Naples and Arragon (1385-54), although Greene may have confused him with Alphonso of Arragon and Navarre (died 1134). As in Greene's other dramatic works, the model is of little importance: he simply furnishes a name to which the ridiculous nonhistorical plot can be attached.
Two apparent sources are:
Memoirs of Alphonso V by Barthlemy Fazio, (1560, 63); and possibly a work by Albertus Timannus (1573). Greene's plot bears little resemblance to either work.
Length: 15,020 words
Style and Dating
Churton Collins comments on the rigid metrical system of this early play, lightened in the later works Orlando Furioso, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, and James IV by playful and increasingly confident use of light and weak endings, of tribrachs (3-short-syllabic metrical feet), anapaests, and dactyls.
Citing its structural rigidity, Collins suggests that this is the earliest of Greene's plays, and suggests an approximate date of 1591.
Collins, J. Churton, ed. The Plays and Poems of Robert Greene. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905.
Appendix II: Connections
Connections: Relationship to Other Plays: Plot
Collins dismisses Grosart's assertion that Greene was the author of Selimus, based on a final speech vowing to continue Alphonsus' story.
Tamburlaine: the imitation of Tamburlaine is pervasive, in the glorification of conquest, and especially in the capture and wooing of the heroines. Greene's language, however, is unusually pallid for this talented poet. Contrast lines from Alphonsus (V.2.30-41)
ALPHONSUS: Nay, virgin, stay. and if thou wilt vouchsafe
To entertain Alphonsus' simple suit,
Thou shalt erelong be Monarch of the world:
All christened Kings, with all your Pagan dogs,
Shall bend their knees unto Iphigina:
The Indian soil shall be thine at command,
Where every step thou settest on the ground
Shall be received on the golden mines:
Rich Pactolus, that river of account,
Which doth descend from top of Tmolus Mount,
shall be thine own, and all the world beside,
If you will grant to be Alphonsus' bride.
With I Tamburlaine
TAMB: Disdains Zenocrate to live with me?
Or you my Lords to be my followers?
Think you I way this treasure more than you?
Not all the Gold in lndia's wealthy arms,
Shall buy the meanest soldier in my trains.
Zenocrate, lovelier than the Love of Jove,
Brighter than is the silver Rhodope.
Thy person is more worth to Tamburlaine,
Than the possession of the Persian Crown,
Which gracious stars have promised at my birth.
A hundred Tartars shall attend on thee,
Mounted on Steeds, swifter than Pegasus.
Thy Garments shall be made of Medean silk,
Enchased with precious jewels of mine own:
More rich and valorous than Zenocrates.
With milk-white Harts upon an Ivory sled,
Thou shalt be drawn amidst the frozen Poles,
And scale the icy mountain's lofty tops:
Which with thy beauty will be soon resolved
My martial prizes with five hundred men,
Won on the fifty headed Volga's waves,
Shall all we offer to Zenocrate,
And then myself to fair Zenocrate.
Comment: No lady ever had a better offer than that of Zenocrate.
Collins (pp. 72-75) analyzes in detail the relationship and many parallels between Tamburlaine and Alphonsus.
Iphigina herself is portrayed (rather flatly) as a charming, spunky heroine, ready to take up arms to defend her father's realm. In this respect she is a precursor to Greene's feminist heroines, Angelica, Margaret, and James IV betrayed but loyal Queen Dorothea. But Greene's recreation tof he fearsome Tamburlaine is a caricature: cold rather than fierce, a bully rather than passionate would-be lover. There were a number of such attempts to capitalize on the success of Tamburlaine: none could "scale the icy mountain's lofty tops". But Greene learned: it was a short step from the dim aspirations of Alphonsus to the art of fanciful romance, attempted with startling results in Orlando Furioso and mastered charmingly in Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay and the swashbuckling James IV.
Base and silly fly
Greene Alphonsus (I.1.27): base and silly fly refers to the Culex, a poem attributed to Virgil
translated in 1591 by Spenser as Ottava rima.
Thick and three-fold (densely crowded)
Greene Alphonsus (I.Pro.52): By thick and three-fold, ...
