APPENDICES to Golding's Abraham's Sacrifice
Appendix I - Glossary
advised (a): considerate, well considered: FS (many); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lodge Wounds; (anon.) Ironside; (disp.) Greene's Groat.
agen (adv): southern pronunciation of again. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid, Abraham.
appall (v): shock, dismay. FS (6-T&C, Ham, Mac, V&A, TNK (v); Mac (n)); Golding Abraham; Gascoigne Jocasta; Chapman (v) Iliad, Batrachom.
avord (v): afford. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid, Abraham.
behight (a): pledged, ordained. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid, Abraham. OED contemp citations: 1548 Hall Chron; 1581 Marbeck Bk. Notes.
boord/board (n): jest. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid, Abraham. OED contemp citations: 1548 Cranmer Catech; 1593 Drayton Eclog.
brazil/brazell (n): a miner's name in the Midlands for iron pyrite, coal contain pyrites. Cf. Golding Abraham. First OED citation 1747.
cheer (n): expression. FS (5-1H6, Shrew, 1H4, Edw3); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek; Marlowe/Nashe Dido; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; (anon.) Locrine, Willobie, Penelope; Peele Wives. OED contemp citation: 1559 Mirr. for Mag
clive (n): cleave. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid, Abraham. OED contemp citations: 1558 Phar Aeneid; 1570 Levins Manip; 1575 Turberv. Venerie
clod (n): clot. FS (3-John, Ado, MM); Golding Ovid, Abraham; (anon.) Locrine; Leic Gh.
disease (v): distress. FS (2H4, Corio); Golding Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith.
fence (n): fencing, fighting skill. FS (many); Golding Abraham, Edwards Dam&Pith; (anon.) Fam Vic, Willobie, Arden.
fleet (v): drift. FS (many); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Woman ... Moon; Marlowe T1, Edw2.
fraughted (v): supplied. FS (8); Golding Ovid, Abraham; (anon.) Woodstock; Marlowe Jew. OED examples indicate a favored Puritan word.
gear (n): (1) device, matter. FS (11); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Gascoigne Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Sapho; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Kyd Sp Tr; (disp.) Oldcastle; (anon.) Fam Vic; Munday Huntington. (2) furnishings, equipment. FS (1-T&C); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Supposes; Lyly Bombie.
glister (v): glitter. FS (8); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta; Watson Hek; Lyly Gallathea, Woman ... Moon, Midas; Greene Fr Bacon; (anon.) Locrine; (disp.) Cromwell. Cf. to V&A (44): His eye, which scornfully glisters like fire. See also Willobie (In praise of): Yet Tarquin plucked his glistering grape, And Shake-speare, paints poor Lucrece rape.
groin/groyne (n): snout of a pig. FS (1-V&A); Golding Ovid, Abraham.
hight (v): is/was called/named (v). FS (4-LLL, MND, Pericles); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Watson Hek; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene G a G, Alphonsus; Kyd Sp Tr; Peele Wives; (anon.) Leic Gh; Munday Huntington.
liever (adv): rather. Apparent form of "liefer". NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid, Abraham.
lowering (a): gloomy. Cf. Golding Abraham.
maugre: (fr) in spite of. FS (3-12th, Titus, Lear); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lyly Midas; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Orl Fur, Alphonsus; (anon.) Mucedorus, Locrine, Ironside, Nobody/Somebody, Penelope, Leic Gh; Pasquil Countercuff; Harvey Sonnet, 3d Letter.
meinie (n): family, household. FS (1-Lear); Golding Abraham.
mould/mold (n): earth. Cf. Golding Abraham.
out of hand (adv). suddenly, immediately. FS (4-1H6, 3H6, Titus, Edw3); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Holinshed; Lodge Wounds; Gascoigne Jocasta; Greene Alphonsus, James IV; Sidney Antony; (anon.) Yorkshire Tr.
plight (n): condition (favorable or unfavorable). Favorable only: FS (3 -MWW, T&C, Sonnet 28); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus.
preace (n): press of people. NFS. Cf. Golding Ovid. Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Edwards Dam&Pith; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene Fr Bac; (anon.) Locrine; Oxford letter.
race (n): course. FS (3-John, MM, Sonnet); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Edwards Dam&Pith; Sidney Ps; (anon.) Willobie; Spencer FQ.