Nashe Pierce Penniless (McKerrow, 159): it is brought up thick and threefold.
Burton Anatomy (iii.ii): they came in ... thick and threefold to see her.
Mock/Scorn ... Misery ... Flout/Abuse ... Suffer/Grief (Thanks to CP for additions)
Greene Alphonsus (I.Pro.63-64) CALLIOPE: Mock on apace: my back is broad enough
To bear your flouts, as many as they be.
Oxford (#56, June 1599 tin mining memorandum, to the Queen):
I dare not say how much Your Majesty is abused, but I find myself much grieved to be set on to compass this money, and having compassed it, to be turned out with such a mockery. I beseech Your Majesty, in whose service I have faithfully employed myself (I will not entreat that you suffer it yourself thus to be abused), but that you will not suffer me thus to be flouted, scorned and mocked.
Shakes MND HELENA: Why will yousuffer her to flout me thus?
HELENA: Wherefore was I to this keen mockery born? ...
But you must flouit my insufficiency? / Good troth, you do me wrong, good sooth, you do, ...
Should of another therefore be abused!
LLL BIRON: Bruise me with scorn, confound me with a flout;
Ado: BENEDICK: Nay, mock not, mock not. ... / you flout old ends any further, ...
Titus MESS: And here's thy hand, in scorn to thee sent back;
Thy griefs their sports, thy resolution mock'd
Anon. Dodypoll (IV.2.49-50) FLORES: Will you, then, in my misery, mock me too?
(CASS): I mock my friend in misery? Heavens scorn such.
Locrine (V.4.41) GWEN: What have I done, that thou shouldst scorn me thus?
What have I said, that thou shouldst me reject? ...
Geneva Bible Matt. 27.26-31; Mark 15.20; Luke 23.35-36
Vain ... Strive
Golding Ovid Met. (VII.13): In vain, Medea, dost thou strive: some God
whatere he is
(VIII.183): In vain thou striveth, O thou churl, forgetful quite of my
Gascoygne ... Jocasta (I.1.71) SERVUS: In vain (too vain) man strives
against the heavens.
Watson Hek (LIX): Which reason strives to vanquish all in vain;
(XII.503): And laboring for to speak his last he did but strive in vain.
Greene Alphonsus (I.1.37) CARINUS: In vain it is to strive against the stream:
(III.3.91) MEDEA: In vain it is to strive against the stream:
Fr Bac (II.2.57) PRINCE: I strive in vain; ...
Marlowe Tamb2 (V.3.121) TAMB: In vain I strive and rail against those powers,
Edw2 (V.3.33) MATREVIS:ÊÊWhy strive you thus? Your labor is in vain.
(V.3.35) EDWARD: But all in vain; so vainly do I strive
Shakes Lucrece (238): But, wretched as he is, he strives in vain;
Anon. Willobie (XI.2): You strive in vain, by raging lust,
(XLI.1): I marvel that you strive in vain
(LXIV.3): Then if you strive and stir in vain,
Arden (V.I.262) ALICE: In vain we strive, for here his blood remains.
L Gh (91): My father strived in vain to keep her down,
(287): It is in vain to strive against the stream;
(590): But thus it chanced that he strived in vain
In his/her throat
Gascoygne Supposes (II.5) CLEANDER: Thou liest in thy throat, knave.
Greene Alphonsus (I.1.75) ALPH: 'Villain' sayst thou? Nay, 'villain' in thy throat:
Orl Fur (III.2.15) ANGELICA: Yet dare I turn the lie into thy throat,
(V.2.47) ORLANDO: I tell thee, sir, thou liest in thy throat, --
Marlowe (T2) GOVERNOR (V.1.54):ÊTyrant I turn thee traitor in thy throat,
Sidney (Mary) Antony (1542) DIRCE: Kills in my throat my words, ere fully born.
Shakes Pericles (II.5) PERICLES: Even in his throat--unless it be the king-- ...
That calls me traitor, I return the lie.
Anon. Dodypoll (V.2.196): My Lort be Gar he lies falsely in his troat ...