rout (n): company, crowd. FS (10); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Marlowe Edw2; (disp.) Oldcastle; Chettle Kind Hart; (anon.) Locrine, Penelope, Leic Gh.
speed (v): fare, succeed. FS (19+, ); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Kyd Sol&Per; Greene James IV; Marlowe Edw2; (anon.) Ironside, Willobie, Leic Gh; Peele Wives. Common.
spill (v): kill. FS (3-Ham, Lear, Lucrece); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Lily Euphues; Spenser FQ; (anon.) Woodstock, Willobie, Penelope, Leic Gh.
stale (n): decoy, lure. FS (Shrew); Golding Abraham; Lodge Wounds; Gascoigne Supposes; (disp.) Greene's Groat.
stout (a): bold, resolute. FS (1-2H6); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Greene Fr Bacon; Sidney Arcadia; (anon.) Ironside, Arden, Willobie, Penelope, Leic Gh.
stoutly (adv): bravely. FS (2-3H6, Lucrece); Golding Ovid, Abraham. OED early citations: 1540 Palsgr. Acolastus; 1549 Coverdale etc. Erasm.
tack (n): course. Cf. Golding Abraham.
toys (n): antics. FS (many); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Lyly Campaspe, Midas; Kyd Sp Tr; Marlowe T1, Edw2; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Willobie.
trow (v): think, believe confidently. FS (16); Golding Ovid, Abraham; many others.
twitch (v): pull. NFS. Cf. Golding Abraham. OED cites other Golding use: 1587 Golding De Mornay xxii. (1592) 341 Notwithstanding that our Lawe in euery line..do reproue vs for it, and after a sort twich vs euery hour by the Cote, to pull vs from it.
ween (v): think, consider. FS (1-H8); Golding Abraham; Gascoigne Jocasta.
wight (n): living being. FS (8-H5, LLL, MWW, Pericles, Oth); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Oxford poem; many others.
wist (v): knew. FS (1-1H6); Golding Ovid, Abraham; Brooke Romeus; Gascoigne Jocasta, Supposes; Edwards Dam&Pith; Marlowe Edw2; Nashe Summers; (anon.) Willobie, Penelope, News Heaven/Hell; (disp.) Oldcastle. OED cites Lyly Euphues.
wot (v): know. FS (30); Golding Abraham; Gascoigne Supposes, Jocasta; Kyd Sp Tr, Sol&Per. Pasquil Apology. Common.
wy: apparent contraction of "with ye".
Golding, Arthur. The XV. Bookes of P. Ovidius Naso, entytuled Metamorphosis, translated oute of Latin into English meeter, by Arthur Golding, Gentleman. 1567. Available on the web (modern spelling) at: http://www.sourcetext.com/sourcebook/Ovid.
Golding, Louis Thorn. An Elizabethan Puritan. New York: Richard R. Smith, 1937.
Nims, John Frederick, ed. Ovid's Metamorphoses: The Arthur Golding Translation (1567). New York: The MacMillan Co., 1965.
APPENDIX II: Connections
Golding Abraham (Pro.13): That both of us our labor lose togither.
Watson Hek (XXVI): Since labor breeds but loss, and lets me starve;
(XXXI): For if he do, his labor is but lost,
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.18): And being worthless, all my labor's lost.
Greene James 4 (II.1.200) ATEUKIN: I see this labor lost, my hope in vain;
Shakes Play title Love's Labours Lost
3H6 (III.1) HENRY VI: ... Poor queen and son, your labour is but lost; ...
TGV (I.1) VAL: ... If lost, why then a grievous labour won;
SPEED: Ay sir: I, a lost mutton, gave your letter to her,
a laced mutton, and she, a laced mutton, gave me,
lost mutton, nothing for my labour.
Merchant (II.7) MOROCCO: ... Cold, indeed; and labour lost:
AWEW (III.5) WIDOW: We have lost our labour; they are gone ...
WT (IV.4) AUTOLYCUS: Age, thou hast lost thy labour.
Anon. Arden (IV.3.16) BLACK WILL: My life for thine, 'twas Arden
and his companion, / and then all our labor's lost.
Willobie (XVI.1): Assure yourself your labor's lost.