Brooke Romeus (531): In few unfeigned words, your hidden mind unfold,
(2713): In few plain words, the whole that was betide he told,
Golding Ovid Met. (II.978) Yet spake she briefly these few words to her
without her gate:
(VII.1104): To utter these few words at last: ...
Gascoygne Supposes (II.2) EROSTRATO: ... or at few words never think ...
Edwards Dam&Pith (124) I promised friendship; but you love few words -- ...
(435) DAMON: ... To describe in few words the state of this city.
(1246) GRIM: Yet in few words I tell you this one thing --
Watson Hek (XLII): and effectually set down (albeit in few words)
Lyly Endymion (I.4) TELLUS: Dipsas, listen in few words to my tale
Kyd Sp Tr ((III.15.1351): "Pocas palabras!": few words.
Greene Alphonsus (II.1.15) ALPH: Laelius, few words would better thee become,
Chettle Kind Harts: bringeth forth more mischiefs than few words can express
Shakes H5 (3.2.36-37): ... men of few words are the best men.
Similar sayings were also proverbial.
Anon. Willobie (XIV.4): Few words suffice where hearts consent,
Greene's Groat (307) Brother, said Lucanio, lets use few words.
Geneva Bible Eccles. 5.1 let thy words be few
Shepherd (Good, lax shepherd)
Greene Alphonsus (II.1.58) BEL: Like simple sheep, when shepherd absent is
Far from his flock, assailed by greedy wolves,
Shakes 2H6 (2.2.73-74): Till they have snar'd the shepherd of the flock,
that virtuous prince.
3H6 (V.6) HENRY 6: So flies the reckless shepherd from the wolf;
So first the harmless sheep doth yield his fleece ...
Rich3 (4.4.22-23): Wilt thou, O God, fly from such gentle lambs,
And throw them in the entrails of the wolf?
Edw3 (I.1) ARTOIS: Place the true shepherd of our commonwealth?
(III.3) PRINCE: Aye, that approves thee, tyrant, what thou art:
No father, king, or shepherd of thy realm,
Anon. Willobie (V.1): Needs must the sheep strake all awry,
Whose shepherds wander from their way:
Woodstock (IV.2): WOODSTOCK ... where I compared the state (as
now it stands, meaning King Richard and his harmful flatterers) unto a
savage herd of ravening wolves, the commons to a flock of silly sheep who,
whilst their slothful shepherd careless stood, those forest thieves broke in,
and sucked their blood.
Oldcastle (IV.1) KING: Your lives as lamps to give the people light,
As shepherds, not as wolves to spoil the flock.
Geneva Bible John 10.11-14 I am the good shepherd: the good sheperd giveth his life for his sheep But an hierling ... ... seeth the wolf coming, & he leaveth the sheep, and fleeth, and the wolfe ctcheth them, and scattereth the sheep. ...I am the good shepherd and know my sheep, and am known of mine.
Note: This concept, derived from the Bible, is perfectly expressed in a passage from the following letter of the Earl of Oxford.
Oxford letter (#4, 4-25/27 1603): There is nothing therefore left to my
comfort but the excellent virtues, and deep wisdom wherewith God hath
endued our new master and sovereign Lord, who doth not come amongst
us as a stranger but as a natural prince, succeeding by right of blood, and
inheritance, not as a conqueror, but as the true shepherd of Christ's flock to
cherish and comfort them.
Duty ... Bound
Gascoygne ... Jocasta (I.1.20) SERVUS: For hereunto I am by duty bound,
Edwards D&P (747): EUBULUS: But yet, O might [king], my duty bindeth me.
(1758) EUBULUS: But chiefly yet, as duty bindeth, I humbly crave
Shakes 1H6 (II.1) TALBOT: How much in duty I am bound to both.
Oth (I.3) DES: I do perceive here a divided duty: / To you I am bound for life and education;
(III.3) IAGO: Though I am bound to every act of duty, ...
(III.3) IAGO: To show the love and duty that I bear you
Lucrece (Prologue): Were my worth greater, my duty would show greater,
meantime, as it is bound to your lordship ,...