(XXVIII.5): The labor's lost that you endure,
(XXXIX.3): Your labor's lost, your hope is vain.
Faith ... Works ... Merit
Golding Abr (Pro.32-33)PRO: Hight Abraham the righteous man, the same
Whose lively faith hath won him endless fame.
(36-37): And lastly you shall see him justified
By faith, for killing (in a certain wise)
(42): But, (which more is) his faith shall them subdue.
(307-312) SONG: No rich, ne poor estate, / Can puff or yet abate,
The godly and the faithful heart: The faithful goeth free
Although he martyred be / A thousand times with woe and smart
Other similar, strongly Puritan allusions.
Shakes LLL (IV.1.22): See, see, my beauty will be sav'd by merit.
O heresy in fair, fit for these days!
1H4 (I.2.107): O, if men were to be sav'd by merit.
Munday Huntington (XII.16-19) LEIC: Where He, that brought all
Was born, lived, wrought His miracles, and died,
From death arose, and then to heaven ascended;
Whose true religious faith ye have defended.
Anon. Willobie (In praise of Willobie his Avisa.1):
In Lavine Land though Livie boast, / There hath been seen a Constant dame:
Though Rome lament that she have lost / The Garland of her rarest fame:
Yet now we see, that here is found, / As great a Faith in English ground.
Cromwell (V.3.26-28) CROMWELL: With serpent's eyes, indeed,
by thine they were; But Gardiner do thy worst, I fear thee not.
My faith, compared with thine, as much shall pass,
(V.5.99) CROMWELL: Yet let thy faith as spotless be as mine,
Oldcastle (I.2.135-36) KING: If any way his conscience be seduced,
To waver in his faith, I'll send for him,
(IV.4) COBHAM: My lord of Rochester, on good advise,
I see my error, but yet, understand me
I mean not error in the faith I hold,
But error in submitting to your pleasure;
(V.10.7-9) COBHAM: Hang on these iron gyves, to press my life
As low as earth, yet strengthen me with faith,
That I may mount in spirit above the clouds.Geneva Bible Rom. 3.28, a man is justified by faith, without the works
of the Law; Also Rom. 5.12; 11.16
These verses reflects the triumph of Protestantism in the ascension of Elizabeth, and also the religious controversy between Protestant (salvation could be gained by faith alone) and Catholic (placing value on both faith and works).
Note: the strong, clear expressions about the efficacy of faith from the Puritans Golding and Munday and in plays about Cromwell and Oldcastle.
Legal term: Case stands
Brooke Romeus (1696): The tidings of your health and how your
doubtful case shall stand;
Edwards Dam&Pith (1256) GRIM: Good fellows, believe me,
as the case now stands ...,
(1600) PITHIAS: Let me have no wrong. As now stands the case
Golding Abr (Pro.22): Were as you be not, now as stands the case.
(340) SHEPHERDS SONG: Because, as stood the case,
(531): HALFE THE SHEP: Sure I suppose how ere the case doth stand
Watson Hek (XXXVI): My letters tell in what a case I stand,
Kyd Sp Tr (II.1.45) LORENZO: Thus stands the case: It is not long, ...
Shakes 3H6 (IV.5): Were as you be not, now as stands the case.
R&J (III.5) NURSE: Then, since the case so stands as now it doth,
WT (II.3) PAULINA: For, as the case now stands, it is a curse ...
Cymb (I.5) QUEEN: ... The case stands with her; do't as from thyself.
(III.4) IMOGEN: ... yet the traitor / Stands in worse case of woe.
Anon. Weakest (XVIII.215) VILLIERS: ... thus then stands my case,
Primrose Path ... Gate ... Hell/Straight/Death
Golding Abr (32-33): He goeth right: and while he holds that way
He never needs to fear that he shall stray.
Lyly MB (III.2) MAEST: ... these old saws of such old hags are but false fires
to lead one out of a plain path into a deep pit.
Kyd Sp Tr (Ind.63-71) The left-hand path, declining fearfully,
Was ready downfall to the deepest hell ,...
(III.11.768-8-) There is a path upon your left-hand side
That leadeth from a guilty conscience / Unto a forest of distrust and fear --
A darksome place, and dangerous to pass:
There shall you meet with melancholy thoughts,
Whose baleful humors if you but uphold,
It will conduct you to Despair and Death ...