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.59) PEDRINGANO: My bounden duty bids me tell the truth,
S&P (V.2.66) 2 WITNESS: And, as our duty and allegiance bound us,
Greene Alphonsus (III.1.24) ALPH: So that, perforce, I must by duty be
Bound to you all for this your courtesy.
Marlowe Tamb I (I.1): Emperior of Asia ...; Great lord of Media and Armenia;
Duke of Africa and Albania, / Mesopotamia and of Parthia, &c.
Anon Dodypoll (I.1.6): O, that my rival bound me not in duty ...
Cromwell (I.2.97-98) CROM: With all my heart, sir, and I much am bound,
In love and duty for your kindness shown.
To Syria &c. (Collins suggests that Greene borrowed from Marlowe)
Greene Alphonsus (III.2.58-62): You, Bajazet, go post away apace
To Syria, Scythia and Albania, / To Babylon and Mesopotamia,
Asia, Armenia, and all other lands
Which owe their homage to high Amurack:
Brooke Romeus (1854): So we her parents in our age, shall live in quiet rest.
(2100): I never gave my weary limbs long time of quiet rest,
(2542): In heaven hath she sought to find a place of quiet rest.
Gascoygne ... Jocasta (V.5.43) OEDI: Have greatest need to crave their quiet rest.
Oxford Poem (#2): Who first did break thy sleeps of quiet rest ?
Kyd Sp Tr (III.13.1089-90) HIER: Thus therefore will I rest me in unrest,
Dissembling quiet in unquietness.
Shakes: Rich3 (V.3) BLUNT: ... And so, God give you quiet rest to-night!
King John (III.4) PANDULPH: One minute, nay, one quiet breath of rest ...
Greene Alphonsus (III.2.95) CALCH: Shall nere my ghost obtain his quiet rest?
James 4 (V.1.80) Queen: How can it thrive or boast of quiet rest?
Anon. Woodstock (IV.3) BUSHY: her quiet soul rests in celestial peace:
Willobie (XLIIII.1): What sudden chance or change is this,
That doth bereave my quiet rest?
Greene's Groat (526-27): that we might rest quietly
without the Maids and Bachelors disturbing.
Oldcastle (V.8) LADY COBHAM: But where, my Lord,
Shall we find rest for our disquiet minds?
Geneva Bible 1Kings Arg. Because the children of God should look for no
continual rest and quietness in this world .
Woeful wight ... Hap
Golding Ovid (IX.562): Now woe is me, most wretched wight.
Brooke Romeus (2005): Her weary bed betime the woeful wight forsakes,
(2638): And them on divers parts beside, the woeful wight did hold.
Oxford poem #12 (Song: The Forsaken Man)
Drown me with trickling tears,
You wailful wights of woe;
Come help these hands to rend my hairs,
My rueful hap to show.
Care and Disappointment
Thus like a woeful wight I wove the web of woe.
To entertain my thoughts, and there my hap to moan.
possible Oxford, ascribed to Queen Elizabeth) (Importune Me No More)
How many weeping eyes I made to pine in woe;
How many sighing hearts I have no skill to show.
Edwards Dam&Pith (Song, 588-91)): Awake ye woeful wights,
That long have wept in woe:
Resign to me your plaints and tears,
My haplese hap to show.
Greene Alphonsus (IV.2.51) CARI: Some woeful wight lamenting
Anon. Penelope (VI.3): For careless wights* why do you care,
And causeless eke so woeful are?
Marlowe T2 (IV.2.9): OLYMP: And since this earth, dewed with thy
Greene Alphonsus (V.3.88) FAUSTA: If that the salt-brine tears ...
Anon. Ironside (III.5.65) EDR: and all our force lies drowned in brinish tears
Shakes 3H6 (III.1) H6: To hear and see her plaints, her brinish tears.
Lucrece (174): And wiped the brinish pearl from her bright eyes,
Forged truth (lies, dissimulations)
Brooke Romeus (321): With forged careless cheer, of one he seeks to know,
Golding Ovid Met. (V.13): Upholding that Medusa's death was but a forged lie:
(IX.167): Through false and newly-forged lies that she herself doth sow),
Edwards D&P (1726): Away, the plague of this court!