Shakes AWEW (4.5.50-51): I am for the House with the narrow gate.
AWEW (4.5.54-55): The flow'ry way that leads to the broad gate
and the great fire.
Mac (II.3.18-19): That go the primrose way to th' everlasting bonfire.
Hamlet (I.3) OPH: ... Do not, as some ungracious pastors do,
Show me the steep and thorny way to heaven;
Whiles, like a puff'd and reckless libertine,
Himself the primrose path of dalliance treads,
And recks not his own rede.
See also Macbeth (2.3.18); T&C (III.3.154),
Anon. Willobie (LVIII.2): You seem by this, to wish me well,
To teach me tread the path to hell.
Dodypoll (III.3.24): Where every step shall reach the gate of death,
Geneva Bible Matt. 7.13-14 (13) Enter in at the strait gate, for it is a wide gate, and broad way that leadeth to destruction: and many there be that go in thereat, (14) Because the gate is straight, and the way narrow that leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it.
Wisd. of Sol. 16.13 and leadeth down unto the gates of hell
See also Job 38.17; Pss. 9.13-14, 107.18, Pr. 4.19.
Shield, God's Shield
Golding Ovid Met. (VII.51): God shield I so should do.
Abraham (301-03) SONG: O happy is the wight
That grounds himself aright / On God, and maketh him his shield:
Gascoygne et al Jocasta (II.1.628) CHORUS: God shield.
Lyly Campaspe (III.2) PSY: The gods shield me from such a fine fellow,
whose words melt wits like wax.
(III.4) APELLES: God shield you should have cause to be as cunning ...
Gallathea (II.3) PETER: god shield me from blowing gold to nothing,
Midas (III.3) SOPHRONIA: The gods shield him from all harms.
Shakes R&J (IV.1) PARIS: God shield I should disturb devotion!
MND (III.1) BOTTOM: God shield us! -- a lion among ladies, ...
AWEW (I.3) COUNTESS: ... God shield you mean it not! ...
Greene James 4 (I.3.15) EUSTACE: A wife! God shield, Sir Bartram, ...
Chapman D'Olive (III.2.30) D'OL: above all sins, heaven shield me from
the sin of blushing! (III.2.42-43) D'OL: heaven shield me from any / more followers!
Anon. Willobie (III.3 I): have by grace a native shield,
(IX.1): God shield me from your cursed crew
Penelope (XVIII.1-2): Ulysses dear, the Gods thee shield, ...
(XXXIV.4): (Whom for to shield the Gods I pray)
Woodstock (III.2) WOODSTOCK: we are beset (heaven shield) ...
Geneva Bible Ps. 84.9, 11;
Prov. 30.5 Every word of God is pure; he is a shield to those that trust in him.
God ... Angry rod
Golding Ovid Met. (Ep.481-82): For why men's stomachs waxing hard
as steel against their God,
Provoked him from day to day to strike them with his rod.
Abraham (128-32) SONG: And thou O Lord whom we do know to be
the true and living God, / Come from thy place, that we may one day see
the vengeance of thy rod / Upon thy foes, ...
(332-33) SONG: The king through God's sharp rod,
Did yield to him his wife straight-way,
Shakes: Rich3 (V.3.112): irons of wrath
Rich2 (5.1.32-32): kiss the rod (or correction)
1H4 (3.2.10-11): For the hot vengeance, and the rod of heaven,
To punish my misreadings.
MND (III.2.410): I'll whip thee with a rod. Corio (II.43.91-92).
Anon. Willobie (V.6): And felt the weight of angry rod.
Geneva Bible 1 Kings 12.11 you have been a rod to her friends
Ps. 2.9 rod/iron; Ps. 89.32/rod/punish; Job 21.9/rod/God; Lam/rod/indignation;
Also Prov. 22.15/rod/correction, 29.15/rod/reproof
Fair ... Foul
This play on words is too common to list all uses. The following are clever or well-known:
Surprising are the uses in Golding's Abraham's sacrifice.
(545) SONG: All kind of things both foul and fair,
(Epi.18): The fair, the foul, the crooked, and the right.
Lyly Campaspe (IV.i) PSYLLUS: I will not lose the sight of so fair a fowl
as Diogenes is, ...
Shakes: Mac (I.1) ALL:. Fair is foul, and foul is fair
Hover through the fog and filthy air.
(I.3) MACBETH: So foul and fair a day I have not seen.
V&A (170) ... The foul boar's conquest on her fair delight;
Sonnet (137): ... To put fair truth upon so foul a face?
Shaheen quotes the proverb cited in Tiley (F3): "Fair face foul heart"
It is likely that this Shakespeare favorite arose within the text of a common proverb.
Brooke Romeus (52): And each with outward friendly show doth hide
his inward hate,
(360): Yet with an outward show of joy she cloaked inward smart;
(1324): His outward dreary cheer bewrayd his store of inward smart.
(2315-16): That by her outward look no living wight could guess
Her inward woe, and yet anew renewed is her distress.
(2893-94): My conscience inwardly should more torment me thrice,
Than all the outward deadly pain that all you could devise.
Golding Abraham (647) SARA: Both outwardly and inwardly alway,
Lyly Gallathea (V.2) HAEBE: the content of your inward thoughts,
the pomp of your outward shows.
Endymion (IV.1) CORSITES: that uttering the extremities of their
inward passions are always suspected of outward perjuries.
(IV.3) TELLUS: I could not smother the inward fire
but it must needs be perceived by the outward smoke;
Sapho (Pro.): Our intent was at this time to move inward delight,
not outward lightness;
Shakes Rich3 (I.4) BRAK: An outward honour for an inward toil;
(3.1.10) Than of his outward show, ...
King John (I.1) BASTARD: Exterior form, outward accoutrement,
But from the inward motion to deliver
Pericles (II.2) SIM: The outward habit by the inward man.
A&C (III.13) ENO: A parcel of their fortunes; and things outward
Do draw the inward quality after them,
V&A (71): 'Had I no eyes but ears, my ears would love
That inward beauty and invisible;
Or were I deaf, thy outward parts would move ...
Lucrece (13): Whose inward ill no outward harm express'd:
(221) With outward honesty, but yet defiled
With inward vice: as Priam him did cherish,
Sonnet (16): Neither in inward worth nor outward fair,
Sonnet (46): As thus; mine eye's due is thy outward part,
And my heart's right thy inward love of heart.
Anon. Ironside (I.3.45) EDM: thank not thy outward foe but inward friend;
Willobie: (XIV.3): Can heart from outward look rebel?
(LV.3): As you pretend in outward show
Where men no outward shows detect
Dodypoll (V.2.152): Of outward show doth sap the inward stock
in substance and of worth ...
Leic Gh (364-65): To entertain all men (to outward show)
With inward love, for few my heart did know,
Geneva Bible 1 Sam. 16.7 For God seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh
on the outward appearance, but the Lord beholdeth the heart.
2Sam.Argument ... who came of David according to the flesh, and was
persecuted on every side with outward and inward enemies ...
Brooke Romeus (2121-22): Now ought I from henceforth more deeply
print in mind / The judgment of the lord ...
(2854): T'appear before the judgment-seat of everlasting power,
Gascoygne Supposes (VIII) PHILOGANO: you should have feared the
vengeance of God
the supreme judge (which knoweth the secrets of all hearts)
Golding Abr (675-78) ABRAHAM: ... Is it right
That I so sinful and so wretched wight,
Should fall to scanning of the judgments
Kyd Sp Tr (III.12.986-87) HIER: God hath engross'd all justice in his hands,
And there is none but what comes from him.
(III.13.2-3) HIER: Aye, heavn'n will be reveng'd of every ill;
Nor will they suffer murder unrepaid.
Shakes Rich3 (I.4.199-200): Take heed; for he holds vengeance
in his hand,
To hurl upon their heads that break his law.
Merchant (IV.1.206): My deeds upon my head!
R&J (V.3.62): Put not another sin upon my head.
Anon. Ironside (II.3.135) 1 PLEDGE: Let these my stumps crave
vengeance at thy hands, / thou judge of judges and thou king of kings!
Woodstock (I.1.28) YORK: high heaven be judge, we wish all good to him.
Willobie (To the Reader): cry to the Lord for vengeance against us,
that tremble not at the remembrance of God's judgements
(V.3): What sin is that, which vengeance crave
(LVIII.1): With vengeance due, the sinful deeds?