Thy filed tongue that forged lies
Watson Hek (XLVII): No shower of tears can move, she thinks I forge:
So forge, that I may speed without delay;
Greene Alphonsus (IV.Pro.21) VENUS: Did give such credence to that forged tale
Kyd Sp Tr (I.2.92) VILUPPO: Thus have I with an envious, forged tale ...
S&P (II.1.117) PERSEDA: ... Ah, how thine eyes can forge alluring looks,
Shakes TA (V.2) TAMORA: ... Whate'er I forge to feed his brain-sick fits,
1H6 (III.1) EXETER: Burns under feigned ashes of forged love
(IV.1): VERNON: ... For though he seem with forged quaint conceit
Rich3 (IV.1) FITZWATER: ... And I will turn thy falsehood to thy heart,
Where it was forged, ...
Hamlet (I.5) ... the whole ear of Denmark / Is by a forged process of my death
Rankly abused: ...
V&A (132): Love is all truth, Lust full of forged lies.
Sonnet 137: Why of eyes' falsehood hast thou forged hooks, ...
AWEW (IV.1): 2d Lord: ... and then to return and swear the lies he forges.
Othello (IV.2): OTHELLO: I should make very forges of my cheeks, ...
Anon. Ironside (IV.1.101) EDMUND: not to believe each smooth-face forged tale.
(V.2.83) CANUTUS: Then to confute thy forged argument,
Arden (III.5.56) MOSBY: To forge distressful looks to wound a breast
Oldcastle (Pro.14): Since forged invention former time defaced.
Geneva Bible Pss 119.69, Job 13.4, Ecclus 51.2
Borrow ... Light
Golding Ovid Met. (I.10): No Moon in growing did repair her horns with
(VIII.13): ... Six times did Phebe fill / Her horns with borrowed light;
Brooke Romeus (435): Had paid his borrowed light, and Phoebus spread in skies
(508): I should restore again to death, of life my borrowed light,
Lyly Campaspe (I.1.14-15) PARMENIO: For as the moon can borrow
nothing else of the sun but light,
Marlowe T1 (I.1.68) THERI: Before the Moon renew her borrowed light,
(IV.2.35) TAMB: Disdain to borrow light of Cynthia,
(IV.2.40) TAMB: And cause the Sun to borrow light of you.
T2 (IV.2.90) THERI: From whence the stars do borrow all their light
Greene Alphonsus (IV.2.40) DUKE: Thrice Cynthia, with Phoebus'
Shakes Lucrece (155): .. when, lo, the blushing morrow
Lends light to all fair eyes that light will borrow:
TNK (IV.1) JAILER'S DAUGHTER: [Sings] When Cynthia with her borrowed light . . .
Anon. Mucedorus (Pro.14): For, from your Beams, Europe shall borrow light.
Pray loud enough
Greene Alphonsus (IV.3.147) ALB: Pray loud enough, lest that you pray in vain:
Geneva Bible 1 Kings 18.27 And at noon Elijah mocked them, and said,
Cry loud: for hs is a god: either he talketh or pursueth his enemies, or is in his
journey, or it maybe that he sleepeth, and must be awaked
Scatology ... Dunghill
Harvey (1593): Pierce's Supererogation (in an apparent reference to Oxford):
there is a cap of maintenance, called Impudency: and what say to him, that in a super-abundance of that same odd capricious humour, findeth no such want in England as of an Aretine, that might strip these golden Asses out of their gay trappings, and after he had ridden them to death with railing, leave them on the dung-hill for carrion?
Greene Alphonsus (V.3.64) AMURACK: Into the hands of such a / dunghill Knight?
(V.3.70) ALPH: 'Villain,' sayest thou? 'Traitor' and 'dunghill Knight?'
Shakes 1H6 (I.3): Shall I be flouted thus by dunghill grooms?
2H6 (I.3): Base dunghill villain and mechanical,
(IV.10): Unto a dunghill which shall be thy grave,
LLL (V.1): Go to; thou hast it ad dunghill, at the fingers'
O, I smell false Latin; dunghill for unguem.