(LXIII.1): And when I change let vengeance fall.
Leic Gh (2160-61): Yet though my sins pass number as the sand,
O mortal men, to Him the judgment leave
Yorkshire Tr (IX) KNIGHT: Well, I do not think, but in tomorrow's judgment,
The terror will sit closer to your soul,
Greene's Groat (195-96): ... leaving him that hath left the world to him
that censureth of every worldly man, ...
(767-770): ... God warneth men by dreams and visions in the night
and by known examples in the day, but if he return not,
He comes upon him with judgment that shall be felt.
Cromwell (V.3.39) CROMWELL: O let my soul in Judgment answer it:
Geneva Bible Ps. 140.10 fall on their heads
Ps. 7.16 His mischief shall return upon his own head
Rom. 12.19 Vengeance is mine, 13.4 to take vengeance on him that doeth evil.
Deut. 32.35 Vengeance and recompense are mine: ...
Hawk ... Haggard (a Shakespeare marker, per Eric Sams)
Golding Abr (679-80): SATAN: My case goes ill. O Cowl we must yet find
Some other way t'assault this haggard's mind.
The Trickling Tears: The stricken deer hath help to heal his wound,
The haggard hawk with toil is made full tame;
If Women ...: To mark the choice they make, and how they change,
How oft from Phacbus do they flee to Pan,
Unsettled still like haggards wild they range,
These gentle birds that fly from man to man;
Who would not scorn and shake them from the fist
And let them fly fair fools which way they list.
OED cites as first comparisons to women in Euphues and Shrew:
Lyly 1580 Euphues: 114 Foolish and franticke louers, will deeme
my precepts hard, / and esteeme my perswasions haggarde.
Watson Hek (XLVII): In time all haggard Hawks will stoop the Lures;
Kyd Sp Tr (ca. 1588) (II.1.4): ... In time all haggard hawks will stoop to lure,
Shakes Shrew(IV.1) PET: ... My falcon now is sharp and passing empty;
And till she stoop she must not be full-gorged,
For then she never looks upon her lure.
Another way I have to man my haggard,
To make her come and know her keeper's call,
That is, to watch her, as we watch these kites
That bate and beat and will not be obedient. ...
Edw3 (III.5)KING EDW: ... And ever after she'll be haggard-like.
(IV.2) HOR: I will be married to a wealthy widow,
As I have loved this proud disdainful haggard.
Oth (III.3): ... If I do prove her haggard,
Though that her jesses were my dear heartstrings,
I'll whistle her off and let her down the wind,
That comes before his eye. ...
Other early non-female-related OED citations for "haggard":
Stanyhurs Aeneas (1583); Turberville (1567) Epitaphs
Nashe, Christ's Tears (1593): Though Christ hold out never so moving
lures unto us, / all of them (haggard-like) we will turn tail to
Anon. Willobie (X.2): In haggard Hawk that mounts so high
(LXIII.1): As haggard loving mirthless coup,
At friendly lure doth check and frown?
Blame not in this the Falconer's skill,
But blame the Hawk's unbridled will.
(LXVII.3): They do but fruitless pain procure
To haggard kites that cast the lure.
(LXXIIII.3): When fish as haggard Hawks shall fly,
(Res.17): Cease then your suits, ye lusty gallants all,
Think not I stoop at every Falconer's call,
Truss up your lures, your luring is in vain,
Chosen is the Perch, whereon I will remain.
Willobie contains many other related hawking terms.
A memorandum from Nina Green notes:
"In Beza's French, there is no mention of a hawk:
Mon cas va mal, mon froc, trouver nous fault
Autre moyen de luy donner assault."
Fiend ... Wicked
Golding Ovid Met (Pref.14): Some wicked fiends: some worms and fowls, ...
(I.907) Compelling her to think she saw some fiends or wicked sprites.
Abraham (684) ABRAHAM: Some dream or wicked fiend that at a glance
Shakes R&J (III.5) JULIET: Ancient damnation! O most wicked fiend!
Anon. Dodypoll (II.3.117): Dreams sent from heaven or from the wicked fiends, ...
Sin ... Sodom/Gomorrah
Golding Abraham (727) ABR: When Sodom thou did'st mind to burn with fire?
Anon. Willobie (I.32): Our English soil, to SodomÕs sink
Excessive sin transformed of late,
(V.3): Did Sodom burn and after sink?
(V.6): God save me from that Sodom's cry.
(XVIII.3): There is a God that doth behold
This sinful ways, this Sodom's sink?
(XXVI.5): No sin to swim in Sodom's sink?
Leic Gh (1005-06): Like th' apples which Gomorrha's trees do bear,
Whose town with fire and brimstone was combust,
Geneva Bible Gen. 18.20-33, 19.1-8
Shame ... Lasting/Everlasting
Golding Ovid Met. (XIII.1027): And confounded might I be with
Abr (741): ABRAHAM: Will fly abroad to my perpetual shame?
Shakes Lucrece (233: And entertain my love; else lasting shame
Edw3 (III.3) PRINCE: May either of us prosper and prevail,
Or luckless cursed, receive eternal shame.
H5 (IV.5) Reproach and everlasting shame
Anon. Locrine (IV.1.12) LOC: With loss of life, and everduring shame.
Willobie (III.7): Yet now we see, their lasting shame.
(Author's Conclusion.4): Eternal be the lasting shame
Geneva Bible Many possible sources including:
Hosea 4.7 ... So they sinned against me: therefore will I change their
glory into shame
Wis. 2.20 Let us condemn him unto a shameful death: for he shall be
preserved as he himself saith
Love ... Fond
Golding Abr (778) ABR: Hence flesh, hence fond affections everychone:
Watson Hek (I): Wherein fond love is wrapt, and works deceit:
(XXVI) To whom fond love doth work such wrongs by day,
(LXXXVI) ... yet he liked nothing less than such fond Love
Whose liberty fond Love doth once deface.
(LXXXVII) I'll scorn Fond Love, and practice of the same:
Greene James IV (I.1.169): ... Fond love, vile lust, that thus misleads us men,
Fr Bac. (V.1.34): Farewell, oh love; and with fond love, farewell,
Shakes TGV (IV.4) JULIA: ... If this fond Love were not a blinded god?
Edw3 (II.1) KING EDW: With reason and reproof fond love a way.
V&A (169): Fie, fie, fond love, thou art so full of fear
Oth (III.3) OTHELLO: ... All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven.
Cry ... Mercy
Brooke Romeus (2661): With stretched hands to thee for mercy now I cry,
Golding Abraham (816) ISAAC: Alas my father, mercy I cry you.
Lyly Sapho (V.2) VENUS: or lady I cry you mercy,
I think you would be called a goddess
Endymion (II.2) FAVILLA: I cry your matronship mercy.
MB (IV.2) SILENA: I cry you mercy; I took you for a joined stool.
SILENA: I cry you mercy; I have killed your cushion.
(V.3) SYNIS: I cry you mercy, sir. I think it was Memphio's son
that was married.
Munday Huntington (IV.66) PRIOR: I cry your worship mercy, ...
Shakespeare uses the phrase "cry ... mercy" 22 times.
Anon. Locrine (II.2) STRUMBO: ... I cry God mercy! what have we to do
(II.3.49) STRUMBO: Place! I cry God mercy: why, do you think that such
(II.3.80) STRUMBO: Gate! I cry God mercy!
Woodstock (I.1.99) NIMBLE: if ever
ye cry, Lord have mercy upon me, I shall hang for it, / sure!
(III.2) WOODSTOCK: cry ye mercy, I did not understand ...
(III.2) WOODSTOCK: cry ye mercy, have you a message to me?
Arden (IV.4.128) ALICE: And cried him mercy whom thou hast misdone;
Dodypoll (V.2.166): My Lord, I kindly cry you mercy now.
Penelope: XLVIII.2: Amphimedon for mercy cries,
Leic Gh. (2151): For mercy now I call, I plead, I cry,
Oldcastle (V.10.39) JUDGE: We cry your honor mercy, good my Lord,
Cromwell (I.1) OLD CROMWELL: I cry you mercy! is your ears so fine?