KING JOHN: Out, dunghill! darest thou brave a nobleman?
MWW (I.3): Then did the sun on dunghill shine.
2H4 (V.3): Shall dunghill curs confront the Helicons?
H5 (IV.3): Dying like men, though buried in your dunghills,
AsYou (I.1): which his animals on his dunghills are as much
LEAR (III.7): Upon the dunghill. Regan, I bleed apace:
(IV.6): Out, dunghill!
Nashe Will Summers (449): How base is pride from his own dung-hill put!
Chapman D'Olive (V.2.100) D'OLIVE: ... like old rags out of dunghills ...,
Anon Ironside (I.1.22-29) LEOFRIC: Oh what a grief is it to noble bloods
to see each base-born groom promoted up, / each dunghill brat arreared to dignity,
(III.5.1-3) CANUTUS: A plague upon you all for arrant cowards!
Look how a dunghill cock, not rightly bred, / doth come into the pit with greater grace,
Weakest (XVI.158) BRABANT: Never begot but of some dunghill churl.
Willobie (XII.1): Thou beggar's brat, thou dung-hill mate,
Thou clownish spawn, thou country gill,
My love is turned to wreakful hate, / Go hang, and keep thy credit still,
Gad where thou list, aright or wrong, / I hope to see thee beg, ere long.
Cromwell (I.2.68) CROM: And from the dunghill minions do advance
Brooke Romeus (975): For lo, the Montagues thought shame away to fly,
Golding Ovid Met (VII.103): ... and frantic love did fly away dismayed.
(XI.87): Aflaited for to fly away
Lyly Gallathea (I.1) TYTERUS: the fowls fly away,
and the cattle in the field for terror shun the banks.
Marlowe T2 (V.3.70) TAMB: Who flies away at every glance I give,
Greene Alphonsus (V.3.121-22) AMURACK: Can ere be found to turn
his heels and fly / Away for fear from such a boy as thou?
Shakes 2H6 (II.1) SUFFOLK: True; made the lame to leap and fly away.
1H6 (IV.6) TALBOT: All these are saved if thou wilt fly away.
TGV (III.1) VAL: But, fly I hence, I fly away from life.
12th (II.4) CLOWN: Come away, come away, death, ... / Fly away, fly away breath;
WT (III.2) OFFICER: for / their better safety, to fly away by night.
Titus (V.2) TITUS: That so my sad decrees may fly away,
Anon. Willobie (XXXVIII.3): And though the body fly away,
Yet let me with the shadow play.
Penelope: (XLVI.2): And yet not one away would fly.
Dodypoll (III.5.70-71) LUCILIA: Ah, have I loosed thee then to fly from me?
Trickling ... Tears
Brooke Romeus (1193): The nurse with trickling tears to witness / inward smart,
(1540): Their trickling tears, as crystal clear, but bitterer far than gall.
Gascoygne ... Jocasta (II.1.69) JOC: Naught else but tears have trickled / from mine eyes,
(V.2.153) NUNCIUS: The trickling tears rained down his paled cheeks:
Golding Ovid Met (I.430): And with these words the bitter tears did / trickle down their cheek,
(II.821): A sore deep sigh, and down her cheeks the tears did trickle wet.
Oxford Dainty Devices: The trickling tears that fall along my cheeks,
(ibid.): The Forsaken Man: Drown me with trickling tears,
Greene Alphonsus (V.3.190) CARINUS: Then, dainty damsel, stint / these trickling tears;
Shakes 1H4 (II.4) FALSTAFF: Weep not, sweet queen; for trickling / tears are vain.
Willobie (XLVII.5): Your silent sighs & trickling tears,
(XLVIII.5): Where thinking on my helpless hap, / My trickling tears, like rivers flow,
Lyly MB (I.3) PRISCIUS: with tears trickling down thy cheeks
and drops of blood falling from thy heart
Appendix III: Vocabulary, Word Formation
Favored Words; mickle; out-of-hand; for because (used widely in Golding Ovid), Romeus, Kyd Sp Tr.; used 9 times in Alphonsus, not once in Orlando, Fr Bac, James IV, or Greene's Groat; triple world.
Distinctive Words, Phrases: what might the occasion be (2); not found in Fr Bac, J4, Orlando, Groat. suffix "ward", i.e. Naples-ward, Temple-ward. This construction is not found in Orlando, Fr Bac, James IV, or Greene's Groat. It is widely used in Golding Ovid.
what means (this)?
Compound Words (*surely unusual): 17 words. (9 nouns, 7 adj, 1 adv).
hand-to-hand (adv), bob-fool* (n), cannon-shot (n), demi-parcel (n), gentle-wise (n), men-at-arms (n), Naple-ward (n), over-curious (a), over-much (adv), over-squeamish (a), over-weak (a), resting-place (n), salt-brine (a), scot-free (a), son-in-law (n), Temple-ward (n), three-fold (a), well-deserved (a)
Words beginning with "con" (*surely unusual): 17 words. (8 verbs, 7 nouns, 4 adj, 1 adv).
concubine (n), concupiscence (n), condition (n), confess (v), confines (n), confirm (v), conflict (n), conjoin (v), conjure (v), conquer (v), conquest (n), consent (v, n), constant (a), content (a), contrary* (v, a), control (v), convenient[ly] (a, adv)
Words beginning with "dis" (*surely unusual): 14 words. (7 verbs, 5 nouns, 3 adj).
disbase* (v), discharge (n, v), discontent (a), discourse (n), disdain (v), disgrace (n), disguised (a), displease (v), displeasure (n), disposed (v), dispossessed (v), distilling (v), distress (n), distressed (a)
Words beginning with "mis": 4 words (1 verb, 3 nouns).
mischance (n), mishap (n), misery (n), misuse (v)
Words beginning with "over": 7 words (2 verbs, 1 noun, 3 adj, 1 adv).
over-curious (a), overhear (v), over-much (adv), over-squeamish (a), overthrow (n), overthwart (v), over-weak (a)
Words beginning with "pre": 10 words (4 verbs, 2 nouns, 3 adj, 1 adv).
predecessors (n), prejudicial (a), presence (n), present (a), presently (adv), preserve (v), presume (v), presumptuous (a), prevail (v), prevent (v)
Words beginning with "re": 31 words (23 verbs, 10 nouns).
rebuke (v), recall (v), receive (v), recompense (v, n), record (n), recount (v), recover (v), refrain (v), regiment (n), register (n), rehearse (v), reject (v), rejoice (v), release (v), remain (v), remedy (n), remember (v), renown (n), repeat (v), repent (v), report (n), repulse (n), require (v), requite (v), resemble (v), resolve (v), respect (n), return (v), revenge (v, n), revoke (v), reward (v)
Words beginning with "un","in"(* surely unusual): 34 words (12/3/16/3)
incontinent (a), increase (v), inform (v), injury (n), injurious (a), install (v), instruction (n), instrument (n), insufficient (a), intend (v), intent (n), intuit* (v)
indeed (conj), instead (adv), into (prep)
unable (a), unconstant (a), uncourteous (a), undo/done (v), unfold (v), unhappy (a), unjustly (adv), unkenned (a), unkind (a), unpunished (a), unseemly (a), unsheath (v), untouched (a), untruth (n), unwilling (a), unwittingly (adv)
underneath (prep), unless (conj), unto (prep)
Words ending in "able": 1 word (adj) -- unable.
Words ending in "ize": 1 word (verb) -- solemnize.
Words ending in "less" (*surely unusual): 10 words (1 noun, 8 adj, 1 conj).
breathless (a), careless[ly] (a), fleshless (a), guiltless (a), hapless (a), idless'* (n), luckless (a), peerless (a), thankless (a), unless (conj)
Words ending in "ness": 10 words (all nouns).
business, foolishness, forwardness, gentleness, happiness, hardness, rashness, readiness, sharpness, witness
Reflexives: advise thee, assure thyself/yourself, behaved himself, bethink thee, cast thyself down, deceive thyself, eased herself, feed not thyself, look thou, mount you, persuade thyself', release thyself, resolve me, think you, undo himself, prove yourself, may revenge him
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