Tables: tablets/mental record
Nina Green also pointed out the relationship between Golding and
Shakespeare in this unusual us of the word "table", saying:
In Beza's French, the word 'cueurs' corresponds to 'mind and tables'
in the translation. I suspect that 'cueurs' is an old spelling of modern
French 'coeurs' (hearts), and that the 'tables' are an addition of the
Golding Abraham (Epi.1-10):
See here the mighty power of earnest faith,
And what reward the true obedience payth
Wherefore ye Lords & Ladies I you pray,
When you from hence shall go again away.
Let not this true and noble story part
Out of the mind and tables of your heart.
It is no lie, it is no painted tale,
It is no feigned jest nor fable stale.
It is a deed, a deed right true, of one
That was God's faithful servant long agone.
Golding Abraham (Ep.7): It is no lie, it is no painted tale,
Edwards Dam&Pith (1740) And painted speech, that glozeth for gain,
from gifts is quite debarred.
Marlowe T2 (I.2.9) CALLA: To paint in words, what I'll perform in deeds,
Shakes Hamlet (III.1.53) CLAUDIUS: Than is my deed to my
most painted word:
Anon. Willobie (XI.3): Your painted words, your brave pretense,
Dodypoll (I.1.11) LUCILIA: You paint your flattering words,
APPENDIX III: Vocabulary, Word Formation
Favored Words: alonely; out of doubt
Compound Words: 21 words (*surely unusual): (8 nouns, 9 adj, 4 adv).
bringing-up (n), coal-black (a), contrary-wise (adv), dear-beloved (a), falling-out (n), high-noon (a), least-wise (adv), looking-to (n), master-ward (n), new-made (a), over-fed (a), putting-on (n), self-same (a), self-willed (a), self-wit (n), setting-forth (n), straightway[s] (adv), sundry-wise* (adv), three-score (a), well-disposed (a), worldly-wise (n)
Note: Favored use of -wise to create an adverb.
Words beginning with "con": 12 words (3 verbs, 4 nouns, 2 adj, 3 adv).
conceit (n), conceive (v), consider (v), [un]confounded (a), confusion (n), constantly (adv), contented (a), continually (adv), contrary (n), contrary-wise (adv), convenience (n), convey (v)
Words beginning with "dis": 6 words (4 verbs, 1 noun, 2 adj).
disease (n, v), dismay (v), disobey (v), dispense (v), disposed (a), distant (a)
Words beginning with "mis": 7 words (3 verbs, 4 nouns).
mischief (n), misery (n), misgiveth (v), mishap (n), mislike (v), misspent (v), mistress (n)
Words beginning with "over" (*surely unusual): 7 words (6 verbs, 1 adj).
overcast (v), overcome (v), overcover* (v), over-fed (a), overspread (v), overthrow (v), overtook (v)
Words beginning with "pre": 4 words (1 verb, 1 noun, 2 adj).
precious (a), presence (n), present (a), preserve (v)
Words beginning with "re": 19 words (11 verbs, 8 nouns, 1 adj).
receive (v), recompense (n), record (n), refer (v), refrain (v), regard (n), relief (n), remain (v), repealed (v), repine (v), request (n), require (v), resort (n), resound (v), rescued (a), restore (v), retire (v), return (v, n), reward (n)
Words beginning with "un","in"(* surely unusual):
26 words - 10/14/2 (4 verbs, 3 nouns, 8 adj, 6 adv, 4 prep, 1 conj).
inconvenience (n), increase (v), indeed (conj), instantly (adv), instead (adv), intend (v), intent (n), into (prep), invincible (a), inwardly (adv)
unacquainted (a), unconfounded (a), undefiled (a), undesired (a), unfeignedly (adv), unhappily (adv), unjustly (adv), unkindly* (a), unrest (n), unsay* (v), until (prep), unto (prep), untrue (a), unweary (a)
underneath (prep), understand (v)
Words ending with "able" : 2 words (both adj). agreeable (a), reasonable (a)
Words ending with "ize": 1 word -- circumcized (v)
Words ending with "less": 2 words (1 adj, 1 conj). endless (a), unless (conj)
Words ending with "ness" (*surely unusual): 12 words (all nouns)
cruelness* (n), forgiveness (n), gladness (n), goodness (n), greatness (n), happiness (n), kindness (n), readiness (n), spitefulness (n), steadfastness (n), witness (n), witness[ings] (n)
reflexives: convey myself, grounds himself, pray thyself, refer himself, show itself/myself, strain myself, think yourselves
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